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J. W. LEWIS & CO. 



Tiik following history of the town and city of Worcester was prepared under the supervision of a committee, which consisted of Samuel 
Swett Green, A M., librarian of the Free Public Library, Won \nguatus Chase, A.M., treasurer of the Worcester Gounty In* 

Btltatlon for Savings; and Mr. Nathaniel Paine, cashier of the City National Hank, Worcester. This committee selected the writers of She 
dlfferenl chapters, and secured their services; it also m.'i'I.- Hiiggestious to them regarding the performance of their work, and has rend the 
chapters In manuscript and rendered aid as occasion required. The gentlemen who form the committee are well known to have an exten- 
sive knowledge of local history, and are, all of them, members of the Council of the American Antiquarian Society. Special th auks are due 
to the chairman of the committee for the fertility of resource, energy, courtesy and executive ability which he has shown, and to all its 
members for the good judgment and aptness for the work undertaken by them, which thej have displayed, and for the readiness «ith 
which they have given ooausel, and oul of their large stores of Information have offered aid to writers and publishers. The editor and 
publishers wish to state emphatically thai the to have been In the highest degree valuable. — Editoe. 



5 1. An outline of the history of Worcester, from 
ill. earliest attempts at settlement to the close of the 
Revolutionary War, is all that will be undertaken in 
this initial chapter; a fuller narrative of the events 
of that period will be given by other writers, to whom 
that duty has been assigned. The origin of New 
England towns has occupied the attention of many 
students of our early institutions, and much has been 
written and published on the subject within the last 
few years. Those writings disclose a very consider- 
able divergence in the views held by different writers 
as to the true origin of towns, and the formative 
influences by which their development has been con- 

As this chapter is devoted to an account of the 
origin and early annals of Worcester, it has seemed 
to the writer that some discussion of the general sub- 
ject of the origin and growth of towns in the Plym- 
outh and Massachusetts Colonies would not be out 
of place in this connection. 

The origin of these towns was not the same in all 
cases. The mode of acquiring title to the soil and 
the means of effecting settlements were not the same 
in all towns. But, although the methods of acquiring 
title to land might vary in different cases, yet the 

primary sources from which all land titles in these 
colonies were derived were the same. At the time 
of the discover)' and settlement of this country it 
had become a fixed principle of international law, 
aiming the European nations, that prior discovery by 
any of them gave to them the prior and better title, 
and grants from them passed an absolute title to the 
grantee, subject to the Indian occupany. And it be- 
came a rule of law, also, in all English colonies that 
the Crown had the sole and absolute right to acquire 
or extinguish the Indian title. This statement does 
not agree with the very common opinion as to what 
was the real nature of the Indian's title to the land 
over which they roamed, but upon which they could 
hardly be said to dwell, or of the manner in which 
that title or right could be acquired, and yet the state- 
ment is strictly true. Chief Justice Marshall, in 
giving the opinion of the United States Supreme 
Court, in a case in which the question arose, says, 
"The power now possessed by the government of ,•'>•> 
United States to grand lands resided, while we w 
colonies, in the Crown or its grantees. The valii 
of the titles given by either has never been qi 
tioned in our courts. It has been exercised \ 
formly over territories in the possession of the 

"The existence of this power must negative 
existence of any right which may conflict with 
control it. An absolute title to lands cannot exie 



the same time in different persona, or in different 
gevernments. An absolute, must be an exclusive 
title, or at least a title which excludes all others not 
compatible with it. All our institutions recognize 
the absolute title of the Crown, subject only to the 
Indian right of occupancy, and recognize the abso- 
lute title of the crown to extinguish the right." 1 
It would not be difficult to demonstrate, if this were 
the proper place to do so, that what is called the 
absolute right of the Crown was, in reality, the right 
of the people of England, which, by their free choice, 
they had vested in the Crown. 2 

The Crown, in the exercise of that sovereign right, 
granted certain lands, lying within defined limits, to 
the Massachusetts Colony ; subsequently the colony, 
through its constituted authorities, granted specific 
parcels of these lands to companies or proprietors, 
and the latter, sooner or later, became the founders 
of towns; and these proprietors, either before or 
after their organization into townships, conveyed, in 
am iller parcels, the lands they held in common to 
individuals who held the same in severalty. 

In this way Worcester had its origin, as will herein- 
after be more fully set forth, with the conditions 
upon which the original grant was made and the 
struggles and hardships through which the early set- 
tlers passed before they finally succeeded in laying 
the foundations on which this goodly city of eighty 
thousand inhabitants now, after the lapse of more 
than two centuries, securely rests. 

Worcester furnishes a good illustration of the man- 
ner in which many of the Massachusetts towns origi- 
nated, and it will hardly be necessary to seek among 
the primitive Teutonic institutions on the continent or 
look to the Anglo-Saxon or Norman institutions in 
England for models on which these towns were built. 
" In that land," says De Tocqueville, speaking of 
America, " the great experiment was to be made by 
civilized man of the attempt to construct society 
upon a new basis ; and it was there, for the first time, 
that theories hitherto unknown, or deemed imprac- 
ticable, were to exhibit a spectacle for which the world 
had not been prepared by the history of the past." 

It is true that local self-government, in a modified 
form, had been known both in Germany and England 
before the earliest colonization of America. But long 
before that colonization commenced the Crown had, 
by repeated encroachments, deprived the people of 
their ancient right of self-control, and that right or 
power had been vested in municipal councils or other 
local boards, and which were self-perpetuating bodies; 1 
But when removed from the presence of that domi- 
nating power of the few over the many, the colonists 
at once returned to what has been called the natural 
order of society in the establishment of government. 

1 8 Wheaton's Rep., p. 588. 

2 J. Toulmin Smith on " Self-Government." Ch. on the Cr 

3 FrothiQgham't, " Rise of the Republic," pp. 14-15. 

Writing upon "The American System,'' a writer 
already quoted says : " The village or township is the 
only association which is so perfectly natural that 
whenever a number of men are collected it seems to 
constitute itself. The tithing or town exists in all 
nations, whatever their laws and customs may be ; it 
is man who makes monarchies and establishes re- 
publics, but the township seems to come directly from 
the hand of God." 

This may be regarded as an ideal or speculative, 
rather than an historical statement of the origin of 
towns, yet it contains the announcement of a funda- 
mental truth connected with the subject, and that is, 
when men come to live together in society, they find 
it necessary, when left to regulate their own affairs, 
to establish, within comparatively narrow territorial 
limits, some form of local self-government ; and this 
they do, not because some more or less remote ances- 
tors may have done the same thing, but rather in 
obedience to a necessary law of social existence. 

And every generation or community of men, when 
left free to act, will establish such local institutions 
as will best subserve the necessities and wants grow- 
ing out of their environments ; and this they will do 
without any servile imitation of those who have gone 
before them. The late Professor Parker, of the Dane 
Law School, a learned writer on legal and historical 
subjects, said, in a paper on "The Origin, Organiza- 
tion and Influence of the Towns of New England," 
that " a careful examination of the history of New 
England towns will show that they were not founded 
or modeled on precedent; . . . they were not con- 
trived in the closet, nor in the hall of a legislative 
assembly, and brought into existence, with the 
powers and duties which we find attached to them, 
by the enactment of a law for that purpose. They 
did not burst into mature life by any previous con- 
trivance. But, like most other useful machinery, 
they had their origin in the wants of the time, and 
came into existence by a gradual progress from im- 
perfect beginnings." The learned author of a me- 
moir of Plymouth County declares that " the origin 
of town government in New England is involved in 
some obscurity. The system does not prevail in 
England. Nothing analogous to it is known in the 
Southern States ; and, although the system of inter- 
nal government in the Middle States bears a partial 
resemblance to that of New England, it is, in many 
respects, dissimilar." 

'In another part of the same memoir the author 
says: "To the independent churches we may trace 
the original notion of independent communities, 
which afterwards assumed the name of towns, and 
which, having passed through an ecclesiastical state, 
and after the proprietaries became extinct from the 
special appropriations of all the lands within the 
bounds of their charter, assumed the shape of polit- 
ical corporations, with municipal and in part legisla- 
tive powers within their limits." This will hereafter 



be shown by the undisputed facts of history to be 
an imaginary and not the true genesis of towns. 

Another late writer on this subject, and quoting 
the opinion of an earlier author, says, " New Eng- 
land towns are models after the plan of King Al- 
fred's hundreds." 

To. show the fallacy of this theory of the origin of 
our towns, it may suffice to state that it is but a tradi- 
tion that Alfred devised the arrangement into hun- 
dreds and tithings ; and, besides, the tradition itself 
is inconsistent with the facts of authentic history. 1 
And, moreover, the English hundred had very lit- 
tle in common with the New England townships or 
towns. 2 

In his " History of Charlestown " Mr. Erothingham 
alfirms that " the nearest precedent for New England 
towns were those little independent nations, the free 
cities of the twelfth century, or the towns of the An- 
glo-Saxons, when every officer was elective." In an- 
other connection the same writer says, that " the 
Gi rman and Anglo-Saxon principle of local govern- 
ment was early asserted in all the colonies, and that 
whether the organization was called parish, borough, 
hundred, town or county, the principle was carried 
out that the inhabitants should manage their local 
affairs through officers legally elected. Municipality 
in New England was the simplest of all municipal 
forms, and the best adapted to develop the republi- 
can idea." 

An inquiry respecting the origin and constitution 
of the free cities of mediaeval Europe would -bow 
that they differ very widely from the towns of \,u 
England. Most of these cities had existed before the 

fall of the Roman Empire in the West ; they had 
suffered from invasions and civil wars, and "upon the 
fall of the Empire had still been repressed by the 
feudal polity." Their inhabitants had been dc- 

spoiled and their commerce and industry dl - 
" But the municipal tradition- of Rome had sur- 
vived, and were confirmed by the free customs of the 
Teutons, the towns gradually obtained from the 
crown, and from feudal superiors, charters of i nfran- 
chisement, which secured to 1 hem i he rights of main- 
taining fortified walls, of raising troops and main- 
taining self-government." 
In Italy and other parts of Europe some of the 

principal town-, grew into BOVereign municipal re- 
publics and formed alliance- among themselves more 
or less permanent; hence arose the Hanseatic 
League and the other great confederation called the 
Rhenish League, and the confederation of town- and 
cantons in Switzerland. \ml, above all, the Roman 
law, the greatest monument of legislative wisdom 
the world has ever seen, survived the fall of the 
empire, and became the law of the nations that 
overran and destroyed the empire, and exerted a 

i stuM.s' " Constitutional Historj 
'-' Ibid. pp. 36-108. 

controlling influence in the formation of all their in- 

From these brief statements the great dissimilarity 
between the so-called free cities of the twelfth century 
and New England towns is apparent. The former 
had existed as component parts of pre-existing nation- 
alities, and had been over-run by barbarians, and their 
liberty destroyed by feudalism, and after centuries of 
struggle they succeeded in throwing off the oppres- 
sions of feudalism, and regained, in a measure, their 
franchises as independent municipalities; whereas, 
the New England towns were original creations, on a 
virgin soil, and far removed from the scenes of older 
civilizations, and instead of being separate and inde- 
pendent municipalities, these towns were component 
parts of the State, forming together one body politic. 

•' In their origin our boroughs," says the author of 
the "History of the English People," "were utterly 
uidike those of the western world. The cities of Italy 
and Provence had preserved the municipal institutions 
of the Roman past ; the German towns had been 
founded by Henry the Fowler with the purpose of 
sheltering industry from the feudal oppressions around 
them ; the Communes of Northern France sprang into 
existence in revolt against feudal outrages within their 
walls. Hut in England the tradition of Rome passed 
utterly away, while feudal oppression was held fairly 
in check by the Urown. The English town, therefore, 
was in its beginning simply a piece of the general 
country, organized and governed precisely in the same 
manner as townships around it. Its existence wit- 
nessed, indeed, to the need which men felt in those 
early times of mutual help and protection. The bor- 
ough was probably a more defensible place than the 
common village. But in itself it was -imply a town- 
ship, or group of townships, where men clustered, 
whether for trade or defense, more thickly than else- 

"The towns <r. ,-> different in the circumstance* of thtir 
Some grew up in the fortified camps of the 
English invaders. Some dated from a later occupa- 
tion of sacked and desolate Roman towns. Some were 
the direct result of trade. There was the same variety 
in the mode in which the various town communities 
were formed." This passage has been quoted partly 
for tin' purpose of testing the soundness of those 
theories which attempt to trace the beginning of New 
England towns to a definite German or Anglo-Saxon 
origin. .Neither English towns nor towns on the con- 
tinent of Europe had a common origin, and they 
differed essentially in the elements of their organiza- 
tion and powers. The historian Stubbs, who seems to 
have explored the beginning of English institutions 
more thoroughly than any of his predecessors, says : 
" The historical township is the body of allodial 
owners who have advanced beyond the stage of land 
community, retaining many vestiges of that organiza- 
tion ; or the body of tenants of a lord who regulates 
them, or allows them to regulate themselves, on prin- 



ciples derived from the same. In a further stage, the 
township appears in its ecclesiastical form as the 
parish, or portion of a parish, the district assigned to 
a parish." The same writer clearly shows that in 
different parts of England these primary divisions of 
territory or people assumed different forms, and passed 
under different names. 

The description of an English town, by the dis- 
tinguished historian of the Norman Conquest, exhib- 
its a most marked contrast, rather than similarity, be- 
tween an English and a New England town. "An 
English town," says that writer, " was a collection of 
every class of inhabitants, of every kind of authority, 
which could be found in the whole land, all brought 
close together. Lords with their sac and soc ; churches 
with their property and privileges; guilds — that is, 
artificial families, with their property, their usages, 
their religious rites ; thanes and churls in the lan- 
guage of one age, barons and villains in the language 
of another, merchants, churchmen, monks, all the 
elements of English society, were to be seen side by 
side in a small compass. The various classes thus 
brought together were united by neighborhood, by 
common interests, by common property and privi- 
leges." 1 There is very little in all this to remind one 
of the simple and homogeneous character of a New 
England town, either of the earliest or latest type. 
The statement of Maine, in his interesting work on 
"Village-Communities in the East and West," "that 
the earliest English emigrauts to North America or- 
ganized themselves at first in Village-Communities 
for purposes of cultivation," is too broad and unquali- 
fied for the facts upon which it is based. It is true 
the Pilgrims at Plymouth held and cultivated their 
lands in common for a short time, but they soon made 
a division of the common property and each person 
held his own in severalty. As early as 1625 every 
man at Plymouth planted for himself, aud all the 
products of his labor were to be his own individual 
property. The fact that the Colonial Legislatures 
made grants of lands to companies, who undertook to 
establish towns, were made with no expectation or 
design that the members of the company should con- 
tinue to hold the lands as tenants in common, but 
rather that they should make allotment of portions of 
the lands to the several members of the company, and 
convey the remaining portions to other persons 
whom they could induce to join them in the organi- 
zation of a new town. One ingenious writer on the 
origin of our early political institutions declares "that 
here (in New England) the fathers laid deep and 
broad the foundations of American freedom, and that 
here was developed the township, with its local self- 
government, the basis and central element of our po- 
litical system — upon the township was formed the 
county, composed of several towns similarly organ- 
ized; the State, composed of several counties, and 

1 Vol. v, Freeman's "Norman Conquest." 

finally the United States, composed of several Status." 
But this remarkable genesis of town, county, State 
and nation is wholly imaginary, resting on no basis 
of fact. In any consideration of this subject an es- 
sential fact to be remembered is that both the Plym- 
outh and Massachusetts Colonies were settled under 
charters, which incorporated the grantees and em- 
powered them " to make, ordain and establish all 
manner of orders and laws for and concerning the 
government of the colonies and plantations which 
should be necessary and not contrary to the laws of 
England." So that in both colonies, before the or- 
ganization of any towns, a government in fact, though 
not in name — equivalent to the State government — 
existed, with ample powers of legislation and admin- 
istration in all matters, both civil and criminal. And 
the right to establish towns and the title to all lauds 
within the territorial limits of the colony were to be 
derived from and through the colonial government. 
It is therefore manifest that so far from its being true 
that the State, by some imaginary process of evolu- 
tion, is derived from the town, towns are in every in- 
stance dependent on the State government for their 
very existence. And the origin, organization and 
functions of towns can be shown in no better way than 
by the following statement which has been condensed 
from judicial decisions and legislative acts : The towns 
of Massachusetts have been established by the Legislature 
for public purposes and the administration of local af- 
fairs, and they embrace all persons living within their 
territorial limits. At the first settlement of the colony, 
towns consisted of clusters of inhabitants dwelling 
near each other, and by means of legislative acts 
designating them by name, and conferring upon them 
powers of managing their own prudential affairs, 
electing representatives and town officers, making by- 
laws aud disposing — subject to the paramount con- 
trol of the Legislature — of unoccupied land within 
their territory ; they became, in effect, municipal or 
quasi corporations, without any formal act of incor- 
poration. Indeed, it is not known that any formal 
act, similar to modern acts of incorporation of towns, 
w:is passed until near the close of the colonial 
government and the establishment of a new gov- 
ernment under the Province charter. And not until 
after the adoption of the Constitution of this Common- 
wealth was it for the first time expressly enacted that 
" the inhabitants of every town within the govern- 
ment were declared to be a body politic and corporate.'' 
In some cases the General Court granted land to 
proprietors, who maintained an organization separate 
from that of the town, having the same territorial 
limits, and divided the land among the settlers who 
participated in the grant, or sold them to others for 
the common profit of all the original grantees. The 
records of the proprietors were kept in books commonly 
called " proprietors' books," many of which are still 
in existence, and are often referred to for evidence in 
controversies in the courts respecting land-titles. 



In other cases of the settlement of towns, there 
was no grant of land to a separate body of propri- 
etors, but the town itself became the owner of all the 
land within its assigned limits. Sometimes the land 
granted was called a district or outlying portion of an 
existing town ; again, in other cases, the grant was 
called a plantation, which in process of time became 
a town as population and wealth increased. 

Grants were sometimes made to a considerable 
number of settlers, who were afterwards recognized as 
a plantation, settlement or town by a proper name, 
vested by general laws with certain powers, and had 
their bounds declared ; or at a much later period, 
grants of a tract of land were made to a company of 
individuals named, with a view of constituting a 
town afterwards. In either case, their rights and pow- 
ers, both of soil and jurisdiction, were derived from 
the existing government. And in all cases, and from 
the earliest period, the Legislature of the colony 
exercised the unquestioned authority of deciding 
what rights should be possessed by towns and what 
public duties they should perform. 

The town of Groton, which dates its origin back to 
1665, furnishes a good illustration of the manner in 
which many towns came into existence. A number 
of individuals who seemed in want of "fresh 
woods and pastures new," petitioned the (icncral 
Court for a grunt of land, and the answer to them 
was, "The Court judgeth it meet to grant the peti- 
tioners eight miles Bquare in the place desired to 
make a comfortable plantation, which henceforth 
shall be called Groton." A certain number of per- 
sons named in the act were at the same time ap- 
pointed by the court to acl a< selectmen for two 
years, at the end of which time other selectmen were 
chosen by the inhabitants of the town, it appears 
from the earliest records of the Massachusetts Colony 
that, before the arrival of Winthrop and a majority of 
the assistants with the charter of 1630, a great num- 
ber of private grants of land had been made by 
Governor Endicott and his special council, and as 
these grantees would naturally desire to take their 
grants in proximity to each other for mutual defence, 
convenience and comfort, they formed themselves 
into settlements or villages ; and the first step towards 
forming these settlements into corporations was to 
give them a name. But as they had no fixed limit.- 
or boundaries, and it became neces-ary to fix such 
limits, in order to ascertain what proprietors should 
be rated in any assessment, and who should be sub- 
ject to the duties and entitled to the immunities of 
each village or settlement, these settlements, first 
named and then bounded, must have assessors to 
apportion and collect their taxes. They were also, by 
general acts of the Legislature, vested with authority 
to choose other necessary officers and to manage their 
own prudential affairs and thus they grew to be " quasi 
corporations ; " and afterwards, either with or with- 
out formal acts of incorporation, these settlements 

or villages became towns. It is true that many of 
the powers now possessed by towns in this State are 
the product of comparatively recent legislative 
grants ; but in all its essential features as a corporation 
vested with the right of local self-government, the town 
has undergone no material change from the first set- 
tlement of the colony to the present time. These 
towns, as has been said, grew out of the wants, the 
dangers and necessities pressing upon the early set- 
tlers of the Pilgrim and Puritan Colonies, and they 
were from time to time clothed with such powers and 
privileges, as were best adapted to meet those wants 
and ward off those dangers. And as advancing civi- 
lization has created new local wants, the Legislature 
has granted corresponding municipal powers and 
privileges to provide for them. 

The Pilgrim and the Puritan came to these shores 
for certain definite purposes — purposes which could 
never have been accomplished except through and by 
means of just such institutions as they founded. They 
were not living among the ruins of ancient empires, 
nore were they surrounded by hostile feudal barons, 
by whom they might at any unguarded moment be 
plundered. They were confronted only by the un- 
broken forest and the untamed savage, and they built 
their houses, organized their towns, adopted means of 
self-defense and common safety against the actual 
dangers by which they were surrounded; they culti- 
vated their fields either in common or severalty as 
they chose; they erected churches and school-houses, 
enacted laws and provided for the administration of 
justice, and in all thing- else acted with reference to 
tin exact situation in which they found themselves. 

They built according to no archaic or mediaeval pat- 
terns, but established institutions as original in their 
character, a- their own situation was novel. 

■f. 2. Having presented these general considera- 
tions respecting the origin and organizations of town-, 
the remaining portion of this chapter will be occupied 
with the narration of some of the principal facts re- 
lating to the settlement of Worcester and an outline 
of its history for the first century of its existence. 

Ma\ 6, 1657, a grant of three thousand two hundred 
acres of land was made to Mr. Increase Nowell, of 
Charlestown. .May 6, L662, one thousand acres were 
conveyed to the church in Maiden, to be forever ap- 
propriated to the use of the ministry. October 19, 
L664, two hundred and fifty acres were given to En- 
sign Thomas Noyee, of Sudbury, who had served 
under Capt. Hugh Mason in the military service of 
the Colony. The above statement of a grant of land 
to Mr. Nowell, and which will be found in existing 
sketches of the " History of Worcester," is not en- 
tirely accurate, as will appear from the following 
entry in the Colony Records under date of October 
14, 1656: "The court, heing sensible of the true con- 
dition of the late honored Mr. Nowell's family, and 
remembering his long service to this Commonwealth 
in the place not only of a magistrate, but also secre- 



tary, for which he had but little and slender recom- 
pense, and the county's debts being such as out of 
the country rate they cannot comfortably make such 
an honorable recompense to his family as otherwise 
they would judge meet, therefore do give and grant 
to Mrs. Nowell and his son Samuel two thousand 
acres of land, to be laid out by Mr. Thomas Danforth 
and Robert Hale." Under date of May G, 1657, there 
is this additional entry: 

"Mr. Thomas Danforth, of Cambridge, and Mr. 
Robert Hale, of Charlestown, are appointed as com- 
missioners to lay out the land, being three thousand 
two hundred acres of land granted by the General 
Court, 22d 3d mo., 1650, to the executors of the last 
will of Mr. Isaac Johnson, to Mr. Increase Nowell's 
executors, according to the grant, provided the ten 
pounds due to the county from the executors of the 
said Mr. Nowell be first paid to the county's treasurer 
or security given for the same." 

These extracts from the record are interesting as 
showing who Mr. Nowell was and why lands were 
granted, not to him, but to his family ; and also as 
showing the extreme poverty of the country in every- 
thing but land, and that this grant of land was only 
made upon the express provision that the last pound 
of the indebtedness of Mr. Nowell's estate to the 
Colony should be paid into the public treasury. 1 

The grarit of 1,000 acres to the church in Maiden 
was made upon the petition of that church, and was 
made to be forever appropriated to the use and benefit 
of the ministry of the place, and not to be aliened or 
otherwise disposed of, " and all this on condition that 
they cause it to be bounded out and put on improve- 
ment for the ends professed within three years next 
ensuing." The grant of the land to Ensign Noyes 
was accompanied with this recital : " Whereas, En- 
sign Thomas Noyes, of Sudbury, was chosen to be a 
lieutenant under Capt. Hugh Mason, for his Ma- 
jesty's service, and he having expended some time 
and money about that design, there being a consider- 
able sum due him upon that account, the court judgeth 
it meet to grant the said Lieut. Noyes two hundred 
and fifty acres of land, for and in consideration of the 
premises, and in answer to a former petition, he being 
willing to take it as full consideration for what is 
justly due to him.'' As these were the first grants of 
land within the present limits of Worcester, it has 
been deemed proper to show upon what considera- 
tions and conditions they were made. 

John and Josiah Haynes, of Sudbury, Nathaniel 
Treadaway, of Watertown, and Thomas Noyes having 
purchased the Nowell grant, they became proprietors 
of a large tract of land, extending along the west 
shore of Quinsigamoud, including two of its islands 
near the "outgoing of Nipnapp" (now Blackstone) 
'River;" they petitioned the Great and General Court 
for the appointment of a committee to view the 

H'ulonv Records, vol. 4, pp. 7, 8, !295. 

country. Upon this petition Capt. Daniel Gookin, 
Capt. Edward Johnson, Lieut. Joshua Fisher and 
Lieut. Thomas Noyes were appointed a committee, 
< )ct. 1 1, 1665, to make survey to determine if there be 
a "meet place for a plantation, that it may be im- 
proved for that end, and not spoiled by granting of 
farms," and directed to report to the next Court of 
Elections. The death of Lieut. Noyes and the un- 
settled state of the country prevented the execution 
of the order to this committee. 

The attention of the Legislature was again called 
to the subject of effecting a settlement in this local- 
ity, and May 15, 1667, Captain Daniel Gookin, Cap- 
tain Edward Johnson, Mr. Samuel Andrews and An- 
drew Belcher were appointed a committee and di- 
rected " to take an exact view as soon as conveniently 
they can, to make true report whether the place be 
capable to make a village, and what number of fam- 
ilies, they conceive, may be there accommodated. 
And if they find it fit for a plantation, then to offer 
some meet expedient how the same may be settled 
and improved for the public good." The first two 
and the last-named members of that committee per- 
formed the duty assigned them and made their report 
to the Legislature October 20, 1668, which is a docu- 
ment of sufficient importance and interest to be 
copied in full in this place. The committee in their 
report say : " We have, according to the Court's 
order, bearing date 15th May, 1667, viewed the place 
therein mentioned, and find it to be about twelve 
miles westward from Marlborough, near the road to 
Springfield, and that it contains a tract of very good 
chestnut tree land — a large quantity ; but the meadow 
we find not so much, because a very considerable 
quantity of meadow and upland, about five thousand 
acres, is laid out unto particular persons, and con- 
firmed by this Court, as we are informed, which falls 
within this tract of land; viz., to Ensign Noyes, de- 
ceased and his brethren three thousand two hundred 
acres; unto the Church of Maiden one thousand 
acres ; unto others, five hundred acres, bought of En- 
sign Noyes ; but all this, notwithstanding, we con- 
ceive, there may be enough meadow for a small 
plantation or town of about thirty families; and it 
those farms be annexed to it, it may supply about 
sixty families 

" Therefore, we conceive it expedient that the 
honored Court will be pleased to reserve it for a 
town, being conveniently situated, and well watered 
with ponds and brooks, and lying near midway be- 
tween Boston and Springfield, about one day's jour- 
ney from either; and for the settling thereof we do 
offer unto the court that which follows: viz., That 
there be a meet proportion of land granted and laid 
out for a town, in the best form the place will bear 
about the contents of eight miles square. That a 
prudent and able committee be appointed and em- 
powered to lay it out ; to admit inhabitants, and 
order the affairs of the place, in forming the town, 



granting lots, and directing and ordering all matters 
of a prudential nature, until the place be settled with 
a sufficient number of inhabitants and persons of 
discretion, able to order the affairs thereof, in the 
judgment of the Court. 

"Thatdue care be taken by said committee that a 
good minister of God's word be placed there as soon 
as may be; that such people as may be there 
planted may not live like lambs in a large place ; 
that there be two or three hundred acres of land, 
with a proportion of meadow, in some convenient 
place, at the discretion of the committee, reserved 
and laid out for the commonwealth ; and the com- 
mittee to have power and liberty to settle inhabitants 
thereupon for lives or times, upon a small rent to be 
paid after the first seven year-." 

This report was accepted by the Legislature and 
its recommendations adopted, ami Captain Daniel 
Gookin, Captain Thomas Prentice, Mr. Daniel Hinch- 
man and Lieutenant Richard Been were appointed a 
committee tn carry them into execution. 

The suggestion in this report that the eight miles 
square of territory, on which a thriving population ol 

from 80,000 to 100,000 inhabitants now dwell, in 
the enjoyment of all the necessaries and many of 
the luxuries and elegancies of civilized life, might 
possibly support thirty or sixty families,— that is, 
from 160 to 300 persons, — was made without any an- 
ticipation or thought of that magnificent develop- 
ment of mechanical and manufacturing industries 
so characteristic of the present age. 

The committee, in making their report, were only 
thinking of the capability of the territory lor agri- 
cultural purposes. And when we contrast the toil- 
some journey of a whole day between Worcester and 
Boston with the fact that that journey can now be 
made in little more than an hour, and with a degree 
of comfort which our ancestors in their forest homes 

never dreamed of, we gain a e just conception of 

the great changes in the conditions of human life 
that have been wrought here during the lapse of two 

Notwithstanding the Legislature had, by its order 
of May 15, li'i'o, prohibited the laying OUl of lands 
within the new plantation, yet the committee, in the 
execution of their powers, were embarrassed by the 
selection of lots made by claimants under the earlier 

grants hereinbefore mentioned. And to relieve 

themselves from these difficulties they asked for the 

intervention of the Legislature in the following pe- 
tition, May 27, 1669: 

We. Hi" committee ol the General Oourt, being empowered to lay 

out, settle and manage ■ plantation, at or al t Qatneigai id Pond, 

twelve mi I .— beyond Kaxlborongh, in the ingfield and 

Hadley, which place Is vei for the Bltuatl fa town, 

the better !■• nnlte and strengthen the inland plantations, and in all 
probability will be advantageous for travel new midway 
between Boston and Springfield, and abon urney from 
either ; we having lately been upon thi place to make an exact discov- 
ery ami survey thereof, an ipanied with sundry, honest andable per- 
sons that are willing forthwith to settle themselves there; bnl finding 

some obstruction in tbe work, which, unless this Court please to re- 
move, and, we conceive, they may justly do it, the proceeding will be 
utterly hindered ; and, ttierefore, we shall humbly offer them uuto the 
honored Court, desiring their help. 

1. We find that, though the place contains a tract of good land, yet 
hi Mini b Btraiteued for meadow. We cannot tinit above three hundred 
acres of meadow belonging to it within several miles; but there are 
swamps and other moist lands that, in time, with taborand industry, 
may make meadow, 

■J- We find there is a grant of one thousand acres to the ministry ol 
Maiden, May 7, 1062, which grant is laid out in this place. This farm 
contains a choics tract of land, and swallows up about one hundred 
acres of ttie aforesaid meadow ; but tbe condition of the grant, as the 
rei. ml will declare, is that it be improved, within three years after 
the grant, for the end wherefore it was granted ; but that being not 
done, for it is now about six years since, anil no improvement made, we 
apprehend the grant is void ; but yet, if the Court pleases to renew it 
in any other place, we speak not to oppose it, but if it he continued and 
confirmed in this place, it will utterly binder the settling a plantation 

3, There is another grant ol land, unto Ensign Efoyes, deceased, laid 
out in this place, containing two hundred ami fifty acres of choice html, 
witli a considerable quantity of meadow, lying ill 'be heart of this place, 
ami by him was sold to one lOphlaini Carter, a young man living ill 

Sudbury We desire that the Court "HI please to make void thi 

: laid oat regularly for quantity or quality, as we conceive, and 

it will very much prejudice this town. The person concerned may have 

i. another place, bordering upon this town, where Mine is so Hi - 

Clenl In BCCOm) lab' It, and also may have a I, .1 ill this town, if he 

In II 

4. (dun-eat, the Court, In thi ir grant of thi- town, hail, reserved two 
or three hundred acres of land, with a proportion of meadow, to la- laid 
.mi for tin' Commonwealth, if it please the C t, because -1 the stout- 
ness for meadow, to abate thai reservation, so far asconoerna meadow, 

it Mill gri I thi 'I. II He' I Bd 'inn! please lo 

remove i) ■ hope II "ill not be Long before thU pis 

be -. "I. .1 iii a g I "ay. for tie- honor of God ami I he put.le 

Thi ' ommlttee, in their journey, having discovered two other places 

|o Mi- westward, that will make two or three towns, the 

onecalled Pamaquesset, lyii upon tbi bead of Chaquabee BJver, the 

n. in River, nearer i" Boston 

than Hadley, we desire the Court will please to order thai tbi 

red to make towns, I ngthen these inland ports, 

ol partii hi." grants prohibited in the said 

In response to this petition, the reservation to the 
public in the meadow was released ; lint the General 
Court did not undertake to recall or declare void the 

grants lo Maiden and to Noyes. At the first m 

ol the committee, beld July 6, 1669, in Cambridge, it 
was proposed "that the territory, including Worcester 
and which is now lloldei], and a large part of Ward 
(now Auburn), should he first divided into ninety 
twenty-five-acre house-lots, and in the apportionment 
ofthese t" the settlers, respect should be had to the 

quality, estate, usefulness ami other considerations of 
the person and family to whom they were granted; 
that the ni">t convenient place, nearest the middle "I 
the town, should be set apart and improved for plac- 
meeting-house tor the worship of God; a 
convenient lot of fifty acres for the first minUter 
should be laid out as near to it as might he; another 
lit, in the next convenient jdace, not far from them, 
for the ministry that should succeed in all future 
times; that twenty acres should be reserved, near the 
centre, for a training-field, and to build a school- 
bouse upon; that a lot of twenty-five acres should 
be appropriated for the maintenance of a school 



and schoolmaster, to remain for that use forever, and 
that two hundred and fifty acres should be for the use 
of the country." 

Provision was made for the equal apportionment of 
common charges upon the proprietors of lots, for 
erecting mills, opening and repairing ways, and 
for the equitable division of the remaining lands. 

'i 3. The efforts of the committee to effect a permanent 
settlement proved unavailing for several years, but 
finally, in the year 1673, a company of thirty fami- 
lies were induced to commence the plantation, and 
in the spring of 1674 thirty house-lots were laid out 
ami the settlers began to build houses and cultivate 
their lands. But the adverse claims of Mr. Curtis, 
who, it is believed, had taken possession of a tract of 
land near the centre of the town, continued to em- 
barrass the committee to such an extent that the fol- 
lowing petition for relief was presented to the Legis- 
lature by those who proposed to become inhabitants 
of the new town : 

The humble petition of Daniel Gookin, Senior, Thomas Priutice, 
Richard ISeers and Daniel Henchman, a committee, appointed and au- 
thorized by the General Court to order anil manage a new plantation 

granted by tins Court, lying and heiug on the road to SpnngticH, :il I 

twelve miles westward uf Marlborough, together with divers other per- 
sons hereunto subscribed, who have lots granted and laid out there, 
humbly sheweth : 

That, whereas, your petitioners have been at very considerable ex- 
pense, both of time and estate, in order to settle a plantation there, 
which they conceive, when it is effected, will more conduce to the pub 
lie good of the country than their particular advantage, and have so 
far advanced in that work as to lay out abovit thirty house lots and en- 
gage the people to settle them speedily ; also have beguu to build, 
plant and cut hay there ; but now, meeting with an obstruction and 
hindrance, by a young man called Ephraim Curtis, of Sudbury, who does 
lay claim unto two tracts of land, containing about five hundred acres, 
lying in the centre of this plantation, especially one of the parcels, 
being about 251) acres, in which place the committee have laid out a 
minister's lot, a place for a meeting-house, a null and ten other partic- 
ular men's house-lots, so that if this place be taken from us, this town 
is not like to proceed, to the damage of the public and your petitioners ; 
now, although we cannot grant that the said Curtis hath any legal 
right to debar our proceeding, yet, for peace sake, we have offered him 
a double share in the plantation, viz.: two house-lots and accommoda 
tions to them, which will, in the end, amount to much more land than 
he pretends unto ; but all offers he declines : 

Therefore, our humble request unto the Court is that you will be 
phased to order that the said Curtis may be sent for, and that both 
hint and your Committee may be examined either before some Commit- 
tee of the Court, thereunto to report the matter, or by the whole Court ; 
for the substance of the case will, as we conceive, turn upon this 
hinge; whether an order of the General Court, dated in May, 1667, 
prohibiting the laying out any particular grants in this place, in order 
to reserve it for a village, shall be of force and efficacy to nullify the 
acceptance of a particular grant laid out in this (dace, as is pretended, 
a year after: namely, at a Court held Anno 1668 ; the untying of this 
knot, which none can do but the General Court, will resolve the matter 
of controversy one way or other ; so that this town will proceed or 
cease, and that your committee, and others concerned, may not be 
wrapt up in trouble and contention about this matter, whose scope and 
aim is the public good, and that the good of many may be preferred 
before one, wherein we have no cause to doubt of this honored Court's 
favor ami encouragement. 

This petition was signed by the aforesaid committee 
and twenty-nine other persons. Having heard the 
parties upon this petition, the deputies adjudged, the 
magistrates consenting, that said Curtis "shall 
have fifty acres of the land that is already laid out to 

him, where he hath built, so it be in one place, with 
all manner of accommodation appertaining thereto 
as other inhabitants have." And also that he shall 
have liberty to take up two hundred and fifty acres 
j of land without the bounds of the town, but near and 
adjoining thereto. 

This closed the controversy between Mr. Curtis and 
I the other settlers, a controversy which ought not and 
', could not have arisen if the Colonial Legislature had 
exercised more care in making grants of land. The 
grant which Curtis had acquired by purchase was to 
Noyes, of two hundred and fifty acres, with the right 
to locate upon any lands not already granted. This 
j was earlier than the grant of the eight miles square 
for the Worcester plantation, and yet the latter grant 
was made without excepting the tract of land which 
had then been located under the grant to Noyes within 
the limits of the eight miles square. But it was not an 
infrequent occurrence in those early times, when land 
was of comparatively little value, for successive 
grants to overlap each other, and thus endless confu- 
sion in land titles ensued ; and even to this day it is 
well-nigh impossible to fix with any certainty' the 
exact boundaries of some estates in this county, es- 
pecially estates which have never been under culti- 
vation or enclosed, and consisting of forest or swamp 

i* 4. Havins adjusted their controversies with all 
other claimants and established rules for conducting 
the affairs of the settlement, the committee proceeded 
to obtain a release of title from the Indians to the lands 
embraced within the limits of their grant from the 
Legislature, and for the sum of twelve pounds in 
lawful money of New England, or the full value 
thereof in other specie, the Indians relinquished their 
title (whatever that was) by a deed, executed by sev- 
eral of their Sagamores with great formality, July 13, 
1674. The receipt of part payment, viz., two coats 
and four yards of trucking cloth, valued at twenty-six 
shillings, as earnest in hand, was acknowledged. The 
conveyance was to the committee in fee, and to the 
rest of the people admitted, or to be admitted, to be 
inhabitants — a most indefinite designation of the 
grantees. Another peculiarity about this deed was 
the tact that the acknowledgment was taken by 
Gookin, one of the grantees. But in reality it mat- 
tered little what was the form of deed executed by 
these untutored and nomadic savages, for, according 
to the law as interpreted by the highest courts in this 
country and in England, the Indians had no fee in 
the land, but only a right of temporary occupation, 
and the Crown, only, had the power to extinguish 
that right. But, nevertheless, as a means of promoting 
friendly relations with their uncivilized neighbors, 
it was good policy for the settlers of the town to go 
through the form of purchasing their lands from 
tbem ; yet the worthlessness of the covenant contained 
in that deed, that the grantees, their heirs and as- 
signs, should forever peacefully [enjoy the granted 



premises, was made painfully manifest not many 
months after the giving of the deed, when the Nipmucks 
and other neighboring tribes joined Philip in his war 
of attempted extermination of the English settle- 
ments throughout the colony. But Gookin and Eliot, 
who had the amplest means of knowledge on the sub- 
ject, earnestly asserted that the praying Indians of 
the Nipmuck and other tribes remained faithful and 
true to the English. 

We have now reached a stage in the history of the 
settlement of Worcester when, as appears from the 
foregoing brief narrative, a grant of a territory eight 
miles square had been made by the Colonial Legisla- 
ture to a committee, representing in reality the 
future inhabitants of the place, and that committee 
had procured from the Indians whatever right or title 
they might have had in or to the territory. Provision 
had been made for the public worship of God and 
popular education ; a training-field had been laid 
out, and a block-house or fori erected lor purposes of 
defence in case of need ; public highways had been 
provided for, and other appropriate measures adopted 
for establishing a civilized and Christian community. 

And in the spring of 1<>74 as many as thirty 
house-lots were laid out and houses began to lie 
erected. But " most of those who had expressed an 
intention to become planter-, and who joined in the 
petition of the Committee in May, 1674, discouraged 
by difficulties or delay, had abandoned their purpose." 

Still, notwithstanding this desertion of many who had 
promised to give aid to the new enterprise, the w. rk 

Of settlement was pushed forward with vigor by those 

who were willing to encounter the inevitable hard 

ship and dangers connected with the planting civiliza- 
tion in regions inhabited only by wild beasts and 
nomadic tribes of savage men. In the spring of boo. 

ami in the early summer oi that year, th< settlement had 
so far advanced that, in the language oi an annalist 

ofthe period, the inhabitants "had built alter the 

manner of a town." This was the hopeful state of 
affairs when, in midsummer of 1675, King Philip's 
War broke out in Plymouth Colony, and soon carried 
devastation and terror into e\ ery pari of that and the 

Massachusetts ( lolony. 

The com Moment of hostility > in that desolating 

war, in what is now Worcester County, furnished an 
illustration of a trait in the Indian character which 

education and Christianity combined seem powerless 
to eradicate, Mat tus, a Christianized Indian, had 

a son who was executed in Hi71 for the murder of an 

Englishman. Matoonus, described as a grave and 
sober Indian, and who had been specially befriended 
bj Gookin, and appointed by him as one of the 
police officers of the neighborhood, still cherishing 
the vindictive spirit so characteristic of his race, vis- 
ile. I Mendon, with others of his tribe, duly 10, 1675, 
and there avenged, according to his notion of retrib- 
utive justice, the death of his son by the murder of 
five ofthe unotl'endinsr inhabitants of that town. 

"This," says Lincoln in his admirable "History of 
Worcester," " was the signal for the commencement 
of a desperate contest. Common dangers produced 
that efficient union of the Northern Colonies, ce- 
mented by the necessity of self-preservation. The 
war was not of long duration. Energetic and rapid 
excursions laid waste the resources of the hostile 
tribes; the allies enticed to their support, foreseeing 
their fate, grew cold towards ancient friendships ; 
their supplies were destroyed; their wigwams were 
consumed, and Philip and his forces, hunted from 
post to post, deserted homes, and took refuge among 
the Nipmuck villages, where they received shelter 
and reinforcements. Unable to maintain open tight, 
thej continued an unsparing predatory warfare upon 
the exposed homes and garrisons. Alarm prevailed 
throughout New England. None knew when to ex- 
pect the visitation of the foe, lurking unseen in the 
solitude ofthe forest, until the blow fell, as sudden 
as the lightning, and left the effects traced with fire 
and blood. The husbandmen went forth to culli- 
. .n. the field, armed as if for battle ; the musket and 
the sword rested by the pillow, whose slumber was 
often broken, as the war-whoop rose on the watches 
of the night. The planters of Worcester, placed 
haul by the seat of the enemy, remote from friendly 
aid, with no dwelling of civilized man nearer than 
Marlborough on the cast, Lancaster towards the 
north, and Quabaug (now Brookfield) westward, to 
afford assistance and support, were compelled to de- 

-crt their possessions, and dispersed among the 

towns, The Bilence of desolation succeeded 
to the cheerful sounds of industry, and the village 
was abandoned to the wild beast and fiercer foe." 
And so ended the first act of the heroic struggle to 
plant a new town on this then perilous frontier. 

5. Before proceeding to any account of the sec- 
ond unsuccessful attempt to establish a permanent 
-ett lenient here, it may be well to call the reader's 
attention to the absolutely original plan upon which 
the settlement was to be effected, and how every step 
m the progress ofthe enterprise was directed and 

controlled by the character of the planters and the 
peculiar circumstances under which they were com- 
pelled to act ; to the original constitution of the com- 
mittee ; their petition to the colonial government for 
a grant of territory ; the grant and its conditions; to 
the meetings of the committee an 1 the measures de- 
\ ise.l by them ; to the principles announced by them 

upon which they proposed to act and to the objects to 
be attained by the planting of a new town in this un- 
settled part of the colony; to their early and embar- 
controversies respecting the title to land 
within the limits of the territory assigned to them 
and to the constant dangers by which they were 
menaced from the surrounding tribes of hostile In- 
dians ; to their early and careful provision for popu- 
lar education and to that supreme purpose of theirs. 
the establishment, in its purity, of the worship of 



God; to their sublime faith in the unseen and eter- 
nal, which inspired them with a courage adequate for 
every temporary peril and with an invincible forti- 
tude for every trial and disappointment. It was 
these peculiar qualities in the character of the found- 
ers, combined with their lofty and well-defined pur- 
poses and the wholly novel circumstances under 
which they were called to act, that distinguished the 
origin and organization of towns during the first dec- 
ades of the Massachusetts and Plymouth Colonies 
from those of any other municipalities of any other 
age or country. 

And the writer has set forth in the foregoing pages, 
in more of detail than may seem necessary, the prin- 
ciples, resolutions and plans adopted by the first set- 
tlers of Worcester, for the purpose of showing how 
broad and deep and abiding were the foundations 
upon which they proposed to build. For although 
the first attempt and the second failed, yet the prin- 
ciples and objects of the subsequent and successful 
founders of the town remained the same as those of 
their predecessors. In this connection brief notices 
of the members of the committee, by whom the affairs .1 
of the plantation were managed during the first 
twenty-five or thirty years, may not be deemed inap- 
propriate ; especially as every great enterprise, like 
the founding of a new community, derives its charac- 
teristics from those who control it in its origin and 
early developments. The most distinguished and in- 
fluential member of that committee was Daniel 
Gookin, sometimes spoken of in our annals as Captain 
and at other times as General Gookin, for he was pro- 
moted in the military service from the office of cap- 
tain to that of major-general of the colony. He was 
also appointed by the General Court in 1656 as super- 
intendent of all the Indians who submitted to the 
government of the colony. He was the associate and 
fellow-laborer with John Eliot in the work of civiliz- 
ing and Christianizing the Indians; he was one of the 
best and firmest friends the Indians ever found among 
the colonists, and for more than twenty years preced- 
ing his death, in March, 1687, his devotion to the in- 
terests of the Worcester settlement was constant and 
unabated. He was a native of the county of Kent, 
England, and the son of Daniel Gookin, who became 
one of the patentees of Virginia, and in 1621 planted 
a colony at Newport News, in that colony. Major- 
General Gookin, then a youth of nine or ten years 
only, accompanied his father in this attempt to plant 
a colony, and after his father left the colony, as is 
supposed, young Gookin remained, and subsequently 
secured large grants of land in different parts of Vir- 
ginia. In 1642 missionaries were sent from Massa- 
chusetts to Virginia to convert the people from the 
error of their Episcopalian ways. These missionaries 
were not well received, and the year following their 
advent the Assembly passed an act forbidding them 
from preaching or teaching in public or private, and 
they were finally expelled from the colony; but not 

until Captain Gookin, as he was then called, had be- 
come one of the converts, and in 1644 he left Virginia 
and removed with his family to Massachusetts; by 
which removal Virginia lost and Massachusetts gained 
one of the noblest of men. A few days after his arrival 
in Boston he became a member of the First Church ; 
was made a freeman of the colony ; resided in succes- 
sive years in Roxbury, Boston and Cambridge ; he 
was a Representative in the General Court from Cam- 
bridge in 1648 and 1651 and Speaker of the House in 
1651. In 1652 he was elected an assistant and re- 
elected thirty-four successive years. He revisittd 
England in 1654, and while there was appointed by 
Cromwell a commissioner to induce New Englanders 
to emigrate to the island of Jamaica. On his return 
to this country he endeavored to promote Cromwell's 
colonization scheme, but without success, and in 1657 
he resigned and asked to be relieved from any further 
duty under his commission, which request was granted. 
Gookin was at that time living in Cambridge, and was 
appointed one of the first two licensers of the printing- 
press at that place. 

Upon the outbreak of King Philip's War the In- 
dians who had been gathered into villages by Goo- 
kin and Eliot, and there taught some of the arts of 
civilized life, became objects of suspicion and dread 
to the people, notwithstanding Gookin and Eliot's 
assurances that they would remain faithful to their 
vows of friendship for the English. And so great did 
the excitement become among the people that Gookin, 
for the safety of his wards — the praying Indians — re- 
moved three thousand of them to Deer Island and 
provided for them there and in Cambridge until the 
close of the war, when they were sent back to their 
villages. By these acts of fidelity to the Indians 
Gookin became excessively unpopular, for a time 
with the colonists, and his life was repeatedly threat- 
ened, but he continued the undaunted friend of the 
Indians, and never lost faith in their loyalty. Many 
of these Indians enlisted in the war against Philip, in 
many memorable instances rendering signal services 
as soldiers and spies. In 1674 Gookin published 
"Historical Collection of the Indians in New Eng- 
land ; of the Several Nations, Customs and Manners, 
Religious and Government before the English planted 
there." He also wrote an account of the doings and 
sufferings of the Christian Indians in New England 
in 1675, '76 and '77. His manuscript "History of New 
England," in eight volumes, was lost. In 1657 the 
General Court granted to him five hundred acres of 
land for services in behalf of the colony. His services 
to the colony were constant and of the highest value, 
both in the civil and military line of public duty. 
General Gookin descended from an ancient and hon- 
orable family in England, and his descendants in 
New England became distinguished in various de- 
partments of public service, and by intermarriage 
they became connected with several of the leading 
families of the colony. Captain Daniel Henchman, 



another member of the committee, and second to 
General Gookin only in the value of his services to 
the early settlers of Worcester, made his first appear- 
ance in the colony as a teacher of a grammar school 
in Boston in 1666. 

He was admitted freeman in 1072, a member of the 
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company in 1074, 
and appointed captain of Fifth Boston Company of Co- 
lonial Militia. In May, 1675, he was sent with his com- 
pany of one hundred men to the assistance of Plymouth 
Colony against the Indians. In July of the same 
year, the day after the attack by the Indians on the 
whites at Swansea, he again marched with his com- 
pany and was present and took part in the attack 
upon Philip and his men at Pocaaset Swamp, when the 
conflict only ended with the darkness, which rendered 
its further continuance impossible. All the other 
troops having been withdrawn, Captain Henchman 
was left with bis men to watch the movements of 
the wily Philip, whom, having made his escape, 
Henchman, will) only a fnw of bis men, pursued as 
farae Mendon and Brookfield, in this county. Hecon 
tinned in active military Bervice during that fearful 
and final Struggle of tin- ruthless savage to regain 

possession of New England, lie was regarded asone 
<>i the bravest and most skillful Indian fighters. 
Captain Henchman was a cousin of Judge Samuel 
SewaM, and allied by family ties to the Hulls, Gookins, 
Quincya and Kli.tts. 

At the close ol Philip's War Captain Henchman 
again became active as a member of the committee 
having charge of the " Plantation at Quinsigamond." 
He erected a house be re in 1688, which was the borne 

ofhlS family till bis death, in liis... Before bis death. 

although he bad shown bin 

friend of the plantation, he had become i ery unpopular, 

in consequence of bis action respecting a controversy 

between Captain Wing, a favorite of the people, and 
Mr. Danson, about the title to a small tract of land. 
which both of the contestants claimed : and although. 
as it subsequently appeared upon full inquiry, Capt. 
Henchman was entirely righl in his view of the case. 

But this vindieati if his conduct was not until 

after his death and burial, the latter of which was al- 
ien. led by the immediate members of his family, two 
servants (one white and one black), anil one or two 

other friends, presenting a striking illustrat if the 

fickleness of popular favor and of the gr. s- injustice 
that may be committed by what is sometimes called 
public opinion. 

Captain Richard Beeres, an original proprietor of 
Wat< r. own — admitted freeman March, 1637 — was 

man more than thirty years, and repr< 
his town many years in the. General Court. Be was 
al-o actively employed in the military service of the 
Colony. In 1675 be marched with his company to 
the relief of Brook field, '.hence to Hadlev. thence to 
Hatfield and Dceriield ; in the months of August and 
September was present in several engagements with 

the Indians, in which he exhibited the qualities of a 
brave and skillful leader. September 3, 1675, he 
started with only thirty-six men to bring off the men 
from the garrison at Northfield. The next day, while 
pushing on towards the fort with a part of his men, 
they fell into an ambuscade, and were driven back by 
the deadly fire of the Indians to a place called Beeres' 
Hill, and there the conflict was continued until the 
brave leader ami most of his men were slain. 

Captain Thomas Prentice, born in England 1620, 
came to this contry 1649 and settled at first in Cam- 
bridge, lie was a farmer. He became a member of 
the church in Cambridge and freeman in 1653. He 
was elected lieutenant of a company of troopers in 
1656. In 1662 was captain, and represented Cam- 
bridge in the General Court in 1672, '73 and '74 ; 
was chairman of the Board of Selectmen of New 
Cambridge many years. He was an extensive land- 
owner in Massachusetts, Connecticut and New York, 
lie was noted for bis courage, self-possession and 
keen sense of justice. He was a terror to the In- 
dians in war and a linn and judicious friend of theirs 
in times of peace. He was ever ready to answer the 
call of the country and served with marked distinc- 
tion during the war with King Philip. He com- 
manded the troops sent toescortSir Edmund Andros, 
»h<. had escaped to Rhode Island, back to Boston. 
I poll the death ol ( leiieial ( look in, Captain Prentice 
was appointed superintendent Of the Christian In- 
dians as hi- successor upon the petition of the In- 
dians, lie was in command of the troops that 
escorted them to Deer Island by order ol Genera] 

Gookin in 1675. His death, at the age of eighty- 
niie, was caused by a fall from his horse, July 7, 

Adam Winthrop, grandson of John Winthrop, 
burn 1647 and graduated at Harvard in 1668; was 
made freeman in 1683; was one of the commissioners 
for the town of Boston 1684, Ins.". and 1690; select- 
man, 1688-89; Representative in the General Court, 
1689, 1691 and 1692. lie was appointed a member 
of the Governor's Council under the provincial char- 
ter, but failed to he elected by the people in the fol- 
lowing year (1693). At his death, in 1700, he left 
one son. graduate of Harvard 101)4, and one 

Captain John Win-, of Boston, acquired his title, 
it is believed, by bis service as a mariner; was ap- 
I constable in Boston in 1071-72. In 1676 
was chosen to " look after too much drinking in pri- 
vate houses." This was probably done m ire to secure 
the excise duties on liquors than for the purpose of 
promoting moderate drinking. He was for many 
years the popular landlord of the Castle Tavern, 
which stood on the corner of Elm Street and Dock 
Square. He was elected a member of the Ancient 
and Honorable Artillery in 1694. He became inter- 
est, -.1 in the plantation near "Quinsigamond Pond," 
and undertook, as early as 1684, to supply the town 



with a grist-mill and saw-mill, two indispensable 
things for a new frontier town. In October, 1684, he 
was made a member of the committee for the planta- 
tion. He gave much of his time for the next six 
years after his appointment to the business of the 
committee. He was the first town clerk elected by 
the inhabitants. He died in Boston, February 22, 

Captain William Bond, of Watertown, son of 
Thomas Bond, of Bury St. Edmund's, Suffolk County, 
England, was a man of large and varied capacity for 
:it!';i i rs, and filled many public offices, the duties of 
which he never failed to perform acceptably. He 
was successively selectman, town clerk, justice of the 
peace (not an unimportant office in his day), mem- 
ber of the Council of Safety, Representative aud first 
speaker of the General Court, under the Provincial 
charter ; and he was one of the committee for rebuild- 
ing the town of Lancaster, after its destruction by 
the Indians. 

Captain Joseph Lynd, of Charlestown, was a wealthy 
merchant and large, land-owner, Representative in the 
General Court, member of the Committee of Safety in 
1089, and one of the Council under the new charter. 

Perm Townsend, born in Boston, 1651, made free- 
man in 1674, aad the same year was elected member 
of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. 
He was promoted in the military line until he reached 
the rank of colonel. In civil life he was, in succes- 
sion, selectman, Representative, commissioner and 

Captain Ephraim Hunt, of Weymouth, was of 
English origin. He accompanied the expedition to 
Canada in 1690. This was the expedition devised by 
the congress of the Colonies which met in New York 
in May, 1690. The conquest of Canada was to be at- 
tempted by marching a land force by way of Lake 
Champlain against Montreal, while Massachusetts 
should, with a fleet, attack Quebec. It was the latter 
that Captain Hunt accompanied. He afterwards 
served as colonel on an expedition against the In- 
dians at Groton, in 1706-7. He was a Representative 
and Councilor. 

Deacon John Haynes, at one time a member of the 
committee, resided in Sudbury, and was a Representa- 
tive of that town in the General Court, and was a 
person to whom his neighbors frequently resorted for 
the adjustment of their controversies. Such is a brief 
record of the men who were conspicuous actors in the 
settlement of Worcester ; and any community may 
deem itself fortunate, which can find names of such 
men upon the roll of its founders. 1 

? 6. The war, which had desolated many parts of New 
England, ended with the death of Philip, its chief 
instigator; and upon the return of peace the commit- 
tee renewed their efforts for a permanent settlement 

1 Many of the facts continued in these notices are derived from the 
storical notes published with the doings of the two hundred and fif- 
ath anniversary of the naming of Worcester. 

of the town, for which they had so long and earnestly 

One of their first acts in this new attempt was to 
acquire any right Paunasumet, a Sagamore, who did 
not sign the first deed from the Indians, might have 
had in the territory upon which the town was to be 
built. This second deed, bearing date of December, 
1677, was executed by the widow of Pannasumet 
and his heirs. It contains covenants that the grantors 
had "good and just title, and natural right and in- 
terest in the territory, and that they would warrant its 
enjoyment" by the grantees. The committee, in 1678, 
directed the planters to return before the year 1680; 
but this direction was disregarded — no one of all the 
former settlers returned. 

At a meeting in Cambridge March 3, 1678, attended 
by Gookin, Henchman and Prentice of the committee 
and by sixteen other persons, it was agreed " that, 
God willing, they intend, if God spare life and peace 
continue, to endeavor, either iu person or by other 
persons and means, to settle said plantation sometime 
next summer." They proposed to build a town ac- 
cording to a model furnished by " Major Gookin and 
Major Henchman." 

The objects sought to be attained by this new en- 
deavor show how firmly the planters adhered to their 
original purposes. They were, "1st, security from 
their enemies ; 2d, for the better conenity of attending 
God's worship ; 3d, for the better education of their 
children in society; 4th, for the better accommodation 
of trades people ; oth, for better helps to civility ; 6th, 
for more convenient help in case of sickness, fire or 

But these good resolutions were not then carried 
into execution; and no effectual measures had been 
adopted for a re-settlement when, in October, 1682, the 
General Court gave notice to the committee, that the 
grant to them would be considered forfeited unless 
some decisive measures were soon taken to form a 

This led to renewed efforts on the part of the com- 
mittee, and such arrangements were made as induced 
a small number (not exceeding five or seven) of the 
former settlers to return ; and they, with other new 
associates, undertook to rebuild, on foundations that 
had once been laid and abandoned, a citadel as a 
refuge for all in times of alarm and danger. " Care 
was to be taken to provide a minister with all con- 
venient speed, and a school master in due season." 
Until a minister could be provided, the people were 
to assemble on the Sabbath and conduct religious 
services as well as they could. The land was di- 
vided into lots of ten and twenty-five acres. The 
north part of the territory, called at one time North 
Worcester, but is now the town of Holden, was di- 
vided into two hundred lots. 

On the 10th of September, 1684, accprding to Lin- 
coln, the General Court passed an act, at the request 
of Gookin, Prentice and Henchman, that their planta- 



tion at Quinsigainond should be called Worcester. 
Honorable George F. Hoar, in his instructive and elo- 
quent address on the occasion of the celebration of the 
two hundredth anniversary of the naming of Worces- 
ter, says this act of the General Court granting the 
request of Gookin and his associates, was passed 
October 15, 1684. Captain Henchman, one of the 
most active and efficient members of the Committee, 
died in 1685 or '86— both dates are given by different 
writers. At that time the public affairs of the Colony 
were conducted by a President and Council appointed 
by the Crown, after the Crown had most unjustly 
procured the abrogation of the Colony charter. 

Upon application to that President and Council — 
for there was then no other competent authority to 
appeal to by the proprietors of Worcester — General 
Gookin and Captain Prentice, of the old committee, 
were reappointed, and Mr. William Bond, of Water- 
town, Captain Joseph Lynde and Deacon John 
Hayncs, of Sudbury, were appointed new members. 
This committee was entrusted with the general 
powers to order and regulate all matters relating to 
the settlement. From this date, 1686, till 1713 au- 
thentic information respecting the transactions and 
progress of the new settlement is meagre and frag- 
mentary. The Proprietors' Book of Records contains 
no entries of transactions during that interval of 
twenty-seven years. It is known that appointments 

were made t < • till vacancies ill the ( imittee B8 late 

as 1691, from which it is safe to infer that the num- 
ber of settlers was too small, or that other reasons 
existed to render them unable to manage their own 
community affairs. It is also known that at this 
time an unfortunate controversy arose between Cap- 
tain Wing, a man of great popularity among the 

planters, and Mr. Dawson, a Quaker ami resident in 
Boston, respecting the title to a tract of land. This 
controversy, although a private one, seriously dis- 
turbed the harmony of the little settlement and re- 
tarded its growth. 

Another cause which still further disturbed the 
peace and harmony of the settlement was the build- 
ing, or attempting to build, a second citadel in the 
southerly part of the plantation, the first being in the 
northerly part ; this was in lilic. 

Inconsequence of the dissensions growing out of these 
causes, some of t he planters were induced to remove to 
other and older towns in the colony, and aome into the 
adjoiningeolonv of Connecticut. In 1 1 ; « »1 » *till another 
event occurred which depressed the fortunes of the 
struggling settlement. Application had been made 
to the Governor and Council for aid, but instead of 
granting the desired assistance, the General Court, on 
March 20, 1699, passed an act striking Worcester 
from the list of frontier towns, and left it to its own 
resources, without much hope of further aid from the 
government. After this the plantation ceased to 
flourish, and finally there was only one family re- 
maining on the whole territory of eight miles square, 

and that was the family of the brave Digby Serjent, 
who at last, while heroically defending his lonely 
dwelling on Sagatobscot Hill, fell a victim to the 
ferocity of his savage foes, and his wife and five chil- 
dren were carried off into captivity. The wife and 
mother, however, being unable to endure the hard- 
ships of a hurried journey through the trackless 
forests, was slain by her captors, and the children 
alone held captive, from which some of them never 
returned, and, it is said, two of them having become 
enamored of the wild freedom of savage life, did not 
desire to return to the pleasures and restraints of civ- 
ilized society. This final avenging blow fell upon 
the new settlement, according to differing accounts, in 
1702, '03 or '04. And from that time silence and 
desolation reigned over the " Plantation at Quinsiga- 
mond," until the last attempt to give permanency to 
this plantation was made in 1713. 

11. In the year 1703 Joseph Sawyer and fifteen 
other persons presented a petition " To his Excellency 
Joseph Dudley, Esq., Capt. General and Governor 
in Chief in and over his Majesty's Piovince of the 
Massachusetts Bay in New England, and to the Hon- 
ourable the Council and Representatives in General 
Court assembled," etc., saying they were willing to 
undertake the settlement of Worcester, if they could 
have a firm foundation of settlement laid and a fort 
built and needful protection. Upon this petition the 
Council ordered that Elisha Hutchinson, Samuel 
Sewall aud Nathaniel Paine should be a committee 
to consider the expediency of granting the request 
and the course to be adopted. But the House of 
Deputies refused to concur, as the disturbed condi- 
tion of the times rendered the enterprise too danger- 
ous to be sustained by legislative approbation. 

The dangers here adverted to were not those alone 
which the colonists had reason to apprehend from 
their Indian neighbors. During the thirty years from 
1683 to 1718, many events, with which the Indians 
had no connection, occurred to disturb the public 
tranquillity and to binder the peaceful settlement of 
Country and seriously to retard its growth ; such as t hi 

unjust, if not absolutely illegal, abrogation of the 
colony charter in the reign of Charles II.; the subse- 
quent establishment of a new and arbitary govern- 
ment here under Andros. The commission of James 
[I. to Andros contained a suggestion that the King 
claimed title to all " lands, tenements and heredita- 
ments " in the colony, and that they were to he 
granted to such persons and upon such conditions as 
the monarch might see fit to select and impose. And 
the charter having been annulled, the people were 
told that "their land was the King's, that the grants 
from the General Court had not been made under the 
seal "I the colony," and were therefore worthless, and 
that all who would perfect their titles must take out 
new patents upon such terms as the King in his pleas- 
ure might be disposed to grant. This alone was 
sufficient to check, for a time, all attempts to estab- 



lish new settlements. But, fortunately for the cause 
of human liberty and good government, the infatu- 
ated James was soon driven from the throne, and 
the tyrannical rule of his minion, Andros, over the 
colony was speedily brought to an end. But the 
unsettled state of public affairs during and following 
the Revolution of 1788, the struggle on the part of 
the colonists to regain their ancient charter, of which 
they had been most unjustly deprived, and the 
change from that to the less liberal provincial char- 
ter, produced a condition of things in the colony 
wholly unfavorable to the building up of new towns. 
And during the first years of the eighteenth cen- 
tury Massachusetts, with the other New England 
colonies, was almost continually exposed to the hostile 
incursions of the French from Canada and their 
Indian allies, and was only relieved from that men- 
ace at the close of the war between England and 
France, which was terminated by the treaty of 
Utrecht, April 11, 1713. It will be remembered that 
as long as Canada remained under the dominion of 
France, the colonies of necessity became involved in 
any general war between that country and England. 

Six months after the last-named date, that is, on 
October 13, 1713, Colonel Adam Winthrop, Gershom 
Rice and Jonas Rice, of Marlborough, presented a 
petition to the General Court, on .behalf of them- 
selves and others, setting forth that they desired to 
enter upon a new settlement of the place from which 
they had been driven by the war. Their petition 
was received with favor, and Hon. William Taylor, 
Colonel Adam Winthrop, Hon. William Dudley, 
Lieutenant-Colonel John Ballantine and Captain 
Thomas Howe were appointed a committee " to direct 
in ordering the prudentials of the plantation till they 
come to a full settlement." 

This committee made their first report June 14, 
1714. They had allowed thirty-one rights of former 
inhabitants, and twenty-eight new settlers were 
allowed to take lands upon the payment of twelve 
pence per acre for their planting or building-lots 
only, and upon the further condition that they would 
build and dwell "on each right, whether acquired by 
purchase, grant or representation." Provision was 
made for the support of the ministry and schools. 
The report was accepted and approved by the proper 
authorities. The first of the former planters to 
return and begin the re-settlement was Jonas Rice ; 
and the permanent settlement of Worcester takes its 
date from the day of his return, October 21, 1713. 
He, like the unfortunate Serjent, built on Sagatob- 
scot Hill, and with his family he remained for eigh- 
teen months sole inhabitant of the place, till he was 
joined by his brother Gershom, in the spring of 1715. 
The daring and fortitude of the pioneer builders of 
these pleasant and now peaceful towns cannot be too 
much admired or too highly honored. Twice had 
the attempt been made to settle Worcester, and 
twice had the infant settlement been left in ruins 

and every inhabitant driven from his possessions by 
a savage foe, as unreasoning as he was vindicitive and 

And now the third attempt is to be made in the 
midst of lurking dangers and well-known hardships, 
which would have daunted a less sturdy and heroic 
race of men. They made provision for guarding 
against the dangers by which they were surrounded 
by building garrison-houses and fortresses, and even 
their own dwellings were built for defence as well as 
for shelter. Mills were early constructed for the 
manufacture of lumber and the grinding of grain, 
roads were built, and soon a tavern — that species of a 
temporary home so much admired by Dr. Johnson 
and ^henstone — was opened by a Mr. Rice on the site 
of the present Walker building. 

A building was erected on Green Street in which 
the people assembled for worship from Sabbath to 
Sabbath, until a meeting-house was erected in 1719, 
on the site recently occupied by the " Old South." 

From evidence furnished by the proprietary records, 
and derived from other sources, it is probable that the 
inhabitants of Worcester had increased to two hun- 
dred in 1718-19. About that time a company of 
Scotch immigrants attempted to settle in Worcester; 
they were a portion of a larger emigration from the 
north of Ireland, where they had formed a plantation 
in the time of James I. They were Presbyterians, 
and although under William they were permitted to 
retain their form of worship, yet they were required 
to aid in the support of the Established Church. They, 
therefore, like the Pilgrim Fathers, not being satisfied 
with the new home, for which they had left their 
native country, again embarked for a country where 
they supposed they would be allowed to enjoy both 
religious and civil liberty. But they soon learned that 
the spirit of intolerance had crossed the ocean with 
those who came to these shores to escape the intoler- 
ance to which they were subjected in the land from 
which they came. 

These "frugal, industrious and peaceful" people 
formed a religious society here, and began to erect a 
meeting-house in which to " worship God according to 
the dictates of their consciences," following the 
Presbyterian formularies. But while the building 
was in process of construction, a mob of citizens 
assembled at night and completely demolished the 
structure. These people were otherwise persecuted 
and annoyed to such an extent that many of them 
left the town and settled in the town of Pelham, in 
Hampshire County. And thus Worcester, by intoler- 
ance and bigotry, drove from her borders many who 
would have been among the most valuable of her 
early inhabitants. But this unjust treatment of 
Presbyterian emigrants was not peculiar to Worcester. 
Wherever they settled they were subject to outrage 
and persecution. It is said that this was, in part, at 
least, due to the fact that these people came from 
Ireland, and were represented as Irish, who, at that 



time, were "generally, but undeservedly, obnoxious" 
to tbe English colonists. 

This prejudice against both Irish and Presbyter- 
ians admits of a ready explanation, if this were the 
time and place for it, but it cannot be justified. 

All of these emigrants from Scotland through Ire- 
land did not leave Worcester, but some of them be- 
came permanently settled here, and their names are 
still borne by their descendants, who are amoug the 
more honored and respected citizens of Worcester of 
the present generation. 

The population of the place had become so great 
by the year 1721 as to have outgrown the govern- 
ment and management of its affairs by a committee, 
and the freeholders and proprietors, therefore, peti- 
tioned the General Court for an act of incorpora- 

And on the 1 tth of June, 1722, the following re- 
solve was passed : 

i: ,,i '| hat the inhabitants ol Won rater 1 f >> the pow- 

ore and privileges of other towns within th] • that II be 

re n.i'.i to tha( I i uni 11 only ol i 

H Ud i al « I* i In 5 ptember, L721, to wboi 

tending parties submitted tl > N|r - A "" 

drew Gardner, thai the saidi i to Worcester on or 

i„i thi iii-i H i « next, to finish what Is further 

,„ M n i" bedom foi thi procuring ind i 

,,,„,, according to the sul -- i the pni ""I that the Free. 

,,i inhabitants ol '■■'• ' Wednee- 

, lay in Septembei next, al ten o'cl ck In thi foi n,to choose all 

,,,„,, officers as bj law accustomed foi towns to doal their annual 
March ; and that, at th" opening of the meeting, they first 
i„- .„ e< d to thi i uoice of a moderator by written rotes. 

This is commonly cited as the charter or acl in- 
corporating Worcester as a town. It is in form e 
resolve, and not an act, and confers only such powers 
and privileges as were possessed by other towns in 
the province. Ami it was long after the dab 
resolve in fact, not until after the adoption of tbe 
State Constitution, in L780, thai the first act was 
passed (St. 1785 ch. 75) declaring towns within this 
government to be bodies politic and corporate. No 
town was formally incorporated in the colony, 
province or State until the passage of that act ; but 
by that act all towns that had been pn 

erected bv resolve or otherwise were made bodies 
corporate. It is true that "the earlier statutes of the 
colony and province concur with those under the 
present constitution investing towns with the power 
to agree upon and make rules, orders and by-laws 
for managing and ordering the prudential affairs of 
the town.'" But they were not thereby made mu- 
nicipal corporations, as that term is now under-! I. 

The same learned judge (Chief Justice Shaw), 
from whose opinion in the case cited the above quo- 
tation i- made, says, in another part of the same 
opinion, that "townships were originally local divi- 
sions of the territory, made with a view to a settle- 
ment and disposition of the property in the soil. 

'23 Pickering's Rep., p. 77. 

But the proprietors or inhabitants of such territorial 
divisions were not at first invested with political or 
municipal rights and powers." It was in this way 
that Worcester originated, and it was nearly or quite 
fifty years after the first settlement before the plan- 
tation passed from the control of a committee, and 
the inhabitants and proprietors began to exercise 
municipal powers and rights in the choice of their 
own officers and the management of their own af- 

The first town-meeting called under the foregoing 
resolve was held September 28, 1722. The necessary 
town officers were chosen, who entered at once upon 
the discharge of their duties; and Worcester then, 
released from its fifty years of pupilage and disci- 
pline, asserted its individuality as a corporate power, 
and has since performed no inconspicuous part in 
the history of the Commonwealth and nation in 
times both of peace and war. 

\ 8. Having now briefly sketched the various stages 
through which Worcester passed, from the first he- 
roic smiggles of its founders till it assumed its equal 
place among the other organized communities of the 
Province, the main purpose of this chapter has been 

And as the writing of its military, ecclesiastical, 
educational and industrial history, during the sixty 
years that intervened between L722 and the close of 
the Revolutionary War, has been assigned to other 
hands, a few only ol the more strictly municipal 
f that period will be touched upon in the 
remaining pages of this chapter. Although the tots a 
had become firmly established, and was no longer 
menaced bj hostile tribes of Indians in its imme- 
diate vicinity, yet for many years its growth and 

prosperity were retarded by the actual or appre- 
hended hostility of what was called the Eastern In- 
dians, then inhabiting portions of what is now the 
State of Maine and the adjoining Provinces of Can- 
ada and Nova Scotia. This state of insecurity made 
i necessary that considerable numbers of the able- 
bodied men of the town should he employed to 
guard the outposts and to give warning of approach- 
ing danger. And it may with historic truth be af- 
firmed, that the inhabitant- ..I' Worcester and other 
frontier towns were never permitted to dwell in 
safety and free from the apprehension of hostile in- 
vasion from the French or Indians, or both together, 
until after the crowning victory of Wolfe at Quebec 
and the treaty of 1768, by which Prance lost her 
North American possessions forever, and the Indians, 
left without civilized allies, became less formidable 
and obstructive to the planters of frontier settlements. 

In 1731 an event occurred which produced a bene- 
ficial and lasting influence on the fortunes of Wor- 

At the date of the resolve conferring municipal 
powers upon Worcester, the town formed a part of 
Middlesex County, and was situated on the western 



border of that county. On April 2, 1731, an act was 
passed by the Provincial Legislature establishing the 
county of Worcester, and Worcester was made the 
shire-town of the new county, not because of its rela- 
tive importance so much as by reason of its central 

There was a proposition, says Mr. Lincoln in his 
history, "to make Lancaster and Worcester half- 
shires, having the sessions of Court held alternately 
in each, and it would have prevailed, except for the 
opposition of Joseph Willard, Esq., who remonstrated 
against the administration of justice in Lancaster, 
lest the morals of the people should be corrupted.'' 

There can be no reason to doubt the correctness of 
the historian's statements that such a proposition was 
made and that Mr. Willard opposed it; but the assign- 
ment of the reason for his opposition can hardly be 
accepted without material qualifications. The real 
reason influencing the careful Mr. Willard may 
probably be found in another passage from the same 
historian, in which he records the fact that " the terms 
of Court were the great holidays of the county, and 
its population assembled in Worcester, as a general 
exchange, for the transaction of business, or pursuit 
of amusement in the rude sports of the period. The 
judicial proceedings, now forsaken, except by parties, 
witnesses and officers, were generally attended by a 
multitude that thronged the streets. Wrestling, 
fighting and horse-racing were common exercises, 
and frequent exhibitions of discipline in the stocks 
and pillory and at the whipping-post attracted crowds 
of spectators.'' 

Horse-racing in Main Street during the terms of 
courts was at length forbidden under a penalty of 
twenty shillings lawful money. This was in 1745. 
But the prohibition was, by the terms of the vote, to 
continue for the space of three years only. This was 
a very common method of legislation during the 
Colonial period and even later. And the statutes 
whose duration was fixed by definite limitation were 
called " temporary laws " in contradistinction from 
other laws which were termed " perpetual." The es- 
tablishment of the courts in Worcester at that early 
period was an event far more important to its pros- 
perity as a municipality than any similar transaction 
would be at the present day, when our great mechani- 
cal and manufacturing industries, extensive trade 
and unsurpassed railroad facilities render the pres- 
ence of the courts here relatively an insignificant 
factor, in the aggregate of influences, which are 
carrying Worcester forward in its marvelous career 
of increasing population and wealth. It is indeed 
true now, as it always has been, that the existence of 
the courts here makes Worcester the residence of a 
large proportion of the members of the county bar, 
who constitute a very influential body of citizens, 
and whose influence in the main is beneficial to and 
confers honor and strength upon, the place of their 

In 1722 the owners and tenants in common of the 
two hundred lots forming the north part of the town- 
ship held a meeting duly convened for the purpose, 
and organized a distinct proprietary, called North 
Worcester, which, however, continued to be a part of 
Worcester until 174U. In 1730 the planters in the 
north part were exempted from town rates in the 
south part for seven years, on condition of making 
and maintaining their own highways. In 1740 the 
town voted to consent to the incorporation of North 
Worcester as a separate town, "if it be the pleasure 
of the Great and General Court, in consideration of 
the great distance from the place of public worship." 
And on the 9ih of January, 1740, an act was passed 
whereby the northerly part of Worcester was set off 
and " erected into a distinct and separate township, 
by the name of Holden." The date of this act is given 
in Lincoln's " History of Worcester" as November 2, 
1740 — upon what authority does not appear. The 
above date of January 9, 1740, is taken from vol. ii., 
pp. 1043-1044 of the "Acts and Resolves of the Prov- 
ince of Massachusetts Bay," recently printed by au- 
thority of the Legislature. 

The new town was called Holden in honor of Mr. 
Samuel Holden, who died in London the same year 
the town was incorporated. He was a man of wealth 
and a leader among the Dissenters in England. He 
was a friend and benefactor of the Province, and was 
distinguished for his general benevolence and many 

After his death his heirs, to whom he left an ample 
fortune for those times, followed his worthy example 
in deeds of charity, and it was to them and the widow 
of Mr. Holden that Harvard University is indebted 
for Holden Chapel. 

In 1733 the proprietors of the township of Worces- 
ter passed the following vote, viz.: "Voted, that ion 
acres of the poorest land on Mill Stone hill be left 
common for the use of the town for building stones." 
This vote, nearly one hundred years after its passage, 
became the cause of an interesting lawsuit, in which 
the inhabitants of Worcester were the plaintiff's and 
William E. Green the defendant. They claimed that 
the vote conveyed to them the one hundred acres in 
fee simple ; the defendant, who derived his title from 
the same proprietors by mesne conveyances, claimed 
that the fee was his ; and the Supreme Judicial Court 
so held, saying, " It was no doubt the intention of the 
proprietors to secure to the town or its inhabitants a 
valuable and perpetual interest in the land described 
in the grant, but that the land itself did not pass." 
This suit was in 1824. ' 

Again, in 1851, the owner of the fee brought suit 
against an inhabitant of the town who had entered 
upon the one hundred acres, and taken stones from 
the quarry thereon for building purposes. In this 
case the court decided that the terms of the grant by 

i 2 Pick., 42i. 



the aforesaid vote included the right to get stone for 
the use of the inhabitants, not merely for buildings, 
in the narrow and restricted sense of that word, but 
for all those structures and purposes for which such 
material, in the progress of time and the arts, may 
be made useful. In this sense it would not be a vio- 
lation of the right to appropriate the stone to the 
building of fences, bridges, arches, culverts, drains, 
curb-stones, monuments in cemeteries, and to the 
various ornamental uses to which it is usually applied. 
The erection of public buildings by the town in its 
corporate capacity, or of houses and stores by persona 
not resident in Worcester, to be occupied and im- 
proved by the inhabitants, would lie for the use of the 
inhabitants, and so within the fair intent of the 
grant. But the use of the stone for building purposes, 
without the limits of Worcester, by inhabitant* "1 
other towns, is clearly a violation of the right. The 
court adds, that the grant of the right to tin- stone 
carries with it, as a necessary incident, the right to 
enter and work the quarry, and to do all that is neces- 
sary and usual for the full enjoyment of the right, 
such its hewing the stone and preparing it for use. 1 

The right secured by that rote, passed more than 
one hundred and fifty years ago, was of compara- 
tively little value for many years, but the extraordi- 
nary growth of Worcester in population and wealth, 
and the consequent increase in the demand for 
building material, has rendered the quarries on Mill 
Stone Hill a mine of wealth to the city and its in- 

Prom 1740 the town increased slowly hut steadily 

in population and wealth until 1.768. Bui lew events, 
however, occurred during that period, the record of 
which conns properly within the scope of this 

Worcester, in common with other New England 
towns, was more or less involved in and affected by 
the wars between England and other European coun- 
tries, as has already been stated, and especially in 

and by those which prevailed, with intervals of peace 

that were little more than truces, between England 
and France, from the treaty of Utrecht, in 1718, t<> 
that of Paris, in 17o3, a period of titty years. Dur- 
ing what was known in this country as the I 

and Indian War, extending from L754 to 1768, Wor- 
cester furnished soldiers every year for the English 
armies of defence or conquest, and in all four hun- 
dred and titty-three men, besides those who I 
in the regular army. 

In 1754 the voters of the town were called upon to 
vote on a question relating to the sale and consump- 
tion of intoxicating liquors: not, indeed, upon the 
question whether licenses for selling such liquors 
should or should not be granted, hut whether the 

consumers of liquors, sold by unlicensed sell< rs, 
Bhouldpay the duty thereon. 

A bill was passed by the General Court requiring 
every householder, when called on by a collector, to 
render an account, under oath, of the quantity of such 
liquors used in his family, not purchased of a li- 
censed person, and to pay the duty thereon. Gov- 
ernor Shirley refused to give his assent to the bill ; 
hut instead of vetoing it outright, he had it printed 
and submitted to the consideration of the people. 
The voters of Worcester gave a unanimous vote 
against the bill " relating to the excise on the private 
consumption of spirituous liquors being passed into a 
law," and instructed their Representative, John 
Chandler, " to use his utmost endeavor to prevent the 
same." To understand this peculiar transaction, it 
should be remembered that the Provincial Legisla- 
ture used, from time to time, to pass " acts for grant- 
ing unto His Majesty an excise upon spirits distilled, 
wines," etc., the act providing that the excise should 
he paid by taverners and other persons licensed to 
sell the same. Such an act, for instance, was passed 
December I'. 1 , L754, and the money collected under 
the act was to be used in lessening the debt of the 
province ami lor no other purpose. One section of 
the act provided that every person consuming or 
using in his or her house, family, apartment or busi- 
ness any distilled spirits or wine, "except they pur- 
chased the Same of a tavemer, inn-holder or retailer 
in this province and in a less quantity than thirty 
gallons, shall pay the duties" prescribed by the act. 
As the negative vote of Worcester above referred to 
was given Septein her L\ 17">-l,and this act was passed 
December following, it is evident the voice of Wor- 
cester did not prevail to prevent the passage of the 
aet. There is another tact connected with that vote 
of the town worthy of notice, as showing the custom 
Of the people, at that early day, of giving their Rep- 
resentative instruction as to his legislative duties. 
The last section of the aet above referred to would 
hard y he adopted at the present day as a part of a 

prohibitory or license law. It was as follows : "That 
• ■: the clause> in this act, respecting persons 
being obliged to render an account of the spirituous 
liquors aforesaid, shall extend, or be deemed or con- 
strued to extend, to his excellency, the governor, 
lieutenant-governor, president, fellows, professors, 
tutors and student- of Harvard College, settled min- 
isters and grammar school masters in this province." 

In the tall oi l !'•'• eleven persons came to Worces- 
ter, or rather were sent here, to be provided for by 
the town authorities. They were strangers, and spoke 
a foreign language. Some were old and some young 
— they were of both sexes. They were apparently an 
inoffensive folk, willing and able to work for their 
own support, except one aged pair, who were past 
labor, and were taken care of by a young girl o 
en teen. 

These eleven persons were a small detachment of 
many thousand involuntary exiles from their native 
land. They were, in short, a small part of the thou- 



sand Acadian exiles who had been forced by the mili- 
tary power of England to leave their pleasant homes 
" on the shores of the Basin of Minas," and had re- 
cently been landed in Boston, and distributed thence 
among the several towns of the Province by a com- 
mittee appointed for that purpose. Why this forcible 
removal of the inhabitants from Acadia, by direct 
command of the British Government, should be 
characterized, as it is, by one of our local historians, 
as the darkest blot on our history is not very clear, 
unless he means that this Province, being then a part 
of the British Dominions, was a participant in the 
guilt of an act of cruelty which it had no power to 
prevent. It is true that the forces employed to drive 
these unoffending people from the homes they had 
built, and which they passionately loved, were com- 
manded by Gen. John Wiuslow, a relative of Gov. 
Winslow, of Plymouth ; but he was an officer in the 
British army, and acted upon orders emanating from 
the head of that army, and not upon any orders from 
the Provincial Government. It is also true that in 
the army commanded on that occasion by General 
Winslow there were many soldiers from Massachu- 
setts, and among them were seventeen from Worcester. 
But all these things combined are not sufficient to 
render Massachusetts or New England responsible 
for an act which admits of no justification ; for it was 
an act quite beyond theircontrol. And while we may 
agree with the historian, as he declares that " I know 
not if the annals of the human race keep the record 
of sorrows so wantonly inflicted, so bitter and so per- 
ennial, as fell upon the French inhabitants ef Acadia, 
or have our sympathies deepened and intensified for 
the sufferers in reading the enchanting lines of Long- 
fellow's ' Evangeline,' yet there are explanations 
which can be made that would, perhaps, mitigate the 
severity of the judgment which the reader, with- 
out the explanations, is ready to pronounce 
upon the actors in a transaction which drove 
a whole people into exile, and from which they 
were never permitted to return." But all that 
remains that is pertinent to be said in this con- 
nection is that the small number of these exiles 
who were sent to Worcester were treated by the 
inhabitants with great kindness, and that they, while 
dwelling here, continued to pursue" their industrious 
and frugal habits and mild and simple manners." 
And some of the oldest among them having died, as 
it is said, broken-hearted, the remnant, after the lapse 
of twelve years from their first coming to Worcester, 
returned to their countrymen in Canada." 

During the years 1764, '65 and '66 several attempts 
were made in the Legislature for the formation of a 
new county from the northern part of Worcester 
County and the western part of Middlesex. These 
projects were vigorously and successfully opposed 
by Worcester and other towns in both counties. At 
the same time a petition from Lancaster was pre- 
sented to the Legislature asking to have that town 

made a half-shire ; but this attempt, like those for 
a new county, failed. In relation to the removal 
of some terms of the court to Lancaster, the people 
of Worcester again exercised the right of instructing 
their Representative and directed him " to use his 
utmost endeavor to prevent the removal;" also to 
procure another term of the Superior Court in Wor- 
cester. The courts were not removed, nor was any 
additional term established in Worcester at that time. 

I 9. A brief sketch of the history of Worcester from 
1763 to 1783, a period of twenty years, will complete 
this chapter. It will be recollected that the last war 
between France and England, ending with the treaty 
of Paris in 1763, left England mistress of all the 
northern and Atlantic portions of North America; 
and the colonies were relieved from that state of al- 
most incessant hostility by which they had been 
harassed so long as the French remained in possession 
of Canada. To theordinary observer of coming events, 
this condition of affairs would seem to promise a long 
period of peace and prosperity. But, on the con- 
trary, the colonies were engaged in actual war, or in 
preparation for it, most of the time during the twenty 
eventful years from 1763 to 1783. And there was a 
signal fulfillment of the prediction of the sagacious 
French statesman, who, when he heard of the entire 
cession of Canada to England, said : " England will 
ere long repent of having removed the only check 
that could keep her colonies in awe. They stand no 
longer in need of her protection ; she will call on 
them to contribute toward supporting the burdens 
they have helped to bring on her, and they will an- 
swer by striking off all dependence." The then late 
war in which England had been engaged doubled her 
national debt, and upon the return of peace, Parlia- 
ment entered upon a series of unjust measures for 
taxing the colonies, which were at once met on the 
part of the colonies with vigorous resistance, and 
which finally issued in the war of independence. 
Worcester, although having within its borders a large 
and influential body of loyalists, was yet one of the 
earliest and most persistent of all the towns in the 
colony in its opposition to the oppressive acts ot 
Parliament, and in the prosecution of the war when 
the appeal was taken from the discussion of princi- 
ples to the arbitrament of the sword. 

The instruction of the town to its Representative in 
the General Court in May, 1767, are significant of 
the state of feeling among the citizens at that time, 
and of their clever apprehension of the rights of man 
in general, and of their own particular rights. 

In addressing these instructions to their Repre- 
sentative, they say : 

1. That you use your influence to maintain and 
continue that harmony and good will between Great 
Britain and this province which may be most con- 
ducive to the prosperity of each by a steady and firm 
attachment to English liberty and the charter rights 
of this province, and that you willingly suffer no in- 



vasions, either through pretext of precedency or any 
other way whatever; and if you find any encroach- 
ments on our charter rights, that you use your utmost 
ability to obtain constitutional redress. 

2. That you use your influence to obtain a law to 
put an end to that unchristian and impolitic practice 
of making slaves of the human species in this prov- 
ince, and that you give your vote for none to serve 
in his majesty's council who, you may have reason 
to think, will use their influence against such a law, 
or that sustain any office incompatible with such, 
and in such choice prefer such gentlemen, and such 
only, who have distinguished themselves in the defence 
of our liberty. 

The fourth instruction is upon quite a different sub- 
ject and yet it had reference to the means of preserv- 
ing liberty — it reads as follows : That you use your 
endeavor to relieve the people of this province from 
the great burden of supporting so many Latin gram- 
mar schools, whereby they art- prevented from attain- 
ing such a degree of English learning as is necessary to 
retain the freedom of any State. 

6. Take care of the liberty of the press. 

The town records furnish plenary evidence that 
Worcester, during the ten or twelve years preceding 
the commencement of hostilities, in L775, constantly 
and resolutely resisted the enforcement of all acts of 
Parliament passed in violation of the great principle 
for which the Colonies so steadily contended, that 
there should be no taxation without representation. 

In the spring of 1774 an event occurred which ex- 
hibited in a striking manner the strength of popular 
feeling against any and all measures which the peo- 
ple believed tended to destroy or impair the safe- 
guards of their rights. Parliament had passed an 
act the object of which was to make the judge-, of the 
Superior Court (the highest court in the Colonj de- 
pendent on the crown and independent of the Colo- 
nial Legislature. Whereupon, after ineffectual nego- 
tiations with Governor Hutchinson, the Legislature 
resolved "that any of the judges who, while they 

held their offices during pleasure, shall accept support 

from the crown independent of the grants of the < len- 
eral Court, will discover that he is an enemy to the 

Constitution, and has it in his heart to promote the 

establishment of arbitrary government." Chief .lus 

tice Oliver, of that court, was the only one of the 
judges who chose to defy popular sentiment by de- 
claring that he had accepted Hi- Majesty's bounty, 
and could not refuse it without royal permission. 

A I'ter this declaration was made public, it was reported 

that the chief justice would be present and hold the 

April term of the Superior Court in Worcester (1774) ; 
whereupon the grand jurors summoned for that term, 

with Joshua Bigelow, of Worcester, at their head, 

addressed a communication to the justices of the 
court, in which they say : " We. the subscribers, being 
returned by our respective towns to serve as jurors of 
inquest for this court, beg leave humbly to inform 

your honors that it is agreeable to the sense of those 
we represent, that we should not empannel, or be 
sworn into this important office, provided Peter Oliver, 
Esqr., sits as chief justice of this court ; and we would 
further add, that our own sentiments coincide per- 
fectly with those of our constituents respecting this 
matter ; so to whatever inconvenience we expose our- 
selves, we are firmly resolved not to empannel, we 
are first assured that the above gentleman will not 
sit as a judge in this court." They then give the 
reasons for their conduct, all having relation to the 
unfitness of the chief justice to sit as a judge in con- 
sequence of his disloyalty to the Colony and his sub- 
serviency to the crown. The result was the jurors 
were not impaneled until they received assurances 
that the obnoxious judge would not preside over 

This action by the grand jurors was taken under 
the advice of the American Political Society, as it 
was called, and which during the two years of its ex- 
istence from December, 1773, exercised a controlling 
influence in the town and county. It was, in fact, a 
self-constituted vigilance committee. At the annual 
.March meeting, 1774, a committee, appointed to take 
into consideration the acts of the ISritish Parlia- 
ment for raising revenues from the < 'olonies, presented 
a report, which was adopted by the town. That re- 
port, which is quite too long to be copied here, goes 
over the whole ground of controversy between the 
Colony andthe mother country, and points out the 
measures that should he adopted to preserve the 
rights of the Colonies against the encroachments of 
Parliament and the crow n. 

The royalists of the town, with Colonel Putnam 

as t licit lender, opposed the adoption of the report and 
accompanying resolutions, and being defeated, forty- 
three of their number presented a petition for an- 
other meeting to be held on the 20th of June fol- 
lowing, hoping to rally their associates in sufficient 
numbers to rescind the patriotic resolutions of the 
March meeting. But they were again defeated, and 
i be very able report which had been prepared by the 
distinguished and eloquent counselor, Colonel Put- 
nam, was rejected or refused all consideraton. But 
the Tory town clerk nevertheless entered the report on 
the town records, and which he was shortly thereafter 
compelled by a vote of the town to expunge 80 ef- 
fectually that the blackened pages of the record are 
to this day illegible. 

The signers of the petition for the June meeting 
were glad of an opportunity to express their peni- 
r having signed a petition so at variance with 
the popular will. Timothy Paine, of Worcester, and 
1 .Murray, of Rutland, were compelled by the 
demands of the people to resign what were known 
as the mandamus commissions which they had ac- 
cepted from the crown. The courts acting under 
royal authority were suspended in Worcester in Sep- 
tember, 1774, in obedience to popular sentiment, and 



were opeDed again in 1776, under the new govern- 
ment which had taken the place of the old. 

A convention of all the Committees of Correspond- 
ence was held in Worcester September 21, 1774 ; it 
assumed legislative powers, and during the interreg- 
num between the suspension of the royal authority 
and the establishment of constitutional government 
the orders of that convention were obeyed as laws. 
In a convention of the blacksmiths of the county, 
held in Worcester November 8, 1774, among other 
resolutions one was adopted which would be quite 
appropriate to a convention of modern boycotters, 
" and in particular," say the patriotic blacksmiths, 
" we will do no work for Tim. Ruggles, of Hardwick, 
John Murray, of Rutland, and James Putnam, of 
Worcester, Esqrs. ; nor for any person cultivating, 
tilling, improving, dressing, hiring or occupying any 
of their lands or tenements." 

But, notwithstanding the bold and apparently un- 
compromising spirit of the people, yet it is perfectly 
apparent, upon a careful study of their whole course 
of conduct, that they acted entirely on the defensive 
until the actual commencement of hostilities by the 
British troops, sent here to overawe the people, and, 
finding that that could not be done, resort was had to 
the force of arms. 

In March, 1775, a company of minute-men was 
formed in Worcester, and were trained under that 
veteran soldier, Captain Bigelow, so that when the 
call "To arms to arms! the war is begun!" was 
heard in the streets of Worcester on the 19th of 
April, this company was in " a short time paraded 
on the green, under Capt. Timothy Bigelow ; and 
after fervent prayer by Rev. Mr. Macarty they took 
up their line of march " to the seat of war. The 
history of Worcester during the eight years from 
1775 to 1783 is largely of a military character, and 
does not fall within the purview of this chapter. 

Soon after April li), 1775, some of the royalists of 
Worcester left their homes here and took refuge in 
Boston. Those who remained were summoned be- 
fore the Revolutionary tribunal and made to give as- 
surances that they would not leave the town without 
the consent of the selectmen. Some having violated 
their parole, two were arrested and sent, under guard, 
to the Congress at Watertown; the remaining royal- 
ists were disarmed, having refused to vindicate the 
sincerity of their pledges by joining the American 

The Declaration of Independence was received in 
Worcester July 14, 1776, and was read by Isaiah 
Thomas, the patriotic editor of the Spy of that day, 
from the porch of the Old South meeting-house, to 
an enthusiastic assembly of his fellow-citizens. The 
first anniversary of the Declaration was celebrated in 
Worcester July 8, 1777, by the ringing of bells, the 
firing of cannons and illuminations at night. 

On the proposition to ratify the Constitution, which 
was reported by a committee of the General Court, 

the vote of Worcester was largely in the negative. 
Great distress prevailed among the people in 1779-80 
in consequence of the depreciation of the currency 
and the high prices of all the necessaries of life. At 
a town-meeting in August, 1779, resolutions were 
passed severely denouncing " regraters in the public 
markets, forestalled and engrossers of the produce of 
the country." One of the resolutions declared " that 
whoever refuses to sell the surplus of the produce of 
his farm, and retains the same to procure a higher 
price by means of an artificial scarcity, is very crimi- 
nally accessory to the calamities of the country, and 
ought to be subjected to those penalties and disabili- 
ties which are due to an inveterate enemy." Is not 
that doctrine equally applicable to the heartless spec- 
ulators, " regraters, forestalled and engrossers " of the 
necessaries of life in our own times? In May, 1780, 
the Constitution prepared by a convention of the peo- 
ple was submitted to them for ratification and was ac- 
cepted. Worcester disapproved of the third article of 
the Bill of Rights relating to the support of religious 
worship, on the ground that it would interfere with the 
rights of conscience. It is singular that the same 
people at the same time should object to the twentieth 
article, conferring upon the Legislature only the 
power of suspending the execution of the laws, and 
this objection was placed on the ground that the arti- 
cle placed too great a restriction on the executive de- 

Upon the question as to the manner in which 
royalist refugees should be treated, the judgment of 
Worcester was emphatic and stern. It was "voted" 
May 19, 1783, " That, in the opinion of this town, it 
would be extremely dangerous to the peace, happi- 
ness, liberty and safety of these States to suffer per- 
sons of the above description (refugees) to become the 
subjects of and reside in this government; that it 
would be not only dangerous, but inconsistent with 
justice, policy, our past laws, the public faith and the 
principles of a free and independent State, to admit 
them ourselves or have them forced upon us without 
our consent." 

But not withstanding this severe condemnation of 
the forgiveness of enemies, some of the refugees, who 
had been banished for life and threatened with death 
if they returned, were allowed to come back and live 
in peace in their former homes during the first gener- 
ation after the close of the war. 

And long since the healing influences of time have 
done their perfect work, and the descendants of 
loyalists and patriots are living in the towns of their 
ancestors, side by side, on terms of amity and perfect 



WORCESTER— {Continued. ) 


/',,.,„ the Clou of the Revolution to the Praent Time. 

Worcester at the Close of the Revolution. 
— In 1783 the town of Worcester had a population of 
about 2000, devoted mainly to agriculture and 
slightly to trade. Its municipal expenses were al- 
most solely for the repair of its roads and the 
maintenance of its schools. The appropriation in 
the following year for the former purpose was £200, 
and for the latter, £100. Its means of communica- 
tion with the seaboard were restricted, although in 
that very year, on the 20th of October, the first regu- 
lar stage from Boston arrived in Worcester, and thus 
began an enlargement of facilities for travel. There 
was no necessity to divide the town into precincts to 
accommodate the voters, for the total vote cast in 
that year for Governor was only 57, of which 
John Hancock had 19 and James Bowdoin 8. 
The right of way in its streets was contested by pe- 
destrians, cattle and swine; the only restriction on 
the swine being embodied in a vote oi the town in 
that year that they "being yoked and ringed shall 
go at large.'' 

The mornings and evenings were not melodious 
with the cry of the newsboy. 

But one newspaper was published here, the Mas- 
sachusetts S/ii/, and its issue was weekly. l'l:i\ wa- 
spun on the spinning-wheel at almost every home 
Wood was the only material used in building. Tin 
open fire-place was the only medium of warmth, and 
wood alone was burned. Stoves were unknown in- 
ventions and coal an unknown agent. Fires were 
lighted with the spark from the Hint, and not with 
the then unimagincd match. 

The Hours were in most instances carpeted with 
the bright sand, and not with warmer materials. 

County conventions were not accommodated in 
any public hall, but were held at some house, that in 
1784 being called at " the house of Sam Brow n ." 

The town illustrated from time to time its paternal 
character, as in the case of Cato Walker, in 1784, to 
whom it voted an anvil, " lie being unable to buy 
one," — a wiser method, perhaps, of dealing with its 
poor than later years have developed, though the 
gilt of a stock in trade to every pauper would be at- 
tended with rather grave embarrassments. 

But the capacity of the people for self-govern- 
ment, ami their ability to deal with question- oi 
State and federal policy, had been attained by years 
of practice and thought. The Representative to the 
General Court was in fact, as well as in theory, their 

servant, and his entrance upon his labors was through 
the passport of their instructions. 

A stern sense of duty seems to have dominated them 
and made the expression of their views, solemnly re- 
corded in their records, a joy and a delight. No more 
instructive revelation of the customs then prevalent 
can be had than is contained in some of the reasons 
adopted January 25, 1782, why the town disapproved 
of a late act of the Legislature laying an excise on 
wine, rum, wheel carriages, &c: 

3d. That if it is necessary to lay duties fur the support of Government 
and suppression of luxury and extravagance, said duties ought to be laid 
on suelf articles only as are merely luxuries, and not on some of those men- 
tioned in said act, spirituous liquors being absolutely necessary for our 
seafaring brethren coasting along ourshores in Boats and Lighters at all 
seasons of the yeai t<> sapply the market with wood. Lumber and Fish ; 

also for theFarmer, wb Fatigue is almost insupportable in hay time 

ami harvest anil other seasons ofthe year, and for the New Beginners in 
bringing forward new Townships when they have nothing to drink but 
perhaps are exposed to more Hardships than any other per- 
sons; nor on Bohes Tea, which, in populous places, and in mani 

in thee ti \ Is mhstltuted by many Poor People for their support and 

sin the Room nl milk, which is Dot to be bad, and theylind it 
in be .t I Iheap Diet. 

5th. That all Consumers of Spirituous Liquors at Taverns will pay 

a i. mi i .'i -M times as h as the Duties a ant to, fur it is well known 

that the Tavero-keepei selb in- mlxl Liquors foi twi pence more in a 
■ l . i Ise was laid, when, lu fact, the duties on each 

- not amount to more than a farthing, and BO in propOl 

I .IImIs 

lith. That all I' s I ,,,mi niunit 

will purchase Liqu i consum] n of the neighboring 

Govi 1 1 - and paying any oi said Duties. 

7th. The act exempts all persons from paying Dntywho buys at one 

Mm i I nil. i I . .!, whit b appeals In be . al- 

i . \ n| in the Pool anil exempl the Rich. 

Delightful surprises, such as this, often appear in 
the records of the town, ami the page is luminous 
with the light of forgotten viewsoflife, or aflame with 
controversies long since buried. We get clearer 
notions of the shrewdness of our fathers and the 
plain honesty with which they announce their views. 
U'c see, too, at times specious reasoning applied to 
vexing problems, but also grave, earnest, scholarly 
and powerful presentation of thoughts which the ex - 

■ e of later generations has proved to be pro- 

flu history of Worcester since the close of the 
Revolution seems appropriately to he divided into 
four periods, each having a distinctive feature and 
each illustrated by a progress peculiarly its own. 

Fhrtt. Covering the time to the opening of the 

Black-stone Canal in Isl's, being the preparatory and 
formative period. 

Second, from the beginning of traffic over the 
canal ami covering the vast accession of trade inci- 
dent to the opening of railroad communication with 
Boston, Springfield, Providence and Nashua, to its in- 
corporation as a city — being the transition period. 

Third. From the organization under its charter as 
a city to the introduction of water and the building 
of sewers and covering the great material advance 
occasioned by the variety of its industries and the 



opportunity for their development through the de- 
mands caused by the war. 

Fourth. To the present time, including the intro- 
duction of multiplied agencies for growth, comfort, 
elegance and education, being the period of its as- 
sured and vigorous manhood. 

Within the limits of this article it is not proposed 
to give with any exhaustive fullness the details of 
the yearly progress or growth or to cover in any de- 
gree the history of the city's industries or deal with 
its military events, but to confine the treatment to 
civic matters and important political occurrences. 


The rejoicing over the final and assured separation 
from the mother country had hardly ceased, the vet- 
erans of the Continental army had scarcely changed 
the privations of war for the more peaceful scenes 
and employments of home, than new anxieties and 
new privations awaited them. The blessings of lib- 
erty seemed less prized when liberty apparently had 
resulted in poverty and almost in starvation. 

As soon as the war closed English agents and fac- 
tors came in large numbers to this country and grad- 
ually controlled trade. Importations of foreign 
goods became frequent and numerous. The coin of 
the country was exported in payment, and thus 
money became scarce. English creditors, too, pressed 
with urgency their claims, and suits were brought 
with alarming frequency. 

Massachusetts suffered in an exceptional degree 
from these and other causes. It had no tobacco and 
no rice to export; its fisheries had decreased to an alarm- 
ing degree ; it had nothing with which to pay for its 
imported articles, except coin, and that was speedily 
exhausted. The private debts in the State amounted, 
it is estimated, to £1,300,000. In addition to this 
£250,000 were due its soldiers, besides £1,500,000 as 
the State's proportion of the Federal debt. One- 
third of the latter was required to be raised on the 
ratable polls, numbering less than 90,000. Taxes at 
least must be paid in coin ; so must debts, when the 
creditor insists. Without commerce, without manu- 
factured articles, without exportable products and 
without money, the people of Massachusetts were 
largely forced to the rude expedient of barter and 
exchange; but that, indeed, afforded no relief; the 
coveted money was not obtained by such methods. 
Hence creditors did insist, collection was enforced by 
suit and satisfaction by levy and sale. Property and 
homes were sacrificed, discontent became general and 
relief was vainly sought. Courts were crowded with 
actions and suitors ; lawyers alone were prosperous. 

Such was the condition of Massachusetts in 1786, 
when the General Court met. The alluring remedies 
proposed in that body were to make real and personal 
estate legal tender ; to emit paper money which 
should be irredeemable, and to permit free trade, so 
far as lawyers were concerned, admitting any person 

of good character to practice in the courts, but regu- 
lating the fees. These measures failed at that time. 

Redress must be sought in other ways, therefore. 
Conventions were called in which to discuss grievances 
and formulate remedies. 

In May, 1786, the town of Sutton invited the towns 
to send delegates to a general meeting. 

Worcester's Attitude toward Shays' Re- 
bellion. — It would be a source of greater satisfaction 
for every citizen of Worcester if the part which that 
town took in the only serious revolt against the 
supremacy of law in Massachusetts had been one of 
absolute and uninterrupted vindication of the rights 
of the Government. But, considering the force of 
opinion in almost every town in the county, the easy 
acquiescence with which most of the towns sent dele- 
gates to the County Convention of 1786, the corporate 
action of the town of Worcester, in the main, deserves 
our approbation and compels our admiration. 

The contest came solely upon the question of send- 
ing delegates to the convention of 1786. In and of 
itself the mere approval of a convention to consider 
grievances and suggest legitimate remedies would not 
at any time merit censure. But when armed revolt 
against the peace of the Commonwealth was a possible 
issue, or later when it was an established fact, true 
patriotism was best shown by a determined refusal 
to have any part or lot in bodies or measures whose 
tendency was even remotely towards revolution. 
Worcester showed a sturdy and persistent opposition 
for many months, and even though a small majority 
was obtained once or twice in favor of participating 
in the convention, the results were disapproved. 

The only petition to the General Court which Wor- 
cester adopted was in 1784, before public passion was 
excited. It recited as the grievances which should 
be remedied : 

1st. "The giving into the hand of the honorahle the Continental Con- 
gress (lie Iiiipnst In l»e under their sole controle," and tint tin- act t" 
that effect ought to he repealed, ,l not but that we are free and willing 
that an Impost on all Imported Articles ought and should Imediately 
take place, hut the Revenue thereof ought to be paid into our State 
Treasury, and in a Constitutional way drawn out by a warrant from 
the Governor, and, if appropriated to Congress, it ought to be set to our 
credit, so that we may receive the benefit of the same, which we con- 
ceive no Slate in the Union have any j list right to." 

2d. "Wee conceive that the expence of Days of Publick Rejoicing 
ought not to be paid out of the Public Treasury." 

3d. "Making large grants to officers of the Continental Army, &c.'\ 

4th. "That the people of this State are greatly oppressed and dis- 
tressed for the want of a ballance of a Circulating Medium, and that the 
credit of the State greatly suffers from no other motive than the neces- 
sity of the people and by reason of the Stale's holding the property of 
Individuals binds one part of the people so that the other part makes 
necessity their opportunity, which much agrieves the good people of 
this State, and we pray that ways and measures may be found out for 

The foregoing, adopted two years before Shays' 
Rebellion, was the only petition on the subject of* 
grievances sent or adopted by Worcester. 

At a town-meeting, held June 8, 1782, the list of 
grievances, which the town supposed it had, was for- 



mutated for the information of its Representative to 
the General Court as follows : 

" We instruct you Relative to some matere of grevance which we think 
we labour under : 

1st. "That the Receiver-General of this extensive Commonwealth 
should be a Justice of the pleas iu the County of Middlesex, by which 
he is rendered unable to attend his office as Treasurer of the Common- 
wealth during the Time he attends the Courts in said County, by which 
many persons have been, and others no doubt will be, put to considera- 
ble Expence, besides loss of time and Disappointment, who have business 
with him as Treasurer." 

2d. "Asthere is a Recommendation of Congress that such officers as 
nave been Deranged and not in actual service have hall' pay during life, 
if said recommendation has or should Cake Place, we look upon it as a 
g i eal reavance." 

3d. "That the Members of the General C r, when acting as Commit. 

tees of the same, have large wages over and above their pay as Repre- 
sentatives, is agreivance which we think we justly complain of." 

4th. "That Representatives baving nine shillings pel day, lei 

Karcityof money and the difficulty of obtaining thereof, being 
almost double what they formerly bad whei ley was much plentier 

and easier to be bad, we think a grcivance.", 

5th. '-II Is a -ii-ii greivam •■ thai tin re in.- bei n a ;i neral Settle- 
ment with the Treasurer of this Commonwealth, and with all others who 

have i n entrusted with the expenditure of publics monies ami have 

not accounted for the same 

mil. "That the State ot tht treasur; i known to thi 

ants," &c. 

7th. "As the Siting of the General Court In the Town ol Bo 

attended with many I nvi nil di as, we think said I 

Town a gr< i ranci 

8th. "Thai thi siting ol the I ourl ol I ommon P 

Sessions of tbe IVicr at ibe same ti much Interfear with i 

by which means lb mtj i- pul to the cos iny Justices 

many days, « ben much lest i would answei the purpose a- well." 

'•Hi Large grants "f land to " ai 
in the old Provei f 

Tims in 1782, by instructions in its Representative 
in the General Court, and in 17*! I >y petition t" the 
Senate and House of Representatives, Worcester 
announced its grievances. No undue popular ex- 
ritcniciii existed at t-itlu-r of these times; bu( in 
1786 tin- case was different, The supposed grievanci - 

had imi been re lied by legislation or by changed 

conditions. Many of the people believed their bur- 
dens insupportable and saw uo relief by constitutional 
means. Excitement ran high; demagogues caughl 

the puhl ic eye ; unprincipled i sought to lead, an. I 

danger began to threaten. In Buch condition ol 
things, Worcester -• .n^li i to allay the impending 

In May. 1786, Sutton Min an invitation to the 
towns of the county to send delegates i" a conven- 
tion. It was not considered by Worcester. 

The convention, with delegates from a portion of 
the towns, met at Leicester, bul adjourned to August 
15th, ami another attempt was made to obtain the 
presence of delegates from the remaining towns. \ 
litur from the convenl ion was received by Worci sb r, 
asking that it and Douglass and Northbridge might 
Bend delegates "to take under their consideration 
such matters as shall appear to them to he grievances, 
ami fur the towns to instruct their delegates concern- 
ing a circulating medium or such means of redress as 
they shall think proper.'' 

A town-meeting was held in Worcester. August 10, 
17S6, to consider the invitation. Upon the proposi- 

tion to send delegates, the record states that " it was 
passed in the negative.'' 

Thus far through the increasing excitement Wor- 
cester had remained firm against becoming identified 
with the growing opposition to the government. But 
the movement, gaining force from the presence of 
delegates from nearly every town in the county and 
from the armed resistance at Worcester on September 
5th, when the Court of Common Pleas was compelled 
to adjourn without transacting business, became too 
strong for successful opposition by the town of Wor- 

A petition for another town-meeting was presented, 
and in accordance with its prayer a meeting was held 
on September 25, 1786, at which, by a vote of 47 to 29, 
it was decided to send two delegates to the convention 
at its adjourned meeting at l'axton on the last Tues- 
day of September; but the town still retained the 
power to disapprove the action of the convention, for 
it voted that its delegates should report their doings 
tit a later meeting. 

The convention adopted a petition to the Ueneral 
Court. It was presented at a meeting of the inhab- 
itants of Worcester, held October 2, 178(1, and was 
read, paragraph by paragraph, and it was voted not 
to adopt it. Hut another trial of strength was de- 
manded by the defeated party, and a petition, signed 
by Dr. I >i x and others, was presented lor another 

town-meeting. October Hi, 1786, it was voted, by 62 

affirmative to 58 negative, to choose a delegate to 
"meet in Convention al the house of Nathan Patch 
on the 2' Tuesday of November next." Again, how- 
ever, the town proposed to he careful of its good 
name, and it voted that the " Delegate lay the doings 

of tin- 1 lorn ention before the town lor their approba- 
tion or disapprobation at the next town-meeting after 
the meeting of the Convention." At the same meet- 
ing it chose a committee, consisting of Dr. Dix and 
others, to prepare instructions for its Representative 
to the i leneral ( lourt. 

Town-meetings were frequent in those day-. At 

tie in \i one, ln-lil Octobei 23d, the party of order 
were in the majority, and the institutions prepared 
by Dr. l»ix ami others were refused adoption by a 
vote of 59 in favor of adoption to 67 against, other 
instructions were then adopted, but it is a pleasure to 
read that a proposition to instruct the Representative 
to use his endeavor to have the law repealed which 
obliged each town to keep a grammar school was 
voted down. 

Thus tar the town, whenever it came to pass upon 
the acts of the convention, was uniformly found to 
disapprove. Its last action relative thereto was taken 
at the meeting held January 15, 17>7. when the re- 
port of the delegates was made, and it was voted bo 
di-iniss the delegates. 

On the very next day. January 16, 1787, the town 
voted to pay a bounty of twelve shillings and forty 
shillings per month compensation to each man who 



should enlist for the support of the government. 
It also chose a committee to give security to the sol- 
diers for their wages. 

The Rebellion was soon to be overcome. General 
Lincoln, with his troops, arrived in Worcester on 
the 22d of January, where he was joined by the sol- 
diers from this county, including many from Wor- 
cester, and by the 3d of February the opposition to 
the established order had vanished. Only two or 
three from this towa were included among the sol- 
diers of the insurgent forces. 

It has not been our purpose to treat of the military 
events which happened in Worcester in connection 
with and as a part of Shays' Rebellion, but simply in 
a brief way to cover the corporate action of the town 
with reference to it. 

The temper of such a loyal and law-abiding citi- 
zen as Isaiah Thomas, with reference to the Excise 
Act in its operation upon him, may be judged by 
an entry made by him in an old receipt-book, follow- 
ing the copy of a receipt, dated December 16, 1785, 
of three pounds from him in full for duty on adver- 
tisements, from the 1st of August to November 24th. 
It is as follows : 

" N. B.— This is the first duty I ever paid Government for Liberty of 
Printing a news-paper— the hist shackle laid on the Press since Inde- 
pendence, and laid on by the Legislature of Massachusetts only 1 ! 1" 

The original of the above is now in the possession 
of Charles A. Chase, Esq., treasurer of the Worcester 
County Institution for Savings. In consequence of 
the determination of Mr. Thomas not to be subject to 
an act so painfully suggestive to him of the Stamp 
Act, the publication of the Spy was suspended for the 
years 1787-88. 

Means of Communication.— At the outset of the 
trips of the regular stage from Boston, through Wor- 
cester to Hartford, in 1783, one left Boston on Mon- 
day morning at six, remained in Northborough at 
night, reaching Worcester on Tuesday and arriving 
at Hartford on Thursday. Another left Hartford at 
the same hour on Monday and arrived in Boston in 
four days. Beginning in January, 178G, coaches left 
Boston in winter every Monday and Thursday morn- 
ings at five o'clock, arrived at Worcester the same 
day, and reached New York in five days more. The 
summer arrangement provided for coaches three 
times a week, in which the journey from Boston to 
New York was made in four days, which was claimed 
to be the most expeditious way of traveling that 
could be had in America. In July, 1788, the car- 
riages were hung upon springs, and the trips made 
with greater comfort. Increasing speed was con- 
stantly made, till the running time from Boston to 
Worcester was reduced to six hours at the close of 
this period. Increasing trips were made till stages 
run daily to Boston, Hartford and New York, and 
five different lines, three times a week to Boston. 
There were also lines to Oxford, to Providence, to 
Northampton, to Keene, to Southbridge, to Dudley, 

to Athol, and to many other places. New roads and 
new turnpikes began to be built, connecting Wor- 
cester with other places by shorter routes and better 

By chapter 67, of the Acts of 1S06, Aaron Davis 
and others were incorporated under the name of the 
Worcester Turnpike Corporation, to make, lay out 
and keep in repair a turnpike road from Roxbury 
to Worcester, "passing over Shrewsbury Pond, and to 
the north of Bladder Pond, to the street in Worcester 
near the Court House," and with authority to estab- 
lish four toll-gates. The turnpike crossed Lake 
Quinsigamond upon a floating bridge, which, on Sep- 
tember 19, 1817, sank, but was soon after replaced by 
a more substantial structure. Other turnpike cor- 
porations were established, intended to afford Wor- 
cester more ample means of travel and traffic. 

Population and Local Conditions. — The popu- 
lation of Worcester increased at a slow rate from dec- 
ade to decade during this period. By the first cen- 
sus in 1790 it had 2,095 ; in 1800, 2,411 ; in 1810, 2,577 ; 
in 1820, 2,962 ; in 1825, 3,650. 

Its ratable polls were for the several years as follows : 
1790, about 450 ; 1800, 530 ; 1805, 540 ; 1810, 518 ; 
1815, 641 ; 1820, 626 ; 1825, 881. 

The vote for Representative to the First Congress 
under the Constitution, in 1788, was as follows : 

Timothy Paine 46 

Jona Grout 25 

Abel Wilson 3 

A. Ward 1 

Total 75 

It is exceedingly interesting, in connection with the 
subsequent history of the towns of the county, to 
compare their condition so far as polls are concerned, 
in 1786. They follow in order : 

Douglas 231 

Oxford 228 

Grafton 225 

Brookfield 666 

Sutton MO 


Charltonf. 392 

Barre 373 

Leominster 359 

Worcester 357 

Petersham 349 

Sturbridge :i47 

Sterling 339 

Mendon 310 

Spencer 308 

Harvard 306 

Lancaster 30 1 

Lunenburg 297 

Westminster 291 

Uxbridge 281 

Templeton 274 

Rutland 268 

Leicester 24(1 

Holden 223 

Winchendon 231 



Dudley 220 

Bolton 216 

Fitchburg 207 

New Braintree 203 

Princeton 198 

Ashburnham 197 

Koyalston 196 

Milford 195 

Athol 193 

Weston 192 

Southboro' 186 

Upton 184 

Hubbardston 193 

Oalsham 191 

North! ioro' 150 

Paxton 145 

Berlin 118 

Ward los 

Northbridge 95 

Thus it is seen that in number of polls Worcester 
was, in 1786, the seventh town in the county. It may 
well be a subject of thoughtful consideration as to 
the operative causes which have secured for it the 
position of the second city in the Commonwealth. 



Within the period of present consideration the 
conditions were favorable, not for rapid development, 
but for careful, thoughtful action. Its foundations 
were not laid in mortar and cement only, but in edu- 
cation, intelligence, taste, a due degree of political 
wisdom, business sagacity and prudent foresight. It 
possessed natural advantages in location. As the 
shire-town of the county it attracted attention, immi- 
gration and business. Its area was ample ; its adap- 
tability for trade and manufactures was noticeable. 
The wealth of the town was in excess of its propor 
tion, according to population ; its income in 1786 was 
third among the towns of the county. Its inhabit- 
ants did not secure foreign capital and foreign cor- 
porations for business ventures. Its wealth was 
localized, its capital was a home capital and ever) 
inhabitant had a local pride and local interest. The 
profits of its trade went into the pockets of its own 
citizens and not to non-resident stockholders. 

It is believed that in an exceptional degree the 
families of early Worcester have remained and been 
represented here during a large part of its existence. 
This fact alone is of no inconsiderable importance. 

A harmonious union of effort develops strength. An 

intensified interest and added pride in the home "i 
generations of ancestors come to tie loyal descend- 
ant. In a population of a few thousand its effect 

upon the whole is more, potent and visible lliin when 

distributed among greatly increased numbers. 

During this period, with its population never above 
4,000, Worcester had among its active ami prominent 
men representatives of tie: following early families: 
Chandler, Paine, Curtis, Bice, Bigelow, Lincoln, 
Green, Goulding, Stowell, Allen, Salisbury, .1' unison, 
dpham, Flag-/, Grout, Perry, Thomas, Lo veil, God- 
dard, Mower and others. A brief glance at some of 
the strong men of this period will enable us i" appreci- 
ate the power they must ha vi' exerted in shaping events 
ami counseling measures, lie services of ma'ny were 
not confined to Worcester, but the nation and the State 
called them to positions of honor and usefulness. 

Levi Lincoln, Si:,, graduated at Harvard in 
1772, came to Worcester in 1775, began the practice 

of law, and became the leader in his profession. 
Successively judge of Probate, Representative to 
the General Court, State Senator, member of Con- 
■jiv-s, Attorney-General of the United State- in 
the Cabinet of President Jefferson, Councilor, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor and Governor of the Common- 
wealth, and finally, associate justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, which latter position was 
declined, were the fitting reward for his ability and 
capacity for useful and distinguished service. He 
\\:i- a great advocate and learned jurist, and bis por- 
trait, together with that of his eminent son Levi, 
finds fitting place in the Worcester Law Library. 

His interest was not confined to legal and political 
duties only. He was one of the original members of 
the American Academv of Arts and Sciences. 

Edward Bangs graduated at Harvard in 1777, 
came to Worcester in 1780, and pursued his profession 
of the law with success. He entered with spirit and 
energy into service for the best interests of the town ; 
was for many years selectman, and served with fidel- 
ity in other local capacities. He was a stanch and 
bold advocate of the supremacy of the law at the 
time of Shays' Rebellion, and was a volunteer in 
General Lincoln's army. He was Representative, for 
ten consecutive years, to the General Court; was 
attorney for the Commonwealth for Worcester County 
from 18ti~ till his appointment as associate justice of 
the Court of Common Pleas in 1811, which position 
he retained till his death in 1818. 

Isaiah Thomas, was known as widely, perhaps, as 
any citizen of Worcester during this period, and hon- 
ored throughout the land. His service to the home of 
his adoption from 1778, wdten he came here for perma- 
nent residence, till his death, in 1831, was varied and 
marked. He not only devoted himself to the exten- 
sion of his business, — to establishing a book-bindery 
the first in the country); to the building and 
operation of a mill on the Blackstone River for 
the manufacture of paper (the second of the kind 
in the United States); to the employment of a 
large number of presses in connection w ; ' busi- 

ness of book publisher; to the attainment of greater 
accuracy and elegance in the printing of books, by 

which the reputation of his work extended through 
the country, and attracted to Worcester attention and 
trade, — but also, by labor, advice and munificence, 
aided in the extension of the means of education, 
improvement and culture for his fellow-townsmen. 
Material advantages were also furnished by him to 
his town. Lincoln, in his valuable " History of Wor- 

refers to them as follows: "The site of the 
County Court-House was bestowed by him, and the 
building and avenues on the front constructed under 
his uncompensated direction. No inconsiderable 

share of the cost of enlarging the square at the north 
end of the Main Street, and erecting the stone bridge, 
was given by him. The street bearing his own name, 
and the spot where the brick school-house has been 
built were his benefaction to the municipal corpora- 
tion. In the location and execution of the Boston 
and Worcester turnpike he assisted by personal exer- 
tion and pecuniary contribution, and few local works 
for the common good were accomplished without the 
aid of his purse or efforts." 

His zeal in the foundation and endowment of the 
American Antiquarian Society is gratefully remem- 
bered by every thoughtful student in the land. Ref- 
erence to his efforts in that respect will be made at 
greater length in another place. 

Nathaniel PAINE, graduated at Harvard in 
177"', and after engaging in the practice of law at 
Groton, returned to Worcester, in 5 ; becam • 

county attorney in 1789 and remained such till ,.., 
appointment as judge of Probate, in 1801, which lat 



ter office he held till 1836. In 1798, 1799 and 1800 
he represented the town in the Legislature. 

Francis Blake, a graduate of Harvard in the 
class of 1789, removed to Worcester in 1802 and re- 
mained here till his death, in 1817. He was a man 
of brilliant parts, a distinguished advocate and an 
orator of great force. In 1810 and 1811 he repre- 
sented the Worcester District in the State Senate. 
In 1810 he was appointed clerk of the courts. 

Dr. John Green, Sr., a physician of large prac- 
tice and great reputation, was deeply interested in 
the political movements of the time and actively en- 
gaged in local affairs. He died in 1799. 

Dr. William Paixe, a graduate of Harvard, in 
the class of 1708, returned to Worcester in 179:; and 
remained here till his death, in 1833. He was a man 
of intellectual tastes and of large culture. He was 
" fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sci- 
ences, member of the Medical, Agricultural, Linna-an, 
Essex Historical and American Antiquarian Socie- 

Dr. John Greex, the second, born in Worcester 
in 1763, made that his home during life. "He at- 
tained to a pre-eminent rank among the physicians 
and surgeons of our country." 

Lev "coln, son of Levi Lincoln, Sr., graduated 

at Han a. - in 1802 and began the practice of law 
here in 1805. He was elected State Senator in 1812. 
From 1814 to 1822, with the exception of three years, 
he represented Worcester in the Massachusetts 
House of Representatives. In 1820 he was one of 
Worcester's representatives to the Constitutional 
Convention. In 1822 was Speaker of the House of 
Representatives; in 1823 Lieutenant-Governor; in 
1824 associate justice of the Supreme Judicial Court; 
Governor of the Commonwealth in 1S25 upon nomi- 
nation of both parties, and held the office for nine suc- 
cessive terms, till January, 1834. 

John Davis, a graduate of Yale College in theclass 
of 1812, was admitted to the bar in 1815 ; began 
practice here in May, 1816, and soon rose to distinc- 
tion in his profession and to the merited confidence 
of the public. In 1824 he was elected a Representa- 
tive in Congress, and by successive re-elections till 
1834, when he was elected Governor of the Common- 

Joseph Allex was clerk of courts for thirty-three 
years, till 1810 ; was chosen Representative to the 
Eleventh Congress and was of the Governor's Coun- 
cil from 1815 to 1818. He was a man of scholarly 
attainments, of great probity and force of character. 

Daxiel Waldo, Stephen Salisbury, Samuel 
M. Burxside and BENJAMIN Heywood were men 
of large aflairs. The latter was an original member 
of the Society of the Cincinnati, and his grandson, 
John G. Heywood, is to-day the only member of the 
society fron * ,T orcester. 

ii- ( ilivla Fiske was a noted physician and ac- 
tively interested in public questions. 

Dr. Abraham Lincoln and Edward D. Bam.s 
were, together with Levi Lincoln, delegates from 
Worcester to the convention in 1820 to revise the 
Constitution of the Commonwealth. 

Rev. Dr. Jonathan Going, pastor of the First 
Baptist Church, was earnestly interested in all edu- 
cational questions and movements. 

Rev. Dr. Samuel Austin, minister of the First 
Parish from 1790 for twenty-five years, was a man of 
great intlnence. 

Rev. Dr. Aaron Bancroft was minister of the 
Second Parish from 1789 for more than half a century. 
He was earnestly and actively interested in all meas- 
ures for the advancement of learning and for the 
promotion of education. A man of great power and 
beauty of character, beloved and revered. 

Within the limits of this article it is not feasible 
to mention others and it is not possible to do the 
remotest justice to those already referred to. In fact, 
it has not been the purpose of the writer to give any 
adequate account of those mentioned or to attempt a 
biography of each: that is done elsewhere by other 
writers ; but the sole aim has been to indicate, by the 
briefest mention, some of those who gave to Wor- 
cester, during this period, their service and their 
thought. Combined, their power can be better im- 
agined and more clearly conceived than separated 
under the heads of lawyers, doctors, clergymen, busi- 
ness men. benefactors, etc. 

It may be doubted if in any town in Massachusetts 
of from two thousand to four thousand inhabitants, 
during a similar period of its history, a greater com- 
bination of intellectual force, business sagacity, emi- 
nent public service and devoted loyalty can be found. 

With such men.and such purpose the growth of a 
town may be expected to be symmetrical, its founda- 
tions ample and secure. 

Broadening Activity. — The town soon began to 
have a more active care for the general well-being of 
its inhabitants, and for its own good name ; to foster 
an increasing degree of pride in its citizens, and to 
contribute more largely to the comforts of life and 
the ease with which business might be transacted. 

In 1786 a petition was presented to the town to 
purchase a fire-engine, which resulted in the town 
voting, January 4, 1793, to "grant a sum of money 
to procure a good fire-engine for the use of the town," 
and shortly after, that an engine-house be built. This 
action was accompanied by the organization, on Jan- 
uary 21, 1793, of the Worcester Fire Society, both, 
doubtless, largely in consequence of the destruction, 
on January 4, 1793, of the weaver-shop of Cornelius 
& Peter Stowell. This society was lormed in con- 
sequence of " a sense of social duty, for the more 
effectual assistance of each other and of their towns- 
men in times of danger from fire." Its membership 
was limited to thirty. Its character may be inferred 
from the names of its original twenty-two members: 
Joseph Allen, John Nazro, Leonard Worcester, 



Nathaniel Faine, Samuel Chandler, Ezra Waldo 
Weld, Dr. John Green, Samuel Brazier, Thomas 
Payso'n, Edward Bangs, Dr. Elijah Dix, William 
Sever, Theophilus Wheeler, Dr. Oliver Fiske, John 
Paine, Samuel Allen, Stephen Salisbury, Charles 
Chandler, John Stanton, Dr. Abraham Lincoln, 
Daniel Waldo, Jr., and Isaiah Thomas. It is in ex- 
istence at the present time and its history is honor- 
able and unique. 

Swine were soon doomed to wander in less conspic- 
uous places than the Main Street of the increasingly 
tidy town, and in 1792 it was voted that they should 
not be permitted to go at large on Main Street. The 
neater and more aristocratic horse and mule still had 
their privileges unimpaired till 1800, when it was 
voted that they should not be permitted to go at large, 
and al the same time all neat cattle, except cows, 
were relegated to a more private manner of life, while 
they were given the freedom of the town between 
Apiil 1st and November 1st. The principal streets 
,,| the town in L788 were .Main, what is now Front, 

part of Summer, Lincoln, Salisbury, Pit asant, I rrei a 
and Grafton Streets. New Btreets followed Blowly. 
Mechanic Street was laid out in 1787, and in 180G 

[saiah Th as constructed and gave to the town the 

! nown by bis nam.'. After the swine and 
were cared for and banished from the Btreets, the next 
most dangerous class, apparently, were provided for, 

and the children and youth were BOlemnlj warned 

by vote, in L811, not to engage in thi 
rolling hoops, playing ball, etc, in the streets. 

The last liberties accorded to the brute creation, it 
is believed, were in 1815, when the town voted to al- 
low uew milch cows to go at large in theday-time, 
but not at night, " the owners thereoi having then 
names branded on the horns of the cows or a strap 

around the neck with the name marked thereon, thai 

the owner may be found in case of damage." The 

lines were somewhat tightly drawn, for it was further 
provided that " no person shall turn bis cow into the 

highway without first having the written consent of 
the selectmen, and no person shall have the benefit 

of turning more than one cow to feed in the highway 
the present season." 

Worcester apparently believe. 1 in protection to 
lnune products, and the rights of the former were 
not to be sacrificed. As late as 1814 the town voted 
to "pay the sum of one shilling bounty On CTOWS 
heads, killed within the town, provided the heads are 
covered with ft nf hers. 

Having thus prepared the way for it- new dignity, 

the town voted in L814 to name the street-. A gen- 
eral movement was everywhere manifest. 

President Dwight in 1812 gave the following de- 
scription of the town: "The houses are generally 
well built, frequently handsome, and very rarely 
small, old or unrepaired. Few towns in New Eng- 
land exhibit so uniform an appearance of neatness 
and taste or contain so great a proportion of good 

buildings and so small a proportion of those which 
are indifferent as Worcester.'' 

The introduction of water for domestic and public 
purposes was authorized by the following act of the 
Legislature, and for the purposes of interesting com- 
parison with later acts it is given almost entire: 

An Act authorizing Daniel Goulding to Conduct Water in subterra- 
neous Pipes ir & Certain Spring in his own Land, within the Town of 

Worcester, for the accommodation of himself and some other Inhabit- 
ants of the said Town. 
!]■ it enacted, d-c. 

Sect. 1. That Daniel Goulding of Worcester in the County of Wor- 
cester and hi- heirs and assigns, he and thej are hereby authorized and 
empowered to sink, place, renew, alter and repair from time to time, as 
may become necessary, such pipes "■' Conduits of water from the said 
Spring to Buch of the inhabitants of the -aid town as the same may 
Convene, fci the purpose of supplying them with water; aud the said 
Goulding and his heirs or assigns are hereby authorized to place the -aid 
pipes in the land -i -"< h Proprietors as may, bj some proper instrument 
in writing grant him or them the privilege thi 'nd under 

such public highways, roads or laud ;.- may become necessary for tho 
purpose.- aforesaid and with the least Inconvenience to the public. 

the -■ Ii i n, mi, ,.i the said town for the time 
bring may, a r the purposes of extin- 

'■ 81 the calamitous 

effects thereof and undei inn h regulations a- they may Hunk reasonable, 

from time lo time mi ' <■■'" "' ""' ■'"'' 

applying water when n ary for 

ins -i inti rfei In 
or water works. 

i ' ' be i onsidered a- an excuss fur 


passing or I 
highways or public land, but the same shall •■ nuisance 

or tresp.- nnei ■•- ii 'I"- v : " made. 

The town in its corporate capacity and individuals 
forming a joint Btock company, aided bv the town, 
Combined to maintain BUitable schools. Ill 1784 
Dr. Elijah Dix, Hon. Joseph Allen, Hon. Levi Lin- 
coln, Sr., Nathan Patch, l'r. John Green, John 
Na/.ro. Palmer Goulding and other- procured a lease 
of land on the w,-t -ide of Main Street and erected a 
building known a- the Centre School-house, and 
opined two schools one lor instruction in the elemen- 
tary studies and the other lor the higher branches ot 
academic instruction. The latter had as instructors 
many who became distinguished as educators, theolo- 
gians, lawyers, etc. 

Tin- town appropriated in 1700 the sum of one 
thousand dollars for the maintenance of schools and 
twenty-five hundred dollars for school-houses, which, 
by the way, was the first time that the annual appro- 
priation was made in dollars— having been ill pounds 
prior to that time, except in a special appropriation of 
October 8, 1798. In 1800 ten school-houses were 
built in various [.arts of the town. In 1823 a revision 
of the educational system was made under the 
thoughtful judgment of Rev. Dr. Bancroft, Rev. Jona- 
than Going, Hon. Samuel M. Bumside, Levi Lincoln, 
Otis Corbett and Samuel Jennison. 

In 1806 two thousand dollars were appropriated for 
the construction of a poor-house. 



In 1816 a new fire-engine, at an expense of five 
hundred and fifty dollars, was procured. 

A Town Hall was provided for the growing needs 
of the town, which was dedicated May 2, 1825, with 
an address by Hon. John Davis. In other ways than 
by corporate action the town gradually became pre- 
pared to enter upon its future career. 

In 1804, March 7th, an act was passed by the Leg- 
islature incorporating Daniel Waldo, Isaiah Thomas, 
Daniel Waldo, Jr., Benjamin Heywood, William 
Paine, Stephen Salisbury, Nathan Patch, William 
Henshaw, Francis Blake, Nathaniel Paine, Elijah 
Burbank and others as the president, directors and 
company of the Worcester Bank, with an authorized 
capital of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, 
which at once began business and was the only bank 
incorporated in the State at the time west of Boston, 
except one at Northampton, incorporated a few days 

Mure, perhaps, than any other agency which con- 
tributed to the highest culture of the town and fos- 
tered a spirit of scholarly research and attainment 
was the American Antiquarian Society, which owed 
its existence and largely its maintenance to Isaiah 
Thomas. In consequence of the petition of Isaiah 
Thomas, Nathaniel Paine, William Paine, Levi Lin- 
coln, Aaron Bancroft and Edward Bangs to the Legis- 
lature, representing that they, "influenced by a desire 
to contribute to the advancement of the arts and 
sciences and to aid by their individual and united ef- 
forts in collecting and preserving such materials as 
may be useful in marking their progress not only in 
the United States, but in other parts of the globe ; 
and wishing also to assist the researches of the future 
historians of our country, in their opinion the estab- 
lishment of an antiquarian society within this Com- 
monwealth would conduce essentially to the attainment 
of these objects," the society was incorporated Octo- 
ber 24, 1812. Its library and treasures have always 
been open to the public, and its influence from the 
first upon the people of the town must have been 

The laudable spirit of the citizens and the foresight 
with which the bases of business were laid is seen 
also in the application for the incorporation of the 
Worcester Mutual Fire Insurance Company. It was 
incorporated February 11, 1823. Manufactures were 
slowly increasing and seeking firm foothold. The 
town only needed closer relations of traffic and inter- 
course with larger centres of population and business 
to begin a rapid ascent in wealth and influenee. The 
opening opportunity came with the construction of 
the Blackstone Canal. 

Political Sentiment and Seevice. — The con- 
stant and earnest interest which the town manifested 
in national political movements, the bitter animosities 
caused by party struggles, are not peculiar to Wor- 
cester, and an entrance upon them is perhaps un- 
necessary and undesirable. A brief mention of one 

or two important events, typical in their nature, must 

Firat : the decision of the court that declared slavery 
abolished in Massachusetts, was made at Worcester in 
the case of Nathaniel Jennison vs. John and Seth Cald- 
well, in which the elder Levi Lincoln was counsel 
with Caleb Strong for the defendants, and presented 
the argument that was sustained by the court. The 
suit was brought for enticing away the plaintiffs 
slave " Quock " Walker, was tried in the Court of 
Common Pleas and judgment rendered for the plain- 
tiff for twenty-five pounds; appealed to the Supreme 
Court and tried at the September term, 1781, and 
judgment for defendants on the ground that since the 
adoption of the Constitution in 1780 slavery did not 
exist in Massachusetts. The judges who presided at 
this trial were Justices Sarjeant, Sewall and Sullivan. 
An indictment was found at Worcester against the 
above-named Jennison for assault on Walker, which 
was tried at the April term, 1783, of the Supreme 
Court before all the justices, including Chief Justice 
Cushing, and the view adopted by the court in the 
first-named case was confirmed by the whole court 
and forever set at rest the question of the existence 
of slavery in Massachusetts. The census of 1790 
contains no return of slaves in this State. 

Second: The protest against the War of 1812.— A 
convention, consisting of delegates from forty-one 
towns, was held at Worcester on the 12th and 13th of 
August, 1812, to protest against the continuance of the 

Worcester was represented by Hon. Benjamin Hey- 
wood, Hon. Francis Blake and Mr. Elijah Burbank. 
Hon. Benjamin Heywood was chosen chairman. A 
committee was appointed to " consider and report 
what measures the Convention ought to adopt, in the 
present perilous situation of our Country, to mitigate 
the calamities of the present War with Great Britain, 
to avert the further evils with which we are threat- 
ened, to accomplish a speedy and honourable Peace 
and to arrest the course of that disastrous policy, 
which, if persisted in, cannot fail to terminate in 
the destruction of the rights and liberties of the peo- 

The committee consisted of Andrew Peters, Esq., 
Hon. Francis Blake, Rev. John Crane, Hon. Solomon 
Strong, Aaron Tufts, Esq., Benjamin Adams, Esq., 
General James Humphrey, Rev. Jonathan Osgood, 
Nathaniel Chandler, Esq., John W. Stiles, Esq., and 
Colonel Seth Banister. 

This committee made a report on the 13th, which, 
after dealing at great length with the causes which 
led to the war, the measures undertaken to continue 
it, the state of commerce resulting from it, continued 
as follows: 

We earnestly embrace the present occasion to express for ourselves 
anil in behalf of our constituents a strong and ardent attachment to the 
Union of the States, and indignantly to disclaim every imputed design 
to aid in any project which may tend to procure a separation. 



To shorten the duration of the present most impolitick and destruc- 
tive War, we earnestly exhort the friends of Peace to withhold from the 
Government all voluntary aid and to render no other assistance than is 
required of them hy the laws and the Constitution. 

They proceed to say, that if double duties or direct 
taxes are laid, "we do not, like some men, now in 
high authority, advise our Constituents to refuse the 
payment of them and to rise in opposition to the 
authority by which they are imposed. But if our 
rulers, afraid to hazard their popularity by the im- 
position of taxes, request of the citizens to enable 
them to prosecute this unrighteous War by loaning 
money to replenish the treasury, we entreat them, as 
they value the Peace and welfare of their Country, 
to remember that we have as yet no French emperour 
among us to force a loan at the point of the bayonet 
and to refuse the smallest contribution for this un- 
warrantable purpose." 

Third: The opposition to the extension of Slat 

Missouri applied for admission to the Uni and in 

December, 1818, the Missouri question formally ap- 
peared in Congress. In the House of Representa- 
tives a motion was made to amend the act by provid- 
ing thai "the further introduction of slaverj be 
prohibited insaid State of Missouri and thai all chil- 
dren born in the stair after its admission to the 
Union shall be free at the age of twenty-five years." 
The House adopted the amendment, but the Senate 
rejected it, and the House refusing to recede, the bill 
was not passed at thai Bession. 
A strong sentiment against the extension of slavery 

was aroused in the free Stales, and Worcester and 

Worcester County were determined to be heard. A 

convention of the opi into of slaverj extension was 

held in Worcester December 9, L819. 

The following account of the A.nti-Slaverj Exten 
sion Convention appeared in the Ma ■ ettt Spy of 
December L6, L819: 

VOU B 01 f 

On Thursday, Hi" 9th of Decern!* | to previous notice, 

i I the i ounty f Woi 

s ,i,.,i ,n tin C i House i> tuts ' ■ n, Ibi tbi pui | 

their opinion upon the propriety of preventing Ihi farther 

be admitted Inl 
erol I 

The in. Hon. 

, ha an and I ' ■• l: ' ' 

addressed the meeting, and expressed hi* deep ten t the importance 

,,i the - to the i barai I >i ar I luntry, and Itscou- 

nexlon with the cause ol n I 

Mr. Burnside moved that a ( nlttee >"■ appoint S 

tione expi ' ''"' ™bject of the 

toll ration ol lavery i onti - ■■-. estol ■■< 

Hon, i lliver Fiske, tsaac : ! 

Bezaieel Taft, Jr., Esq . ind Samoi I M. Burnside, I sq . «• re appointed 
on the committee. Thin idjourned till the noxt even- 

ing to receive the report of the committee. 

on ITridas evening the 

ini-iit. The Hon. Olivet Fisko, chairman ot the mittee, p 

report, cowiiating of the following Preamble and I 
(after a very Impressive and eloquenl address from the Hon. l: II. Mills, 
ofNorthampt amemberof the] some pertinent ob- 

servations from John W. Hubbard, Esq., of tin- town) were, on motion 
of Hon. s.tli ii ilj ' I pted 

"Whxkeas, lii the opinion of this meeting, by the unequivi 

and language of the Federal Constitution (exemplified by the adoption 
of the Ordinance of 1787, and by subsequent acts and provisions), Con- 
gress possess the power of prescribing the terms on which new States to 
be created from a territory, not n party to the original compact, may be 
admitted into the Union ; and 

" Whebeas, The voluntary admission of slavery, as a condition, would 
he a departure from the wise and liberal system of our Natl ii Govern- 
ment, and abhorrent to that spirit of freedom bo illustrious in our in-ti- 
tutiona ; and 

"Win in i*. The .-xteusiiin uf slavery would be dangerous, in com- 
mon, to those States who, in their compact, acted under an impliedse- 
curity, that the moral and political ©vil of slavery, though nol abolished, 
would never be extended ; ;iud who, by the act of admission of new 
States, are solii itouB to transfuse the spii ii nod la. — nu.- "f independent e 
which they possess and an bound to guarantee the rights they enjoy 
— the in -i of which being a republican form of government : and 

"Whereas, M Bpeciallj il would be inconsistent, if nol u 

extend a privilege to nen States, I d f a terr \ ,u [uiredby 

purchase, which haal n withheld fi i those created within the origl 

Dal limits of the United States by an expresa article in the ordinance ol 
1787, which ordinance has since been sanctioned by Congress and hae 
become a permanent law. Therefore 

/;. ./../, That those membersof the laat Congress who with zeaJ 

ranee opposed Uie extenefonof tlaverg are entitled in the 

gratitude of the friends of morality, of religion and the republican 

i the i nihil States, and thai we deeplj regrel that an; mem- 

... 1 1 v from those States whose Constitution and laws [ 

slavery, and whose constituents deprecate Its practice, ahould have fell 

it their dutv to give it i oulitcnim.e and support. 

Ili ii iin- \|.iiiii- st .-in in stlv request their Representa- 
tives "i Congress to use their unremitted exertione to prevent the sanc- 
tion of that honorable body to ' ! t within the 

extending limits ol the i oited State* re particularly in giving a 

. ii, ,. if the admission of Missouri .i / tent which in 

future may be the means ol depopulating the vast »ii. is i,r Africa and 
i rty pre-eminent only as a Mori foi 

. 'ii,.,! the fbregoin i 1 ,. lie and Resolves, subscribed 

tary, be transmitted to the Hon 
Idams :iii.i i. . i in- of this i, 

Miscki.i.ani.iHs. — Wimhini/ton's Second Visit t<> 
1 ,.--ln the autumn of 1789 President Wash- 

made a lour through New England, and 
passed through Worcester on hi* way to Boston, 
coming iron. Springfield through Palmer, Warren, 
Brookfiel'l, Spencer and Leicester. Of his visit here 
th< following account is taken from Wall's " Ilemi- 
- .it Worcester:" "Information being re- 
ceived in Worcester during Thursday evening that 
Washington would lie here the next morning (Octo- 
ber L'-'i. 1789), a company Of respectable citizens, 
about folly in number, paraded before sunrise, on 
ack, ami w. nl mil as far as Leicester line to 
welcome him into the lown. The Worcester Com- 
pany of Artillery, commanded by Major William 
Treadwell, wire already assembled, on notice being 
given that Washington was approaching, and before 
he reached here rive cannon were fired lor tin New 
England States, 'three cannon for the three States 
in the Union, — one for Vermont, which will be 
speedily admitted, and one as a call to Rhode Island 
before it i^ too late' When the 'President General ' 
had arrived in sight of the meeting-house (the Old 
South Church), eleven more cannon were tired. 
Washington viewed with great interest and atten- 
tion the Artillery Company as he passed and ex- 
pressed to the inhabitants his sense of the honor 
done him. He stopped at the ' United States Arms ' 



(now Exchange Hotel), where he took breakfast, and 
then proceeded on his journey. To gratify the in- 
habitants, he politely passed through the town on 
horse-back. He was dressed in a brown suit, and 
pleasure glowed in every countenance as he came 
along. Eleven more cannon were fired as he de- 
parted. The party of forty citizens before-mentioned 
escorted him a few miles from the village, where 
they took their leave. The route travelled was up 
Lincoln Street, across the upper end of Long Pond, 
by the old road, through Shrewsbury," etc. 

Funeral Honors to Washington. — In common with 
so many towns, not only in the State, but through- 
out the country, Worcester paid its deep homage to 
the memory of Washington, and put in the hands of 
every family, in enduring form, the record of its ap- 

The Massachusetts Spy of February 26, 1800, gives 
the following account of the funeral honors paid to 
Washington by the citizens of Worcester: "On 
Saturday the inhabitants of this town joined in the 
national honors paid to the memory of our illustrious 
Washington. At eleven o'clock the procession 
formed at the Court-house agreeably to the order pub- 
lished in our last paper. The male youth from eight 
to eighteen amounted to two hundred and fifty — an 
impressive sight. The whole number was not less 
than seven hundred. With solemn music they 
moved to the South Meeting-house, the pulpit of 
which was covered with black broadcloth. After a 
grave and pathetic piece of music the Rev. Mr. Aus- 
tin addressed the Throne of Deity in a devout and 
appropriate prayer; this was succeeded by music, 
when the Rev. Mr. Bancroft pronounced an eulogy 
on the character of the deceased Hero and patriot of 
America, which we think, at least, one of the best 
we have seen or heard on the subject. The solemni- 
ties closed with music. The serious attention, the 
solemn appearance of the audience through every 
part of the exercise, witnessed that every heart felt 
the loss his country had sustained and gave an amen 
to the truth of the virtues which the eulogist por- 

" The town returned their thanks to the orator, re- 
quested the oration for the press and voted that every 
family should be furnished with a copy at the town's 

Lafayette's Visit. — On September 4, 1824, Lafayette 
visited Worcester, breakfasted with the Hon. Judge 
Lincoln, from whom he received an address of wel- 
come, and to which he replied in earnest words. A 
full account of the interesting occasion may be found 
in " Reminiscences of Worcester." 


From the opening of the Blackstone Canal to the 
incorporation of Worcester as a city. 

The Blackstone Canal. — The first attempt at 
procuring water communication between Worcester 

and Providence originated with citizens of the latter 
place, notably John Brown, about 1796; surveys were 
made and acts of incorporation for a canal company 
sought from Rhode Island and Massachusetts. The 
former State soon passed the act required. 

A petition from citizens of this county to the Leg- 
islature of Massachusetts, praying that incorporation 
might be granted for the opening of " inland naviga- 
tion from the navigable waters near Providence to 
the interior parts of Worcester County, and, if feasi- 
ble, to Connecticut river," was presented at the May 
session, 1796. A project was at the same time 
started, " which had the effect, if not the intent, of 
defeating the former," of constructing a canal from 
Boston to the Connecticut River. Incorporation was 
refused for the canal to Providence. 

The project was revived, however, in 1822, and 
meetings were held early in that year here and in 
Providence with a view to speedy action. Commit- 
tees were appointed, funds for survey were obtained. 
Benjamin Wright, chief engineer upon the middle 
section of the Erie Canal, was secured to make a sur- 
vey and an estimate of cost of construction. These 
were completed in September of that year, and report 
thereof made. 

January 14, 1823, our Legislature passed an act in- 
corporating " John Davis, Wm. E. Green, John W. 
Lincoln, Lemuel Davis, Edward D. Bangs, John 
Warren, John M. Earle, Dan'l Waldo, Isaiah Thom- 
as, Rejoice Newton, Reuben Sikes, Oliver Fiske, 
Theophilus Wheeler, John Green, Asa Hamilton, 
Benj. F. Heywood," their associates, &c, under the 
name of the Blackstone Canal Company, with au- 
thority to " locate, construct and fully complete a 
navigable canal commencing in or near the village 
of Worcester." . . . "to the boundary line be- 
tween Massachusetts and Rhode Island." A similar 
act was passed by Rhode Island, authorizing the con- 
struction from tide-water to the boundary between 
the two States. These corporations were subse- 
quently united, the Massachusetts act authorizing it 
being passed February 20, 1827. 

In 1824 the work of excavation was begun in 
Rhode Island, and in 1826 in Massachusetts near 
Thomas Street, in this town. 

The first boat arrived in Worcester October 6, 
1828. Freight-boats came as far as Uxbridge October 
18th, and soon thereafter to Worcester. The cost was 
about seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 

The sanguine expectations which were here enter- 
tained of the effect of the construction of the canal 
upon Worcester are illustrated by the following ex- 
tract from the address of the Hon. John Davis at the 
dedication of our Town Hall in 1825: 

The town, unaided by any particular advantage except that of being 
the Centre of a thrifty and enterprising population, has risen in wealth 
and numbers to a degree almost unequalled in the interior of New Eng- 
land. It is now in its youth, and its growth is vigorous and healthy. 
What will he its future destinies remains to be disclosed by time. Should 
it become the head of inland navigation, hence to the waters of the 



Narraganaett, it is safe, without the gift of prophecy, to predict that 
this valley will be covered with population, and the exhilarating hurry 
and hustle of trade will pervade places that are now under the peaceful 
dominion of the farmer , the spires of new temples, dedicated to the wor- 
ship of God, will rise up to greet the eye of the beholder ; the mechanic 
arts, under new combinations of capital and skill, will take deeper and 
stronger tool ; the fine arts will find an abode among us ; and our hills, 

ondi i a better cultivation, will i i a gayer and more beautiful attire. 

This auspicious event, we havi greal reason to believe, is near al hand. 

The ilea ol the most incredulous seem now to be removed, and II 

we puisne ii steadily there is little doubl "I its being accomplished. 

It is doubtful if the results so confidently looked for 
won lil have come in their fulness as the sole effect of 
the canal, but unquestionably great results did follow. 
The whole Blackstone Valley was stimulated, new 
villages sprung up, new industries were started, the 
water-power was utilized, a new nutlet for Won esti r 
products was created, closer business relations were 
maintained between Worcester and Providence and 
the seaboard, on the one hand, and between Worces- 
ter and the surrounding country On the other. But, 
more important still, Worcester was made more em- 
phatically a distributing centre for imports over the 


A comparison between the number of tons trans- 
ported each year by means of the canal to and from 
Worcester is exceedingly instructive To Worcester, 
in 1881, 4300 tons; L832, 4400 tons ; L838, 1663 tons; 
1834, 5836 ions ; is:;;,. 1694 tone. 

From Worcester in 1831, 808 ions ; L832, 890 tons ; 
is:::;. 848 tons L834, 826 tons : 1835, 7:;!' tons. I hi 
amount of tolls collected increased from $1000, in 
1828, to $16,464.45 in L834, which was the 
reached in any year. It gradually declined from the 
latter year until the last toll was colli i 
Between 1825 and L885, when the Boston and Wor- 
cester Railroad was opened, the population of Wor- 
cestei bad increased from 36 iO, in the formi r year, to 
6624 in the latter — a much greater increase in those 
ten years than in the previous sixty years. 

In valuation the town bad increased from $2,437,- 
550. in L825, i i 1835. 

Openib Railroad Communication.— Pre- 
vious to the opening of the canal the trade of Worces- 
ter had been largely with Boston. The effect of easier 
freight communication with Providence had 
then tended to divert its trade from Boston. But it 

was not only Worcester's trade that was diverted, but, 
practically, Worcester County's trade. Unquestiona- 
bly this fact had its influence in hastening the con- 
struction of the Huston and Worcester Railroad. 
That railroad was incorporated dune 23, 1831, and 

was the first of any length in the State. It was com- 
pleted and opened for public travel July 4. I : 

grand celebration took place here on July 6th. A train 

Of twelve ears arriving here at oneo'clock brought the 

directors and a large number of stockholders. The 
arrangements for the celebration were under the di- 
rection of a committee of which Hon. Charles Allen 
was chairman. The visitors were escorted to the 
Town Hall, where ex-Governor Levi Lincoln presided, 

and speeches were made by Governor John Davis, 
Governor Everett, Chief Justice Artemas Ward, Hon. 
A. H.Everett, Hon. Julius Rockwell and others. The 
terminus of the road was on Foster Street, near Main. 
Passenger cars ran three times daily each way, occu- 
pying about three hours for the trip. The fare was 
$1.50 at first, but was raised the next year to $2.00. 

The Western Railroad was completed from Worcester 
to Springfield in 1839, and trains began running on 
October 1st of that year. The road was completed to 
Albany in 1841. 

The Norwich and Worcester Railroad was opened for 
the running of through trains April 1, 1840. 

The Providence and Worcester Railroad was finished 
and trains began running October 25, 1*47, and on 
November 4th of that year the event was celebrated 
here. Ex-Gov. Davis welcomed the visitors; after 
which a banquet was served in Brinley Hall, at which 
Governor Lincoln presided, with Governor Davis, 
.lodges Charles Allen, Emory Washburn anil Thomas 
Kinnicutt and Hon. Stephen Salisbury as vice- presi- 
dents. Speeches were made by John Barstow, presi- 
de nt of the road; United States Senator Simmons, of 
Rhode Island; Mayor- Burgess, of Providence; Presi- 
dent Wayland and Professor ( iammell, of Brown Uni- 
versity; President Nathan Bale, of the Boston and 
Worcester Railroad; Bon. George I diss, of Springfield, 
for the Western Railroad; Judges Allen, Washburn 

and Kinnicutt, Governor Davis, Bon. Stephen Salis- 
bury, and others. 

Worcester thus rapidly became a great railroad 
centre and appropriately the " heart of the Common- 

Population and wealth increased with extn n 

pidity. Population in I s |o, 74'.i7 ; 1845, 11,556; 1848, 

15, • about. Valuation in L840, $4,288,950; 1845, 

$6,004,050; 1848, $8,721,100. 
General Progress. — It was probably in this period 

that Won, -t. r began to be known as the " Heart ot the 

Commonwealth." That designation was undoubtedly 
first applied to Worcester County. Thefirst mention of 
it in print which I have been able to find, as applied to 
the county, is in the Spy of October 12, 1831, in which 

the COUnt] is referred to as bring "as justly entitled 
to the appellation ol the - Head of the Common- 
wealth ' in agricultural improvement, as it is to that 

of the 'Heart of the Commonwealth' from its local 

Warwickshire, the central county id' England, was 
thus denominated by the poet Drayton in 1613: 
"That shire which we the ' Heart ol England' call." 
And perhaps some scholarly son of Worcester County 
appropriated it from Drayton to his own beloved 

county. Rut (dearly the town s i began to 

the title, and with such SUC( ess thai the county was 
forced, either in love or from necessity, to resign all 
claim to it. 

I have been unable to find any earlier documentary 
title for the town to it than in a quaint book, entitled 


I 143 

" Pictorial Views of Massachusetts for the Yourjg," 
published at Worcester in 1847 by Warren Lazell, 
where the town is referred to as follows: "Being in 
the centre of the interior county of the State, and 
containing a fertile soil and a population noted for 
industry, intelligence and wealth, this town has long 
been denominated the ' Heart of the Common- 
wealth.'" The adoption of that emblem by the city 
in its seal, confirmed its title to it by adverse user 
against all claimants. 

The first " Village Directory " was published in 
1829 by Clarendon Harris, whom we, of this genera- 
tion, remember with great respect and affection. It 
purported to contain "the names of the inhabitants, 
their dwelling-houses and places of business arranged 
according to streets and squares." It contains two 
hundred and ninety-seven entries or numbers, di- 
vided as follows among the only streets given: Lin- 
coln Square and Main Street, 100; Summer Street, 
20; School Street, 20; Thomas Street, 12; Central 
Street, 4 ; Mechanic Street, 25; Pleasant Street, 7; 
Front Street, 25 ; South Street, 15; Green Street, 27 ; 
Washington Square, 8; Grafton Street, 16; Middle 
Street, 7 ; Prospect Street, 5. 

The next directory was published in 1843, and the 
issue has continued successively each year since. 

The town began to move with quick step along the 
various paths that led to the city of Worcester. 
With the rapid increase in wealth and population 
came the necessity for ampler expenditure on the 
part of the municipality. Methods adequate for the 
little country village were not sufficient for the now 
important town. The modest requirements of the 
former generation were insufficient to properly satisfy 
the growing needs of the great central town. Muni- 
cipal comforts and even elegancies must be provided. 
First of all, the darkness of the streets at night must 
be relieved. A lamp association was formed, and in 
1833 the town voted an appropriation for the purpose 
of lighting the lamps of the association. In 1834 
the town voted that the selectmen be requested to 
petition the Legislature for authority to establish a 
Fire Department, and on February 25, 1835, neces- 
sary authority having been obtained, the Worcester 
Fire Department was established. 

In 1832 a commodious brick school-house was built 
on Thomas Street, and in 1837 there were twelve 
districts and an appropriation of seven thousand dol- 
lars for schools, which included two thousand five 
hundred dollars for the Centre District. 

The Worcester Manual Labor High School was 
incorporated in 1834 and dedicated June 4th of the 
same year. Its organization was largely due to the 
efforts and munificence of the Hon. Isaac Davis. 

Mount St. James Seminary (now Holy Cross Col- 
lege) was also established. The State Lunatic Hos- 
pital was located here and portions of its building 
constructed respectively in 1831, 1835 and 1836. 

The only means, prior to 1845, for supplying water 

were through the Daniel Goulding Aqueduct, but in 
that year the Legislature, by Chapter 90, provided 

The Inhabitants of the Centre School District in the town of Worces- 
ter, us the limits of said district are now defined, are hereby made a 
corporation by the name ofthe Worcester Aqueduct Company, for the 
purpose of constructing and maintaining an aqueduct to conduct water 
from Bladderpond, in said town, to said district, for the extinguish- 
ment of fires and for otiier uses ; and also that the corporation might 
vote to raise money, the amount to be assessed upon the polls and 
estates of the inhabitants of said district and collected by the town. 

A board of managers, consisting of Stephen Salis- 
bury, Isaac Davis, Wm. A. Wheeler, Henry W. 
Miller and Samuel Davis, was appointed. Pipes were 
laid through Prospect, Thomas, Main, Park, Salem, 
part of Mechanic, Pleasant and Elm Streets, in all 
about two miles, with fifty-six hydrants. The town 
paid to the corporation five hundred dollars yearly. 
In 1847 the pipes were extended about two miles. 

The town, in anticipation, perhaps, of its future 
patronage of music, sought its inspiring and educating 
influence, and in 1846 voted to give the Worcester 
Brass Band permission to erect a stand upon the Com- 
mon and play once a week after July 1st. 

One unique fact should be referred to. In 1837 
the surplus revenue of the United States was divided 
among the States and towns, and Worcester received 
its proportion. 

The town voted May 1, 1837, to receive from the 
treasurer of the Commonwealth its proportion of the 
surplus in deposit, with the agreement to pay it back 
when demanded. The receipt of the same is thus re- 
corded : " Tuesday, May 2, 1837. The town received 
from the treasurer of the Commonwealth $6084.39, 
being the two first instalments of this town's propor- 
tion ofthe surplus revenue ofthe United States." 

On July 20th of the same year the town received 
the additional sum of S4526.52, being the third in- 

Worcester was no longer dependent upon one bank. 
Before incorporation as a city it had, in addition, the 
Worcester County Institution for Savings (established 
1828); the Central Bank (1829); the Quinsigamond 
(1833) ; the Citizens' (1836); the Mechanics' (1848). In- 
surance companies were multiplied: the Manufacturers' 
Mutual Fire (1834) ; State Mutual Life (1S44); Mer- 
chants' and Farmers' (1846); and People's Mutual 
Fire (1847). 

Manufactures became established, inventive genius 
was stimulated, water-power was increased, steam- 
power was introduced, industries were multiplied, all 
without the aid of foreign capital. In the " Direc- 
tory " of 1848 the unique fact is stated in these 
words : " All the business is done by private capital ; 
there is not a single corporation concerned in the 
management of labor of this town." 

Worcester was no longer compelled to resort to 
Boston newspapers for the daily news. The Worces- 
ter Daily Transcript was issued June 9, 1845, by Julius 
L. Clarke, editor and proprietor. 



The Spy followed quickly, and issued its first daily 
July 1, 1845. John Milton Earle was its editor and 

Worcester Influence. — Worcester furnished, 
during ten years of this period, from its citizens two 
Governors fortheCommouwealth — Levi Lincoln (from 
1828 to 1833 inclusive), and John Davis (in 1834 and 
1835, and again in 1841 and 1842). Indeed, it is an 
exceptional fact not only that the Governor of the 
State from 1825 to 1835 inclusive should have come 
from this town, but more significant that one should 
have immediately succeeded the other. The claims of 
" locality " must have had less influence then than in 
some years. 

The interchangeof offices, by the will of the people, 
between these two notable men was equally striking. 
Levi Lincoln was elected to Congress to till the 
vacancy caused by the election of John Davis as the 
successor of the former as Governor. Lincoln re- 
mained a member of Congress until In- resigned in 
L841, when he- was appointed collector of the port of 
Boston bj President Harrison, [n 1844 and L845 he 
was in the State Senate (the latter year as president), 
and in 1848 was elected Worcester's firs! mayor. 

Governor Davis also remained in public life, serv- 
ing as United States Senator from L838 to 1841 again 

as Governor lor two yeais (1841 and 1*42); and again 

from 1845 io L853 as United States Senator. 

1'i.inv Merrick was district attorney for the Mid- 
dle District from 1832 until 1843, having previously 
been county attorney from L824. from 1848 to 1848 
he was judge of the Court of Common Pleas, in which 

latter year he resigned, anil accepted the position of 

president of the Worcester and Nashua Railroad. 

Worcester had during a portion of thin period 
another distinguished citizen upon the bench oi the 

Court of C mon Pleas. Emoei Washbi i:\ W8J 

appointed judge in 1844, and remained till December, 
1847, when lie resigned. He had, prior thereto (in 
is a ami 1842 , been a member of the Massachusetts 


Charles Allen was also one of the judges of the 
Court of Common Pleas from 1842 to 1844, when he 
resigned. In 1847 he was nominated judge of the 
Supreme Judicial Court of the Commonwealth, but 
declined the honor. 

Worcester furnished judges of Probate for the 
County during this entire period, in the person- of 
Nathaniel Paine till L836; Ira M. Barton, from 1836 
to L844, and Benjamin 1'. Thomas, from L844to 1848. 

In 1834 GEOB.0E BANCROFT, a native of Worcester, 
son of Rev. Dr. Aaron Bancroft, published the first 
volume of his masterly "History of the United 
States.'' Though at that time he had ceased to be a 
resident of Worcester, -till Worcester would not sur- 
render a qualified proprietorship in him, and viewed 
with paternal satisfaction the tame of her son. 

These are not names only : they were intellectual 
and political] forces. However true it may be that 

the real forces in the progress of a free people lie 
deeper than the surface, that the abiding principles 
of justice, sobriety, independence and morality must 
permeate the whole body and constitute an elevating 
and propelling power, yet, at least, it must find its 
expression. Its " Amen " follows the declaration of 
its faith, and does not precede it. There must be 
the " unity of spirit," and thus the words of the 
faithful leader are the embodiment of the thought 
and aspirations of the mass. 

In this interesting period of the nation's history 
the people of Worcester were not idle spectators ; her 
strong men were not apathetic listeners ; they were 
fearless and determined actors. 

The continued attempt of the slave States to en- 
large the slave-holding territory of the Union was 
met at the North by a sentiment of vigorous opposi- 
tion, moving, however, upon somewhat different 
lines. The American Anti-Slavery Society was or- 
ganized at Philadelphia in 1833. It had for its ob- 
ject tin' entire abolition of slavery. Local societies 
irmed in the free States. The Worcester 
County South Division Anti-Slavery Society held its 
first meeting at Worcester, February 15, 1838. 
Among its first officers from Worcester were Lewis 
Cliapin, vice-president : Edward Earle, secretary ; 
Ichahod Washburn, one of its councilors; Samuel 
ll.Colton, treasurer; and Geo. M. Rice, one of the 
committee to establish other ant i--lavcrv societies. 

Meeting- began to lie held by it with considerable 
frequency, at which addresses were made and resolu- 
tions adopted, which had a powerful effect in shap- 
ing puldic opinion; hut, nevertheless, they and 
those sympathizing with them to the full extent of 
their views were in the minority. 

The great majority of the people regarded slavery 
a- a blight and a nir-e, but directed their efforts 
mainly to prevent the acquisition of any more slave 
territory or the admission of more slave States. 

The proposed annexation of Texas, with its vast 
area. \\a- BtOUtly opposed by well-nigh the whole 
population of Worcester anil Worcester County. 

A convention was held at Worcester May 6, 1844, 
.,1 those opposed to the annexation. It was called 
to older by Hon. John W. Lincoln, of Worcester. 
Hon. Isaac Davis was one of the vice-presidents. 
Worcester was largely and strongly represented 
among the speakers. Charles Allen, Gov. Lincoln, 
Emory Washburn, Samuel M. Burnside, John Milton 
Earle and other- expressed Worcester's attitude in 
no uncertain way. 

Indeed, a considerable time prior to this, on De- 
cember 5, 1837, a convention of the ministers of the 
Gospel of the county was held in Worcester to take 
action with reference to slavery. It was adjourned 
to January 10, 1838, when resolutions in earnest con- 
demnation of slavery were adopted. Their spirit may 
be judged by the following expression of purpose : 
"In order to arrest attention, awaken interest, arouse 



the public conscience at the North and the South, 
and thus, as far as in us lies, bring into action a train 
of holy influences which, with the blessing of 
Almighty God, shall result in the total removal of 
this evil from our land." 

No more secure stronghold of liberty existed in 
Massachusetts, or at the North, indeed, than Wor- 
cester and Worcester County. It was not surprising, 
then, that from Worcester should come the voice that 
summoned to the Free-Soil party the earnest friends 
of freedom, no matter what their former party affilia- 
tions had been. Charles Allen was the natural pro- 
duct of Worcester's free soil and free ideas. 

An exceedingly interesting case was tried at Wor- 
cester at the January term, 1840, of the Court of 
Common Pleas, relating in some remote measure to 
the slavery agitation. Dickenson Shearer and Elias 
M. Turner, both of Palmer, were indicted here for 
kidnapping a colored boy by the name of Sidney O. 
Francis, with intent to transport him out of the Com- 
monwealth, and to sell him as a slave. Pliny Mer- 
rick, for the Government, is said to have managed 
the case with great ability. Ira M. Barton, of 
Worcester ; Mr. Chapman, of Springfield, and 
Hon. Isaac C. Bates (soon thereafter United 
States Senator), of Northampton, appeared for 
the defendants. Worcester was an exceedingly 
poor place to attempt such an act as these defendants 
committed. A Worcester County jury convicted 
both. Shearer was sentenced to the State Prison for 
seven years and Turner (a boy) was sentenced for 
eighteen months. 

The last Board of Selectmen consisted of F. W. 
Paine, Horatio N. Tower, Ebenezer H. Bowen, Jonas 
Bartlettand Albert Tolman. The days of the township 
were nearly passed. Its varied and multiplied muni- 
cipal interests could better be regulated through the 
instrumentality of city government. 

November 8, 1847, on motion of J. Milton Earle, it 
was voted that a committee of ten be appointed to 
draw up and present to the Legislature a petition for 
a city charter. The committee was composed of the 
following : Levi Lincoln, Stephen Salisbury, Ira M. 
Barton, Isaac Davis, Benjamin F. Thomas, Edward 
Earle, James Estabrook, Alfred D. Foster, Thomas 
Kinnicutt and Ebenezer L. Barnard. This committee 
was successful in securing the desired act, which was 
approved by Governor Briggs February 29, 1848. The 
act was accepted by vote of the inhabitants on March 
18, 1848, and the first city government was inaugu- 
rated April 17, 1848. 


The same sagacity and political wisdom which 
Worcester as a town had so often and so invariably 
shown continued to direct and dominate her as a 
city in the selection of her municipal officers. The 
same sacrifice which her citizens had so often shown 
in relinquishing personal preferences and abating 

private interests continued to animate them. The 
organization of the various departments of a new 
city, the proper adaptation of suitable methods to new 
conditions, the introduction of orderly and accurate 
systems all require earnest thought, active vigilance 
and laborious devotion. 

With rare wisdom the choice was first made. Levi 
Lincoln, with the education and tastes of a scholar. 
with the experience and statesmanship resulting from 
long service in Congress and as Governor of the Com- 
monwealth, with the judgment and prudence derived 
from connection with large business interests, was 
selected as Worcester's first mayor. 

In her first Board of Aldermen were Benjamin F. 
Thomas, judge of Probate ; Isaac Davis, with his 
legal and financial ability ; Stephen Salisbury, eminent 
in learning and skilled in finance; John W. Lincoln, 
for many years chairman of the Board of Selectmen, 
a man of sound judgment and held in great respect; 
Parley Goddard, James S. Woodworth, James Esta- 
brook and William B. Fox, all men of tried capacity, 
and held in high esteem. With mature judgment the 
various departments were organized, and with con- 
servative and watchful care the finances were regulated. 
To the mayor and aldermen of that first year Wor- 
cester is greatly indebted. They labored with intelli- 
gent and untiring zeal. Eighty-four meetings of that 
board were held during the year, and the greater 
portion of the measures and ordinances adopted had 
their initiative with them. Isaac Davis was chairman 
of the Committee on Finance, and with such watch- 
fulness did he and his associates upon that committee 
regulate the financial affairs of the new city, that the 
expenditures were but $05,389, the tax but $5.34 on 
$1000 and the debt reduced. 

With no boastfulness it can be said that few cities, 
if any, in the Commonwealth, have during any period 
of their existence been favored with mayors of greater 
ability than was Worcester in its early years. When 
among them may be named Levi Lincoln, Henry 
Chapin, Peter C. Bacon, Isaac Davis, Alexander H. 
Bullock, W. W. Rice, P. Emory Aldrich and D. 
Waldo Lincoln, we doubt if any citizen of the Com- 
monwealth will question it. Most certainly no edu- 
cated citizen of the State need ask as to any one of 
them, Who was he ? What did he ever do? 

Distinguished and honored service in the guberna- 
torial chair, upon the bench, in Congress, at the bar 
and in the management of one of the great railroads 
of the country have made their names known at 
least through the Commonwealth. 

The city was equally fortunate during the same 
time in its choice of legal advisers. Among its so- 
licitors were lawyers of great eminence, — Henry 
Chapin, Peter C. Bacon, Charles Devens, Jr., Dwight 
Foster and George F. Hoar. Its other important of- 
ficers were, in the main, as wisely chosen. 

Shortly after the new government was organized 
the Worcester and Nashua Railroad was completed. 



Its first train ran December 18, 1848. The Fitchburg 
and Worcester Railroad was opened in February, 
1850. Thus in the mid year of the century Wor- 
cester was the radiating centre of six railroads. 

Its population in 1850 was 17,049. Its valuation 
in the same year was $11,082,501. The ratio of in- 
crease in population during the decade from 1840 
was 128 per cent., and in valuation during the same 
period 158 per cent. 

No wonder that Mayor Chapin, in his inaugural 
address in 1850, should say, "What is to be the ex- 
tent of our population no one can foresee. We have 
come to our growth so many times that the prophets 
have lost their reputation, and we stand where na- 
ture and art both combine to make us a great inland 
city. Year by year the hum of industry grows 
louder and the footsteps of an increasing population 
are more distinctly heard." 

No wonder that the philosophic mind of the great 
lawyer, Hon. Peter C. Bacon, should seek to trace its 
cause. In his inaugural address as mayor in 1851, 
among other causes to which he attributes the sur- 
prising growth, he says, " not inconsiderably are we 
indebted for this increase to the superior excellence 

of our admirably organized and efficiently c lucted 

school system and to our educational advantages, 
which have attracted vast numbers to a residence 
amongst us. . . . But the proximate and most 
efficient cause in the production of these grand re- 
sults is to be sought in the introduction of railroads, 
which has made Worcester the centre and focu- of DO 
less than six converging railroads, thus affording to 
us facilities of communication not, perhaps, pos- 
sessed or enjoyed by any other inland city in the 
world of no greater extent or population." 

Although, perhaps, a diversion, 1 cannot permit 
this opportunity to pass without calling more special 
attention to this admirable address of Mayor Bacon. 
It evinces profound thought, it covers a wide range 
of topics, many of them rarely discussed at -ueh a 
time ; it announces with fearlessness the result of hi- 
deep moral convictions and bis intended action as a 
consequence thereof, and I have no hesitation in 
pronouncing it the most able address ever made by 
a mayor of Worcester to its City Council. 

The decade from 1850 to I860 was marked in Wor- 
cester by a steady and symmetrical growth. The 
population increased to 24,073, and the valuation 
to $16,406,900. Municipal taxes had increased from 
the modest $05,000 of 1848 to $119,067 in 1860. The 
rate of taxation was still low, it being only $8 on 
$1000 in the latter year. 

The year 1808 marks the close of this period. In 
1865 the population was :;i),u58 ; valuation, sl8,!i::7,- 

800; rate of taxation, $17 on $1, ; municipal taxes. 

$222,047.51. In 1868: population, 36,087 ; valuation, 
$26,220,260 ; municipal expenditures, $297,069. 

The city in 1848, when the Town Hall had become 
the City Hall, evidently did not propose to have the 

same liberties taken with the exterior of the structure, 
now that it was thus ennobled, as had formerly been 
the case. The City Council, accordingly, in 1848 by 
vote directed the city messenger to place upon the 
exterior walls of the building the following notice : 
"Stick no bills on this Building." 

No political flag could flaunt itself over any of the 
streets without due permission. October 13, 1851, 
the Council voted to permit a flag to be suspended 
over Main Street from the Whig headquarters at the 
corner of Main and Central Streets, and within a few 
days, upon petition of the Democratic Committee, 
a similar favor was granted it. 

The hall in the City Hall was the principal one in 
the city till Mechanics' Hall was completed, in 1857, 
which is one of the most beautiful and spacious halls 
in the State. 

In 1855 an attempt was made to procure a lot of 
land on which to erect a new City Hall. The lot on 
the corner of Main and Pleasant Street was sought, 
but upon report of the committee that the price 

asked was $52, , the subject was dropped and the 

Town Hall of 1825 remains the City Hall of 1889. 

Telegraph wires were fust strung in the city in 

The works of the (las-Light Company on Lincoln 
Street were completed in 1849, and gas furnished in 

November of that year. 

Buildings were numbered in accordance with the 
vote of the City < louncil in L848. 

In 1862 the floating bridge over Lake Quinsiga- 
mond was supplanted by the construction of a solid 
causeway at an expense of $25,997. 

The first recommendation for the establishment of 
a Public Library was made by Mayor Bacon in L851. 
It was established through the munificence of Doctor 
John l rreen in L859. 

In 1 soi'., in compliance with the recommendation of 
Mayor Isaac Davis, a superintendent of public school- 
was first elected. In the same year the " New Com- 
mon '' or "Elm Park" was improved and a new 
street built from Elm to Highland Streets, adjacent 
to the park. Prior to this time the only park in the 
city was the "Old Common" or "Central Park," 
which had been such from time immemorial. 

In 1863, Ex-Mayor Isaac Davis ottered to the city a 
deed of fourteen acres on the shores of Lake <Juin- 
sigamond for a park, but the City Council rejected it. 
It was reserved for bis son, ex-Mayor Edward L. 
Davis, to renew the oiler many years after, which was 
gratefully accepted. 

The first horse railroad was opened for the car- 
riage of passengers from Lincoln Square to New- 
Worcester, August 31, 1863. 

The mayors during this period were as follows: 
1848, Levi Lincoln : 1849-50, Henry Chapin ; 1851- 
52 ; Peter C. Bacon ; 1853-54, J. S. C. Knowlton ; 
1855, George W. Richardson; L856, Isaac Davis; 
1857, George W. Richardson ; 1858, Isaac Davis ; 



1859, Alexander H. Bullock ; 1860, \V. W. Rice ; 
1861, Isaac Davis ; 1862, P. Emory Aldrich ; 1863- 
64, D. Waldo Lincoln ; 1865, Phinehas Ball ; 1866- 
68, James B. Blake. 

During this time the city had lost none of its in- 
fluence possessed in former years, but furnished men 
of eminence for important positions in the State and 
nation. Emory Washburn was Governor of the Com- 
monwealth in 1854, John Davis was United States 
Senator from 1845 to 1853, Alexander H. Bullock was 
Speaker of the House of Representatives from 1862 to 
1865, inclusive, and Governor from 1866 to 1869, 
Dwight Foster was Attorney-General of the State 
from 1861 to 1864, inclusive, and judge of the Supreme 
Court from 1866 to 1869, Chas. Allen was a member of 
Congress from 1849 to 1853, Eli Thayer from 1857 to 
1861, JohuD. Baldwin from 1863 to 1869. Pliny Mer- 
rick was justice of the Court of Common Pleas from 
1850 to 1854, Charles Allen Chief Justice of the Su- 
perior Court from 1859 to 1867, Benjamin F. Thomas 
judge of the Supreme Judicial Court from 1853 to 
1859, Pliny Merrick judge of the same court from 
1853 to 1864, Charles Devens, Jr., was justice 
of the Superior Court from 1867. During this entire 
time, as in the previous period, citizens of Worcester 
filled the position of judge of Probate for the county. 
Thomas Kinnicutt from 1848 to 1857, Dwight 
Foster to Julyl, 1858, Henry Chapin from July 1, 
1858, for many years beyond the close of this period, 
Worcester furnished district attorneys for the Middle 
District during the greater portion of this time: 
Benjamin F. Newton from 1851 to 1853, P. Emory 
Aldrich from 1853 to 1855, John H. Matthews to 
1856, E. B. Stoddard to 1857, P. Emory Aldrich from 
1857 to 1866, Hartley Williams to 1808. 

Worcester sent as its Representatives to the Con- 
stitutional Convention of 1853: Charles Allen, Isaac 
Davis, John S. C. Knowlton, J. Milton Earle and 
Henry Chapin. 

The great material advance which the city ex- 
perienced, stimulated by its easy connection with the 
seaboard, the interior and the West, as well as by the 
demands of the war, is so fully covered by Mr. Wash- 
burn in his carefully prepared article, that the mere 
reference to it here is alone permissible. 

Introduction of Water. — The capacity of Blad- 
der Pond, now Bell Pond, which the Worcester Aque- 
duct Company used as its source of supply, was soon 
inadequate for the demands of the city. The property 
of the Aqueduct Company had come under the con- 
trol of the city by purchase in 1848. The aqueduct 
pipes were extended each year, but individual takers 
were often deprived of a supply, because of its insuf- 
ficiency for the double purpose of extinguishing fires 
and for domestic purposes. Expedients were resorted 
to in order to increase the body of water available in 
the pond, principally by pumping from a spring in 
Gates' lumber-yard. 

Ethan Allen presented a petition to the City Coun- 

cil, April 24, 1848, for leave to lav pipes under a 
portion of Lincoln and Main Streets, "to bring 
into his grounds from the north part of Worcester 
the water from some springs in the grounds of Capt. 
Lewis Barnard, and to such other places as may be 
necessary to conduct the water from said petitioner's 
premises.'' Permission was granted on said petition 
May 6, 1848, for him to lay pipes as far smith as the 
house of Charles Thurber, Esquire. July 2:'., 1849, he 
was granted leave to extend his aqueduct pipe 
"through and over Front Street, as far as Salem 
Street, for the purpose of supplying families with 

Hon. Phinehas Ball, in a report made to the City 
Council, February 9, 1S63, states that this aqueduct 
was then supplying "some thirty-seven different par- 
ties, almost wholly on Main Street'' This same 
aqueduct is still in use at this day, supplying a few 
families during a portion of the year. The house of 
the writer, on Lincoln Street, is among those thus 

The Paine Spring aqueduct was also in use, furnish- 
ing in 1863 "at least a hundred and twenty-five fami- 
lies and shops, on School, Union, Main, Thomas and 
Summer Streets." 

The third private aqueduct was the Rice Aque- 
duct, "supplying parties in the neighborhood of Graf- 
ton and Franklin Streets, to the number of sixty-one 
families, and two steam-engines which are estimated 
equal to twenty-four families." 

From 1852 to 1864 the subject of an additional 
water supply was from time to time referred to by 
successive mayors, and spasmodic action was occasion- 
ally taken by the City Council. The first expert ex- 
amination of available sources was made in 1854 by 
Mr. M. B. Inches, a competent engineer, of Boston. 
Again in 1856 a further examination was made by 
Mr. Inches and a report made recommending Hen- 
shaw Pond and Kettle Brook as the most available 
source for further supply. At the municipal election 
in that year the question was submitted to the inhab- 
itants for a yea and nay vote upon the recommendation 
aforesaid. After the exclusion of the vote in Ward 
1, on account of informality, the vote stood, Yeas, 
939 ; Nays, 940. If the vote of Ward 1 had been in- 
cluded the yeas would have had a majority of 87. 
The debt of the city was at that time not quite 
§104,900, and the inhabitants were by no means unan- 
imous in their desire to increase it four or five-told by 
an expenditure for one particular purpose. Thus 
the matter rested till 1800, when, upon further surveys, 
it was recommended to obtain legislative authority 
to take Lynde Brook, which was obtained by act of 
the Legislature in 1801, but quiet brooded over the 
waters till 1864. In 1863 Hon. Phinehas Ball made 
an elaborate report. The citizens felt the urgent 
need of definite action, and on January 18, 1804, the 
question was submitted to the voters whether water 
should be introduced into the city from Lynde Brook 



in the town of Leicester in substanstial accordance 
with the report of Mr. Ball. It was decided in the 
affirmative by a vote of 864 yeas to 282 nays. 

Work was soon commenced upon reservoir and con- 
duit pipes, and on November 14, 1804, water was let on 
for the first time. The city now had a reservoir on 
Lynde Brook of the capacity of 228,000,000 gallons, 
the height of the dam being at first twenty-seven feet 
from the bed of the brook. The debt of the city by 
reason of the extraordinary expenses of the War and 
introduction of water, was in 18(35 nearly 8425,000. 
Mayor Blake suggested and encouraged the necessary 
measures and expenditures required by the growth of 
the city and demands of the future. With the intro- 
duction of water came the necessity for the adoption 
of a system of sewerage. Mayor Blake recommended 
it in 1866, regarding it " the foremost and most im- 
portant of any matter which can come before us." 
Legislation was obtained, and in 1867 work began on 
a portion of the great central sewer in Mill Brook and 
•some lateral sewers, which was prosecuted in subse- 
quent years. 

Political Activity and Influence. — No period 
in the history of our nation since the Revolution 
has approached in the magnitude of the issues to be 
determined the years from 184s to 1865. Political 
questions were dignified into the loftiest moral issues. 
The grandest fearlessness of political action was the 
result of the deepest convictions of the human soul. 
" Deep answered unto deep," and heart to heart. 
Men held freedom dearer than life and partisans 
became patriots. The stain of political dishonor was 
cleansed with blood and a nation's life was dearer 
than one's own. 

Worcester had no humble part in this grand awak- 
ening, this beneficent fusion of the political with the 
moral forces. She led ; she did not with cautious and 
hesitating step follow. The first majestic movement 
was in the Whig National Convention at Philadel- 
phia, in June, 1848, when Worcester, by the lips of 
Hon. Charles Allen, made the momentous declara- 
tion: "You have put "lie ounce too much on 1 1 x - ■ 
strong back of Northern endurance, you have even 
presumed that the State which led on the lir.M revo- 
lution for liberty will now desert that cause for the 
miserable boon of the Vice-Presidency. Sir, Massa- 
chusetts will spurn the bribe. We declare the Whig 
party of the Union this day dissolved." 

These words met with an emphatic response in 
Worcester, and when, on June 21st, alter the return of 
Mr. Allen from the convention, a meeting was held 
to receive him, presided over by our honored Albert 
Tolman, its members, its enthusiasm and its earnest- 
ness left no doubt as to Worcester's endorsement of 
his action. One of the resolutions adopted at that 
meeting defined with a clearness of expression and an 
intensity of spirit rarely equalled the lofty attitude of 
Worcester's loyalty: "Resolved, That Massachusetts 
wears no chains and spurns all bribes; that Massa- 

chusetts goes now and will ever go for free soil and 
free men, for free lips and a free press, for a free land 
and a free world." 

Worcester was fitly chosen as the place for holding 
the People's Convention of Massachusetts on June 
28, 1848, of which Samuel Hoar, of Concord, a name 
ever honored, was president, and at which Charles 
Allen, Charles Sumner, Henry Wilson, Joshua R. 
Giddings and others made addresses, and who were 
received by the five thousand freemen there gathered 
with unbounded enthusiasm. 

The Worcester Spy, then under the management of 
John Milton Earle, was an unmistakable factor of 
great power in the grand advance that stopped only 
with Appomattox. On July 5, 1848, in referring to the 
convention, it said: " They have spoken a voice not to 
be mistaken and taken a stand never to be receded 
from till the last battle is fought and the victory won 
for Liberty and Right." In another article, by a dif- 
ferent writer, Worcester's connection with the origin 
of the Free Soil party is fully considered. It is my 
purpose simply to refer to it. But I content myself 
with quoting the words of Senator Hoar in his pro- 
found and eloquent address at the celebration of the 
two hundredth anniversary of the naming of Worces- 
ter with reference to this subject- He says : " But as 
Burely as Faneuil Hall was the cradle of American 
Independence so surely was Worcester the cradle of 
the later revolution." 

The liberty-loving and determined people of Wor- 
cester and Worcester County elected Charles Allen to 
the National Bouse of Representatives, that there 
his words and their words might be heard in the im- 
perative demand that slavery should not invade an- 
other foot of the nation's soil, 

The attempt to enforce the Fugitive Slave Law, the 
repeal of the Missouri < lompromise and the aggression 

of the slave pou er caused intense excitement at the 
North. Worcester's position in relation to the fugi- 
tive slave Law was pronounced and emphatic. We 
do not need to resort to the memory of men, to the 
daily talk of Worcester's earnest men, to the files of 
unofficial publications, though these all confirm the 
fact of the city's deep feeling. I suppose that very 
few, of the present generation at least, know that in 
one of the official publications of the city is a declara- 
tion of purpose by the mayor .,1' the city, that ai once 
lifts the author of it to a place of unending honor, 
and puts his city and our city where no hand can rob 
it of its glory. 

Again, it is a pleasure to refer to the inaugural ad- 
dress of Mayor I'.aeon in 1851. 

In referring to the Fugitive Slave Law, he says: 
" If it be asked whether it is intended that the 
police of the city shall, in its official capacity, aid 
in its enforcement, I answer, A'»." He then con- 
siders the effect of a decision of the United States 
Supreme Court in the ease of Prigg8 vs. Pennsylva- 
nia, 16 Peters 608, in it~ operation upon a law ot 



Massachusetts, Acts of 1843, ch. 69, which provided 
that no sheriff, constable or other officer of this 
' Commonwealth should arrest or detain, or aid in the 
arrest or detention, of any person for the reason that 
he was claimed as a fugitive slave, and closes as fol- 
lows: "And it is necessary for me only to add that 
should any officer of the city, embraced within the 
provisions of that Act of 1843, be found violating its 
provisions, I should deem it my duty to recommend his 


Only three years after these noble words were 
spoken, Worcester had an opportunity of showing 
by action that the words of its mayor expressed their 
own deep and abiding convictions. The arrest, in 
Boston, of Anthony Burns, as a fugitive slave, for 
the purpose of restoring him to his owner (?), which 
took place in May, 1854, roused Worcester to an 
exceptional degree. A contemporary account of the 
great meetings here, consequent upon it, will best 
illustrate the spirit of the occasion. The following 
account is taken from the Spy of May 31, 1854 : 


Rail!/ at the City Hall! 

Without the issuing of a single handbill or any previous notice, more 
than a thousanti citizens of Worcester were assembled in the City Hall 
on Saturday evening at the ringing of the hell. 

Speeches were made by W. W. Rice, Dr. 0. Martin, Thomas Drew, T. 
W. HigginBon and S. S. Foster, all of which were received with the most 
enthusiastic applause. The most intense excitement prevails in regard 
to the disgraceful proceedings of the U. S. Government in backing up 
the Kidnappers of men upon the soil of Massachusetts. But one feeling 
pervades this entire community, — Whigs, Democrats and all seem to be 
animated by one common sentiment of earnest opposition to the infamous 
invasion of our soil by the desperadoes of the Southern States under the 
protection of the Army of the United States. 

It was voted unanimously to lay aside business on Monday and pro- 
ceed to Boston en waxae, there to meet the friends of Freedom and hu- 
manity from other sections of the State and to take counsel together 
upon the emergencies of the times. 

Not less than nine hundred people from this section went to Boston 
by the special and other trains on Saturday and a much larger number 
will be there to-day. The people of the country townB are aroused to a 
pitch of excitement hitherto never seen in Massachusetts since the days 
of thy Revolution. What the result may be Heaven only knows, but 
one thing is certain : the administration and the South have raised a 
storm which can only be quelled when the manacles fall from the limbs 
of the last slave. 

On Sunday evening the City Hall Mas crammed to its utmost capacity, 
with an earnest and true-hearted audience brought together by the 
demonstrations now being made by the slave power of irs authority in 
and over Massachusetts. Dr. Martin was called to the Chair and made 
some stirring remarks on the occasion Otherable and eloquent addresses 
were made by D. F. Parker, Rev. Mr. Marrs, S. S. Foster, Thomas Drew 
and others, all breathing the most determined feeling to light the battle 
of Freedom and to use all proper means to prevent the return of any 
fugitive from bondage. 

In the course of Mr. Parker's remarks he renounced his former party 
allegiance and expressed his determination hereafter to g<> for freedom 
to all mankind, everywhere— . . . The meeting then adjourned to Court 
Square in Boston, at 11 o'clock yesterday. 

Among those who went to Boston were: Ad in 
Thayer, W. W. Rice, T. W. Higginson and Martin 

Two citizens of Worcester were arrested for acts 
alleged to have been done by them in opposing the 
United States officers at Boston. They were T. W. 

Higginson and Martin Stowell. Neither was con- 

The rendition of Burns produced a profound im- 
pression in this city. The bells of all the churches 
uric tolled during the day ; the stores were closed and 
draped in black; the Hag of the United States, re- 
versed, furled, draped with black and raised half-mast 
high, was hoisted on the liberty pole on the Common. 

On Sunday morning the effigies of four men, promi- 
nently connected with the Burns case, were found 
suspended on the Common. Large labels were at- 

X". 1. 

No. li. 


No. ::. 

No. 4. 

Satan's journeyman. 

Scarcely had Burns been remanded to slavery, when 
the slave-hunters sought Worcester for the supposed 
purpose of securing the person of William H. Jan- 
kins, an escaped slave. On Sunday October 29, 1854, 
information was received that Asa O. Butman, a 
deputy United States marshal, who had arrested 
Burns, was here. At once I be Spy issued the follow- 
ing notice: — 


Til EM I I 

A public meeting was held in the evening, and 
the vigilance committee previously appointed watched 
the hotel and the movements of Butman. They were 
assisted by a large number of volunteers, who sur- 
rounded the hotel. The crowd increased and became 
somewhat demonstrative in language. A pistol was 
seen in the hands of Butman, a complaint was at 
once made against him for carrying dangerous weap- 
ons, he was arrested and came before the court the 
next morning and gave bail for his appearance at a 
later day. The Commonwealth was represented by 
W. W. Rice and Adin Thayer. 

Upon his release, the excitement was such, the at- 
tendance so large, and the outlook so ominous, that 
he sought the protection of the officers of the law, 
which was granted, and he was taken to the marshal's 
office. But with that respect for law which Worcester 
has signally displayed, and with the most earnest 
purpose to prevent violence, those whose love for 
freedom could never be questioned, attempted to 
repress the ardor of the crowd. George F. Hoar ad- 
dressed the throng and earnestly besought that no 
violence should be inflicted on Butman, and cour- 
ageously announced that he had offered to accompany 



Batman to the depot. Rev. T. W. Higginson, Martin 
Stowell, S. S. Foster and others volunteered to form a 
body-guard for Butman's safety. A more instructive 
scene has rarely been witnessed in Worcester than 
the protection afforded by these ardent friends of 
liberty to the person, of this cringing coward, whose 
supposed business they bitterly loathed. These, with 
a few police, escorted Batman to the depot. Theie 
were obstacles to a rapid journey, and upon arrival at 
the station, it was found that the train upon which 
they proposed to send Butman to Boston, had left- 
Mr. foster stated to the crowd that I hitman had pro- 
mised never again to visit Worcester, if he could 
safely depart; that this was a victory for freedom, 
and he hoped that no violence would mar the triumph' 
At last Batman was started for Boston in a hack, ac- 
companied by Mr. Higginson. It is believed that he 
kept his promise! 

There was no occasion to "recommend for immediate 
removal" any of the Worcester police; their only as- 
sistance rendered I'.uimaii was to get him safely out of 
the city without his prize. It may be very doubtful if 
Mr. Butman's visit here was for the purpose ol 
procuring Mr. Jenkins, for the reason that more 
than three years prior to his visit. Mr. Jenkins, 
through the instrumentality of Emory Washburn, had 
been manumitted by his owner [1 , \\ . E. Taylor, ol 
Norfolk, and for the further reason that the instru- 
ment of manumission had been recorded in Norfolk 
in 1851, and in the city clerk's office at Worcester 
on June 9, 185 1. 

As it is believed that it is the only document of 
that character recorded heir since 1777, at which 
time oneof similar import is of record, 1 have thought 
it deserving of insertion here, li is as follows. 

Know all ijr thew pn I . thai t, W lllli ■■ ' 

cnv ,,r Norfolk and Stale ol Virginia, have manumitted 

patod and lei free, andby tl presents d mount, eman 

■el free ■ mulatto man slave named Henry Jenkins, and sometimes 

called William Henrj Jenkins, who was purchased bj in the year 

[8S1 n! Hi. lata John N Walke, ol the said Cltj ol Norfolk, and I 
hereby declare him, tlic said Henry, to bi entlrel] llbei 
■laverj n"'i entitled to all the rights and privllegi 
with which it la in my power to invest him. The laid Boorj hereby 

emancipated l« a man of lighl complexion, »i t, five reel eight or 

ulno lnohea high, and about thirty-Ova yeai 

in testlmon] whereof I have hereunto sel my hand and affixed mj 
>eal at the CitJ »A this 20th da] ol H 

i- il 

W. i: I'mi-ii. |I.S.J 

in the Olark'i oil f the Oouri of the Corporation 

of Norfolk, "ii the 20th day ol U in h, 1851, tills d l of emancipa- 
tion ««k acknowledged by William i: Taylor, part] thai 
admitted to record. 

JHO. WU I I 1*8,01. 

1861, Man b 20 1 ■ B b] Win. E. Taylor and \ it. 

Teste JKO. Wti i u 

I and examined, J»o, Win u 

>\ paid.) 

The righteous indignation of Worcester over the 
dastardly assault upon Senator Sumner found imme- 
diate expression at a meeting held in May, 1856. 
The officers of the meeting were ; President, Hon. J. 
S. C. Knowlton ; Vice Presidents, Rejoice Newton, Ira 

M. Barton, W. A. Wheeler, George W. Richardson, 
Henry Chapin, Charles Thurber, Lee Sprague, P. 
Emory Aldrich, George M. Rice, William T. Merri- 
field, Edward Earle, Joseph Mason and Thomas Kin- 
nicutt ; Secretary, P. L. Moen. Speeches were made 
by P. Emory Aldrich. Charles Allen, Dwight Foster, 
D. F. Parker, J. B. D. Coggswell and Rev. Horace 
James. For participation in this service, if for no 
other reason, Worcester ought to hold these honored 
men in enduring remembrance. 

During all this period the activity of Worcester in 
the anti-slavery cause was conspicuous, not simply in 
the ranks of the Anti-Slavery Society, but in the 
great body of the more practical and constitutional 
Free Soilers and Whigs. The records of the Wor- 
cester County South Division Anti-Slavery Society, 
now in the possession of the Worcester Society of 
Antiquity, show that as early as 1847 the society 
began to adopt resolutions that it was the " duty of 
the non-slave-holding States to immediately secede 
from the Union." In 1851, while it rejoiced in the 
election of Charles Sumner, it resolved that he, 
Giddings, Hale, Mann, etc., occupy an utterly inde- 
fensible position, because they have taken an oath to 
defend the Constitution of the United Stales. Again, 
in 1854, after the formation of the Republican party, 
it resolved that the support of the new party is prac- 
tical treason to ihe anti-slavery cause. 

Its members were animated by a deep and abiding 
spirit ol abhorrence of the institution of slavery and 
could nee do possible issue out of participation in its 

crime, except by withdrawal from a government whose 

Constitution, they argued, sustained it. Events have 
shown that, by the very opposite course of insistence 

that no State should or could legally withdraw from 

the Union, the grand consummation which they so 
earnestly desired the utter annihilation of slavery — 
ii accomplished. Thegreat majority of Worces- 
ter's freedom-loving population, while detesting slav- 
ery, were not distin ionists. The Anti-Slavery Society 
resolvetl that no true abolitionist could consistently 
hold office, but Worcester agreed with Dr. Oramel 
Martin, who in one of the public meetings of the 
society, in 1854, argued thai it was wisest for the 
cause to vote for the best anti-slavery candidates thej 
could get. 

Hut, however much certain details of action were 
disapproved, without doubt the work of that society 
served a most beneficent purpose and was a grand 
educator of the people. Stephen s. Foster and Abhy 
Kelly Foster were the best known members of the 
Anti-Slavery Society, and their assiduous and fearle-s 

labor, day and night, in season and out of season, was 
acontribution of great power to the general cause. 

A greater privilege yet awaited Worcester. It be- 
came the birth-place of the Republican party. This 
is not intended in a partisan sense or with a partisan 
bias, but simply in a historical view. 

On July 20, 1854, the "People's Convention" was 



held in Worcester, participated in by many of Wor- 
cester's strong men as well as from all sections of the 
State. Upon that day the party took the name of 
" Republican." 

P. Emory Aldrich and P. W. Taft, of Worcester, were 
upon the Committee on Resolutions, which reported, 
among other resolutions, the following: 

"Resolved, That the unquestiouable existence of a settled purpose on 
the part of the slave power to convert the Bepublic which " 
founded on principles Of justice and liberty Into a slave-hoHn 
ism, whose vital and animating spirit shall be the preservation, propa- 
gation and perpetuation of slavery, calls for the immediate union ol all 
true men into a party which shall make the question of freedom pat- 
amount to all other political questions. 

Resolved, That in co-operation with the friends of freedom in other 
States we hereby form ourselves into tli<- m,i. an Pabtv of Massa- 
chusetts, pledged to the accomplishment of the following purposes" — 

among which were the repeal of the Fugitive Slave 
Law, the restoration of liberty to Kansas and Ne- 
braska, prohibition of slavery in all the Territories, 
refusal of admission of any more slave States into the 
Union, etc. 

The activity of Worcester in the formation of the 
Republican party and in the great struggle for free- 
dom in Kansas are considered so fully by another 
writer that I forego further mention of it. So, too, 
the energy and the sacrifice of Worcester in the Civil 
War receive treatment in another article. All, how- 
ever, combine to form the magnificent total of Wor- 
cester's achievement in behalf of Liberty and Union. 

Worcester's contribution to the great temperance 
movement was uot equalled by any town in the 

The consecration to a life of sobriety and moral 
effort made by John B. Gough, when, at the Worces- 
cester Town Hall on October 31, 1842, he took the 
pledge of total abstinence, had doubtless a more 
beneficent effect upon the whole land in the grand 
efforts for the reclamation of those addicted to the 
excessive use of liquor and in the elevation of the 
moral sentiment of the country, than any other agency. 
In the suppression of the sale of liquor, the sugges- 
tion made by Mayor Bacon, in his inaugural address 
of 1852, has proved more potent than any other legal 
means. He says : " We cannot rely upon living wit- 
nesses to give the testimony sufficient to put down 
this traffic. Why should we not then, as in other 
cases, appeal to the tools — the implements, ami, if 
necessary, to the very liquor itself and get their 
response? Why not produce and interrogate them ?'' 


The space allowed for this article has already been 
exceeded; the reference to this period must, there- 
fore, be exceedingly brief. The materials for its his- 
tory are so accessible that any one may readily 
examine for himself. 

The causes which contributed to the growth and 
prominence of Worcester have continued to exist and 
operate, so that now it is estimated that the city has 

a population of about 82, Olio. It has a valuation of 
$64,514,536 and 23,122 polls. Its Lynde Brook Res- 
ervoir has been increased so that its storage capacity 
is now 6X0,000,000 gallons. In 1883 the citj took the 
waters of Tatnuck Brook as an additional water sup- 
ply, and the distributing reservoir upon that stream 
has a storage capacity ol' :;;o,oiio,ooo gallons, so that, 
with Bell Pond, of 30,000,000 gallons, its present 
actual supply is 1,080,000,000 gallons. The daily 
consumption is somewhat over 1,000,0110 gallons. It 
has now 110 miles of main pipe and 70 miles of ser- 
vice pipe. Its water-works system has cost about 

Work upon the construction of sewers has been 
continued until now the city has sixty-eight miles of 
sewers, all constructed within the last twenty-one 
years. It has now a duty imposed upon it of purify- 
ing its sewage before pouring it into the Blackstone 
River. The total cost of its sewers has exceeded 

The act which authorized the city's sewer system 
provided that assessments might be made for a por- 
tion of the cost upon those whose estates were bene- 
fited thereby. 

Bach city government till 1872 hesitated and de- 
layed to take the action authorized. It was necessarily 
attended with great embarrassments anil difficul- 
ties, but Hon. George F. Verry, in his inaugural of 
1872, took strong and fearless ground as to the 
necessity of meeting the question and dealing with it 
without further delay. Accordingly, in 1872, an 
a-sessment, aggregating $450,000, was laid. Natur- 
ally it met with opposition, but its legality was estab- 
lished by the Supreme Court and it was collected. 

The mayors during this period have been as follows : 
1869-71, James B.Blake; 1871, Henry Chapin, ad 
interim, for a few weeks after Mayor Blake's death, 
Edward Earle the balance of the year ; 1872, George 

F. Verry; 1873, Clark Jillson ; 1X74, Edward L. 
Davis; 1875-76, Clark Jillson; 1877-79, Charles B. 
Pratt; 1880-81, Frank H. Kelley; 1882, Elijah B. 
Stoddard; 1883, Samuel E. Hildreth ; 1884-85, (has. 

G. Reed ; 1886-89, Samuel Winslow. 

In 1871 the city took decisive action towards re- 
moving the railroad tracks from the old Common and 
some of the adjacent and most frequented streets, 
which resulted in their removal and the construction 
of the Union Station. In 1885 steps were taken to 
secure the removal of the Old South meeting-house, 
and under legislative authority it was accomplished 
in 1887, at an expense of $115,000. The Common is 
now free from all structures not belonging to the city. 
The City Hall, the monument to Col. Timothy Bige- 
low, erected in 1861, and the beautiful soldiers' mon- 
ument, dedicated July 15, L874, alone remain upon it. 

The wisdom of providing ample parks by the city 
was stimulated by the gifts of Horace H. Bigelow and 
later of Edward L. Davis, of Eake Park, on the shores 
of Quinsigamond, and of Stephen Salisbury, of Insti- 



tute Park, on the shores of Salisbury Pond, so that in 
1888 the city government appropriated two hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars for the purchase of several 
tracts in various sections of the city for use as parks. 

Worcester's benefactors have been largely those 
whose gifts have been their loyal service to her, but 
she is not without those who added to such service 
more material means. The largest pecuniary gift 
which Worcester ever received was from George 
Jaques, who by deed and will gave to the city in 1872 
over two hundred thousand dollars for a city hospital. 
Mrs. Helen C. Knowles, wife of Lucius J. Kuowles, 
gave to the city in 1886, by her will, twenty-five thou- 
sand dollars for a maternity ward in connection with 
the hospital. George Bancroft, in 1882, presented to 
his native city the sum of live thousand dollars for 
the foundation of a scholarship in memory <>i Ins 
parents, the income to be devoted towards the liberal 
education of some young native of Worcester who, in 
the schools of the city, may prove his ability. 

Still another railroad leading to Worcester has been 
added — the Boston, Barre and < rardner — to which the 
city liberally contributed two hundred ami sixty-two 
thousand dollars in subscription to the capital stuck. 

The Worcester ami Shrewsbury Railroad to the Lake 
affords abundant facilities for access to that attractive 

The street railroad has extended its location, so that 
now it has seventeen miles of traek, and carried the 

past year 8,794,169 passengers. 

The city's streets have increased in number and 
length, so that now it has one hundred and forty-two 
miles of public streets, and fifty miles of private \\a\ *. 

Its schools have been fostered with a generous hand, 
i he appropriation the past year for that purpose being 

$266,554.00. Its great educational institutions have 
been supplemented by the Polytechnic Institute and 

( Hark University. 

Though the net debt of the city was, on November 
:«), 1888, $2,061, lS.', yet its credit stands a- high, 
and its bonds sell at as much premium, as those of 
any town or city in the country. 

Although Worcester ha-, at no time, been repre- 
sented upon the successful State ticket since 1869, 
vet ber influence has not sensibly diminished. Her 
leading men have rendered service in other capacities. 

George 1'. Hoar represented this district in the 
National House of Representatives from 1869 to 
1*77, and has been greatly distinguished as United 
States Senator from Massachusetts since 1*77. 

Charles Devens, Jr., remained upon the Supe- 
rior Court bench till 187o, when he was appointed 
one of the justices of the Supreme Judicial Court, 
and remained such till 1*77, when he became Attor- 
ney-General of the United States in the Cabinet of 
President Hayes. Upon his retirement from that 
position in 1881, he was again appointed one of the 
justices of our Supreme Court, which position he 
now occupies. 

Francis H. Dewey was one of the justices of the 
Superior Court from 1869 to 1881, when he resigned. 

P. Emoey Aldrich has been a member of the 
Superior Court bench since 1873, and 

Hamilton B. Staples since 1881. 

W. W. Rice succeeded Geo. F. Hoar iu the House 
of Representatives and remained till 1887. 

Joseph II. Walker has just been elected a mem- 
ber of the next House. 

A merited and distinguished honor was conferred 
upon Ex-Gov. Bullock, in the offer by President 
Hayes of the nomination of his name for minister to 
England, which was declined by Mr. Bullock. 

Henry Chaitx remained judge of Probate till 
his death, in 1878, when he was succeeded by another 
citizen of Worcester, Adin THAYER, who held the 
office till his death, in 1888. 

Thomas L. Nelson was appointed judge of the 
United States District Court for the Massachusetts 
District in 1879, and still occupies the position. 

Worcester has furnished district attorneys for the 
Middle l'istrict during the entire time, viz. : W. W. 
Rice, II. B. Staples. Francis T. I'.laekmer, W. S. B. 
Hopkins, ami the present incumbent. 

Worcester has had the service of distinguished 
members of the bar as city solicitors, including T. L. 
Nelson, !•'. T. Blackmer and Frank 1'. Goulding. 

Conclusion. — If, from the foregoing sketch, it can 
be seen that Worcester, during the past century of 
her existence, has been true to the highest demands 
of civic existence ; has been active and usually fore- 
most in the great vements of political thought; 

that her people have been inspired with a true con- 
ception of duty ; that her leaders have been fearless 
and actuated by noble impulses; that material pros- 
perity has been attained by promoting intellectual 
and moral growth, as well as by sagacious judgment 
and varied industries; that her true progress has not 
been retarded by alien indifference, but promoted by 
the filial affection of her children, its purpose will 
have been accomplished. 

The fountains of her political action have remained 
pure. Her affairs have been, in the main, committed 
to men of education and capacity, she has ordina- 
rily chosen as her servants those who, from culture, 
intelligence, honesty and maturity of judgment, were 
qualified to represent her worthily. The demagogue 
lias found here no place for the sole of his foot ; the 
unworthy sell-seeker lor office has been doomed to 

Adherenci to these principles and continuance of 
present intellectual and economic conditions assure 
ster's future. 

A more apt embodiment of one of the most im- 
portant phases of Worcester's history and life can 
hardly be found than in the following extract, from 
that admirable inaugural of Mayor Bacon, so often 
referred to : 

The fact thai absenteeism, ti"' bane ol cities, ;i* a i* "f States, is 


1 153 

here almost wholly unknown, a veVy minute and quite inconsiderable 

proportion only of the property of Worcester being owued by non-resi- 
dents, the capital here, particularly that devoted to and invested in 
manufactures, in trad.', in mechanic arts being almost entirely owned, 
supervised and managed not by the agent of some distant capitalist, but 
by the resident proprietor, whose personal supervision of In own al 
fairs and his own capital insures thrift anil profit in bis own business 
and whose personal residence amongst us is a sure guarantee of his 
sympathy and generous co-operation in every enterprise calculated to 
benefit the city of his residence ; the circumstance . . . that our capi- 
tal, manufacturing and mechanical, is quite minutely subdivided are] 
owned in moderate and comparatively inconsiderable amounts, by s 
great number of thrifty ate! independent proprietors, the fortunate pe- 
culiarity in our industrial organization, that the prosperity Of our city 
is not dependent, as is the case not unfrequeutly elsewhere upon the 
prosperity of anyone particularly dominant and controlling met hanii a! 
or manufacturing interest, which now flourishing, and now depressed, 
exhibits the place of its location, now a town or city, full of life anil 
activity, and now embarrassed in its business ami the abode of idleness 
and a place of stagnation ami distress; the stability of our prosperity, 
on the contrary, reposing upon the great number and variety of inter- 
ests and trades, manufacturing, thanical and commercial, carried on 

here, where, though one branch or interest, may be at any given time 
depressed, the greater number will be found prosperous and produc- 
tive ; these, and all these, have conduced to our prosperity, and now 
let me ask which of these causes has exhausted itself, or which is 
likely to cease its operation ? Not one ; in my opinion not one. 

As true to-day as in L851, and of all the causes 
which have contributed to Worcester's honor and her 
prosperity, not one has exhausted itself. 


WORCESTER— ( Continued. ) 


A history of any New England town without an 
ecclesiastical chapter would surely be like the play 
of Hamlet with the part of Hamlet left out. For a 
city of eighty thousand inhabitants, with fifty 
churches and fifteen denominations, and a history 
covering two centuries, such a chapter ought of right 
to occupy a large space. But this the plan of the 
present work altogether forbids. Only a very con- 
densed outline of what might well fill a volume can 
here be given. It must needs be a somewhat bald 
narration. Outline sketches admit of neither shad- 
ing nor color. Under such limitations this writing 
must proceed. 

At the outset two methods of treatment presented 
themselves. One was the chronological method ; 
the other was the topical. By the latter method all 
that is to be said of one denomination would be pre- 
sented by itself; the topic would be exhausted be- 
fore another was touched. Beginning with the 
Trinitarian Congregational ists, for example, we should 
treat of all the churches of that order before pro- 
ceeding with the next. And although the other 
method may have its advantages, and, indeed, has 
been adopted by some writers, this, on the whole, 
seemed to be the preferable method. It has this im- 

portant advantage, that the origin and growth of 
each denomination can be viewed consecutively ami 
apart from others. Accordingly, this method will be 
pursued in the presenl history. Without further 
preface, I begin with the 

TiUNITAKlAX Congregationalists — First or Old 
South Church. — The first permanent settlement in 
Worcester began on the 21st of October, 1713. 
Nearly fifty years before, steps had been taken towards 
this end and temporary settlements had been begun ; 
but before foot was set upon the soil a provision was 
made "that a good minister of God's word be placed 
there." This provision was first realized in the year 
1719, when the Rev. Andrew Gardner was ordained 
as the first minister of the Gospel settled in Worces- 
ter. Before this, however, the people had been wont 
to assemble regularly for public worship in their 
dwelling-houses, and notably in that of Gershom 
Rice, who was the first to open his house for the pur- 
pose. Soon the dwelling-house became too si rait, 
and in 1717 a small meeting-house of logs was built. 
It stood at the corner of Franklin and Green Streets, 
just southeast of the Common. This served its pur- 
pose until 1719, when a more spacious edifice w -as 
erected on the site thenceforward occupied by tin- 
Old South for one hundred and sixty-eight years. 
Meanwhile a church had been constituted — perhaps 
self-constituted — with Daniel Heywood and Nathan- 
iel Moore for its first deacons. This occurred soon 
titter the permanent settlement. The precise date of 
this important beginning is not known, but Whitney 
("History of Worcester County") thinks that all 
probabilities point to the year 1719. This, then, 
seems to have been the year when the church was 
organized, the meeting-house built and the first min- 
ister settled. 

The ministry of Mr. Gardner was not a happy one. 
He was addicted to deer-hunting and practical jokes, 
aud, naturally, was accused of remissness in the dis- 
charge of his duties. His people on their part ne- 
glected to pay his small stipend of perhaps £40, and 
also the " gratuity " of £60, which they had voted to 
give him. Dissatisfaction increased; some left his 
preaching. The General Court having been appealed 
to in vain, an ecclesiastical council was at length 
convened, in September, 1721, to take the matter in 
hand. After long delay by the council, on the 31st 
of October, 1722, Mr. Gardner was dismissed from 
his charge. It is said his errors were more of the 
head than of the heart. He was generous, some- 
times without regard to consequences. This instance 
has been preserved: "A poor parishioner having 
solicited aid in circumstances of distress, Mr. Gard- 
ner gave away his only pair of shoes for his relief; 
and, as this was done on Saturday, appeared the next 
day in his stockings at the desk to perform the morn- 
ing service, and in the evening officiated in borrowed 
slippers a world too wide lor his slender members." 
Mr. Gardner was a native of Brookline and agradu- 



ate of Harvard in the class of 1712. It was thought 
worthy of mention that, in conformity with the cus- 
tom of the time, his name was placed last in the roll 
of his class, as indicating the relative social position 
of his parents. For the same reason Abraham Lin- 
coln's name would have Bt 1 at the foot of his class 

had he been college bred. The subsequent history 
of Mr. Gardner did not improve his reputation. In- 
stalled as the first minister of Lunenburg in 1728, 
and dismissed in 1731 " because he was unworthy,'' 
he retired to a town in the Connecticut Valley, and 
there died at an advanced age. After a period of 
preaching without settlement by the Rev. Shearjashub 
Bourne, the Rev. Thomas White and others, cm the 
10th of February, 172."), a call was given to the Rev. 
Isaac Burr, and on the 13th of October following he 
was ordained as the second minister. A long and 
quiet ministry followed. 11 is relations with the peo- 
ple weie cordial, and the latter were forward ami gen- 
eroiis ill his support. When the paper money of the 

period became depreciated they took care that his 
salary should not suffer. During his ministry a 
memorable event was the arrival in Worcester, < Icto- 
ber 14, 1740, of George Whitefield, accompanied by 
Gov. Belcher. On the next day the famous evan- 
gelist " preached on the Common to some thousands," 
as he wrote in his diary. Nothing appears to show 
that this visit was otherwise than welcome to Mr. 

Hurr. And yet, the forces then set in motion had 

their ultimate issue in his dismission. It seems the 
Rev. David Hall, of Sutton, "a follower of White- 
Geld," found Mr. Burr too backward in the new 
Whitefield movement. Though he preached n 
peatedly " in private houses " in Worcestei with Mr. 
Burr's consent, yel he was moved to write d< 
his diary that the latter " seemed not well p 
\i length Mr. Burr refused bis consent to further 

pie. i. hing by hi- Sutton brother, whereupon the lat- 
ter was lid to expri as the fear thai tin- w 
minister was "too much a stranger to the power of 

godliness.'" In truth, a Whitefield parly had been 
formed in Worcester, and Mr. Burr was found not to 
be of the number. Alienation naturally arose, ami 
the growing trouble impaired his health. So, in 
aboul four years after Whitefield's advent, a mutual 
council was convened, and under its advice Mr. Burr 
was dismissed in March, 1745. Lincoln ("Historyof 
Worcester," p. 146) says that he was the 9 f the 

lion. Peter Burr, the father of President Burr, of 

Princeton College, ami isequentlj grandfather of 

Aaron Burr, Vice-President of the United 

lint this i- an error. It appears from e\ idenee in the 
probate office at Hartford, Conn., that he was the .son 
of Thomas Burr, of that city, and therefore not of 
the Aaron Burr lineage. He was horn in 16 
graduated at Yale in 1717. His death occurred at 
Windsor, about 1751. No portraiture of hi- 
or mind survives; no characteristic anecdote is of 
record, and nothing testifies of his ministry save its 

continuance for a fifth of a century in a generally 
peaceful way. The town next made choice of Na- 
thaniel Gardner, a graduate of Harvard in 1739; he, 
however, declined the call. Nearly two years elapsed 
before the settlement of the next minister. In this 
interval a covenant ' was adopted and subscribed by 
fifty members of the church. Doubtless there was a 
covenant of some sort when the church was first or- 
ganized, but what it was, arid how it compared with 
this new one, we have no means of knowing. If it 
was a "half-way covenant " after the fashion of that 
day, it must have differed materially from this one of 

After Mr. Gardner many candidates were heard; 
but at last the choice lay between the Rev. Thaddeus 
Maccarty, of Boston, and the Rev. Jonathan May- 
hew, of Martha's Vineyard. Each was to preach 
lour Sabbaths in succession, and on the Sabbath be- 
fore the day id' election both were to preach. After 
this competitive trial the choice by a very large ma- 
jority fell on Mr. Maccarty, and Worcester missed the 
chance of having the famous divine of the Revolu- 
tion among the number of its ministers. Mr. Mac- 
carty was installed on the 10th of June, 1747. The 
sermon on the occasion was preached bj himself, for 

which unusual step he offered ingenious reasons in 

the introduction. Besides the pecuniary provision 

for his support, a house with about two acres of 
land on the Common southeast from tin- mi 

house was purchased for a parsonage. In 1765 this 
was conveyed in fee to Mr. Maccarty by the 

town. Nearly fifty years after, in a suit by the Rev. 
Lustin, D.D., in behalf of the parish, the 

property was recovered hack from the tenant claim- 
1 1- a conveyance by the exei utors of 
minister. The estate, how. \ er, was afterwards 

relinquished by the parish. The ministry ol Mr. 
. was of nearly forty year-' duration. In the 

course of it occurred the Revolutionary War, hring- 

ire tria's ; and at the close protracted -ickness 
kept him out of the pulpit. He lived greatly re- 
. and died deeply lamented on the 20th of 
July, 174 of sixty-three years. Hismin- 

i-try was the longest of all which the first (liurch 
enjoyed during the first one hundred and seventy 
years. Mr. Maccarty was tall, .slender and thin, with 

a black, penetrating eye, which added to his effective- 
ness in -peak il 

: : 

s A faint likeness ol hiiu survives on a poorly-painted canvas in tho 

of Mi- Man P. Dl Hit 

. Blustery then nil the Common, at a spot 
of unit very nes n nuinent in U I ■ 

gravestones in the cemetery were laid t:.»t, each over n» res], and burled beneath the nut. and Mr. Maccarty's among the 
mblemson his headstone, together with its 
inscriptions, is given in Barton's " Epitaphs." The inscriptions were 
; n a moral tablel erected in tin- Old South by Dwighl Foster 
(brother of Mrs. Dunn), late a justii i tin- Snprems Court of Massa- 
chusetts. Tin. tablet "ill have an appropriate place upon the wall "I" 
the New 01(1 South. 


I 155 

" As a preacher he was solemn, loud, searching and 
rousing," said a contemporary clerical brother. Pres- 
ident John Adams, in his early years a resident of 
Worcester, wrote to Dr. Bancroft that " Mr. Mac- 
carty, though a Calvinist, was no bigot." In the 
course of his ministry, Mr. Maccarty published eight 
occasional sermons ; several others may be found in 
Doctor Smalley's " Worcester Pulpit." From these pos- 
terity may judge something of his doctrine, which 
was sound, and something of his style, which was 
not classical. During his sickness and after his de- 
cease a young man appeared in his pulpit whose 
preaching was destined to be the occasion, if not the 
cause, of a lasting division in the First Parish. Of 
this an account will be given under another head. 
Dining the controversy which arose, no minister was 
called ; then, in 1786, the Rev. Daniel Story was 
called, accepted the call and went on preaching, 
without being ordained, for about two years, when 
the call was re-called. It had been discovered, that 
he, too, entertained Arminian sentiments. Having 
thus received his conge in Worcester, Mr. Story went 
into Ohio as chaplain of the company which founded 
Marietta, the centennial of which was celebrated in 
1S8S, a distinguished citizen of Worcester (Senator 
Hoar) having a leading part therein. Mr. Story was 
an uncle of Joseph Story, the'eminent justice of the 
Supreme Court of the United States. He was burn 
in Boston on the 2i)th of July, 1756, was a graduate 
of Dartmouth in the class of 1780 and died at Mari- 
etta in 1804. 

The settlement of the next minister, Dr. Austin, 
in the last decade of the century, was the beginning 
of a new order of things. Before proceeding with 
its history let us look at the way of public worship 
in the First Church during the period then closing. 
As elsewhere, the principal parts of the service were 
praying and preaching; singing and reading the 
Scripture lesson were subordinate; and, indeed, this 
last did nut become a part of the service until near 
the middle of the century. Under date of Septem- 
ber 3, 1749, the church record recites that the " laud- 
able custom was very unanimously come into by the 
church at one of their meetings some time before." 
In this matter the Worcester church was not behind 
others, since the custom " was not introduced into 
New England " until that period. Singing had been 
a part of the service from the beginning. At first it 
was congregational, primitive and rude. The minis- 
ter read the first line of a psalm and the congrega- 
tion sang it. Then the eldest deacon " lined " the 
rest, and " singing and reading went on alternately." 
There was neither chorister nor choir nor set tune, 
but each one sang to please himself. This was the 
" usual way," so-called. In 1726 an attempt was 
made to substitute the " ruleable way." A vote of 
the town was passed to that effect, but the deacons 
resisted, and the " usual way " still prevailed. The 
uumelodious custom was too strongly entrenched. 

Forty-three years went by and a generation had 
died oil' before another attempt to change it was 
made. Then, in May, 1769, came a modest propo- 
sition to invite ''a qualified individual" to lead. 
A bolder stroke followed in March, 1770, when three 
men were designated by name " to sit in the elders 
seal and lead," and by a unanimous vote a fourth 
was chosen to "assist." Here was our modem quar- 
tette, so far as the old-time sense of propriety would 
allow. The next step was taken in 1773 by providing 
seats exclusively for the singers. Six years alter, on 
the otli of August, 1779, the town struck the final 
blow by adopting these votes : That the singers sit 
in the front seats of the front gallery ; that they be 
requested to take said seats ami carry on the sing- 
ing ; and that the psalm be not "lined." Neverthe- 
less, on the next Sabbath the venerable eldest deacon 
rose and began to " line " the psalm. The singers, 
from their new " coign of vantage," began to sing ; 
the deacon raised his voice, the singers raised theirs ; 
it wasan unequal strife, and the deacon "retired from 
the meetingdiouse in tears." This was the end of the 
"usual way " of singing in Worcester. From that 
time onward the ruleable way prevailed without op- 

The first book in use was the " Bay Psalm Book,'" 
as improved by President Dunster, of Harvard Col- 
lege. This held the ground until 1761, and was then 
displaced by the version of Tate and Brady, " with 
an Appendix of Scriptural Hymns by Dr. Watts." 
The exact date when this book came into use was on 
the 29th of November in that year. It continued in 
use until the settlement of Dr. Austin, and then, on 
the 20th of January, 1790, gave way to " Walts' 
Psalms and Hymns and Spiritual Songs." The ver- 
sion of Sternhold and Hopkins was never used 
in the church in this town," says Lincoln.'- This 
version was the one in use under royal authority 
by the Church of England, and was bound up with 
i(s " Book of Common Prayer." Perhaps it was be- 
cause of this that the New England churches chose 
to have a" Psalm Book "of their own — a book free 
from all complicity with an established church. 

i This must famous and rareat of hunks wag the fust one ever printed 

in America. Us true, whole and only title was "The whole 1 ke of 

psalmes faithfully translated into English Metre, Whereunto is prefixed 

a discourse declaring not only the lawfulnes, but also the u ssity of 

the heavenly Ordinances of Binding Scripture Psalms in the Churches of 
God. Imprinted 1610." Inl636there were, says Dr. Thomas Prince, 
" near thirty ministers " in New England u ho had heen educated in the 
English universities. These divines selected out of their number "the 
Rev. Mr. Richard Mather, the Rev. Mr. Thomas Weld and the Rev. Mr. 
John Eliot," to prepare a new version of tin- Psalms fur the use ol the 
New England churches. The printing of the work was begun in 1639 
and completed in 1640. This was the " Hay Psalm-Book." A singlecopy, 
bearing the imprint ot the last-named year, is treasured in the iron site 
of the American Anti.piaiian Society, in Worcester It is sometimes 
-aid of a very rare book that it is worth its weight in gold. In 1876 a 
copy of this book belonging to the estate of the late Dr.jNathaniel It. 

Shui'tletT, was sold by auction iu Boston forahoul one Ihodsaud and fifty 
dollars. .The Worcester copy Weighs 10 luces. The pneo paid for the 

Boston copy, therefore, was more than si\ times its weight in gold. 

! MS Notes in Lib. of Antiq. Soc. 



To illustrate the several versions and furnish a 
means of comparison the first verse of the first psalm 
from each is subjoined. 

From the Bay Psa 


O Blessed man tlmt in Itr advic 
of wicked doth not walk : 

nor stand in Binnere way, nor si 
in chayre of Bcornfull folk. 

Improved Bat Psalk-B 

11 that walks not in 

tU' advice uf wicked men, 

Norstandetb in thesi ra \\ . • y 

nor scoruers seat sits iu. 

Bd cdi I '' 

m, Edition, Ann" 17<h>. 

Happy the Man whom ill Advice 
From Virtue ne'er withdrew, 

Who ne'er with .Sinners stood nor sat 
Amongst the scoffing Crew. 

From Tate ami Brady, with Appendix bt Watts, sjino i I. 
How blest is In- whg ne'er c 

by ill Advice to walk 
Nor stands in Sinners Ways; nor sits 

where Men profanely talk ! 

From Sterkhold am> Hopkins, London, IMS. 
The man i- blesl that hath nut bent 

Nor led his lil'.> a- sinnrrs do, 

nor s ii scoi net cheire. 

After six years of waiting the First Parish at length 
secured the most distinguished among till its minis- 
on the 29th of September, 1790, the Rev. 
Samuel Austin, D.D., of New Haven, was duly in- 
stalled in the vacant pulpit. His first considerable 
step was to clear up and rein \ igorate the doctrinal 
basis of tlic church. A new creed and covenant were 

adopted, whereby its orthodoxy was confi ed to the 

strictest type. All the subsequent activities of Dr. 
Austin had this type for their basis. He devoted 
himself to the investigation of theological questions. 
He prepared and published the first complete edition 
of the works ni' the elder Jonathan Edwards. Ilu 
was one of the founders of the General Association 
of Massachusetts, and also of the Massachusetts 
Home Missionary Society. He was often called to 
sit in councils on difficult cases. He was a man of 
strong convictions and plain speech. On public 
affairs he preached with great freedom. His fast-day 
sermons were notable. Several were published. The 
one preached on the 28d of July, 1812, during the 
war, caused much agitation. He therefore published 
it, with this upon its title-page: "Published from the 
press by the desire of sonic who beard it and liked 
it; by the desire of some who heard it and did not 
like it; and by the desire of others who did not hear 
it. but imagine they should not have liked it if they 

At the end of twenty-five years he became presi- 
dent of the University of Vermont, but, because of 
the suit already mentioned, remained nominal pastor 
of the First Parish till 1818. Resigning the college 

presidency in 1821, he became pastor of a small 
church in Newport, R. I., once the charge of the 
famous divine, Dr. Samuel Hopkins. This, too, he 
resigned in 1825, and then returned to Worcester, 
preaching occasionally in Millbury. By and by the 
death of an adopted son, physical disease and pecu- 
niary losses brought on mental disturbance. Like 
the poet Cowper, he became a religious monomaniac. 
The darkness of despair settled down upon him. For 
some four years he remained in this state of gloom. 
Near the end, light at intervals broke through the 
cloud. He died on the 4th of December, 1830, in the 
seventy-first year of his age. He was a man of com- 
manding stature, of dignified carriage, austere yet 
affable on near approach, and " with a smile like 
a sunbeam breaking through the clouds." As a 
preacher he was remarkable for power and pathos, 
and of eminent gifts in exercises. The 

impress Of bis character was deep and abiding. I M 
his publications, Lincoln ("History") gives a list of 
thirty-three, with their titles. 

The successor of Dr. Austin was the Rev. Charles 
A.Goodrich. He was ordained as colleague pastor 
on the 9th of October, 1816, and became sole pastor 
by the formal dismission of Dr. Austin in 1818. His 
ministry was short but fruitful of a spiritual harvest, 
about eighty new ronli '-oisjieing added to the church 
in one year, But it was a ministry full of trouble 
also. Beginning as a young man of twenty-six years, 
he found himself confronted at the outset with the 
opposition of a leading person both ill the parish and 
in the town. Though this person was not himself of 
the church, yet some of his family were; and the com- 
bined influence of all caused the diati'ection to spread. 
Attempts at reconciliation were made and failed. It 
became evident that either the minister or the disaf- 
atist leave. The former was tOO strongly in- 
trenched to be ousted, and the latter perforce ac- 
cepted the alternative. For a time they resorted to 
other communions while retaining connection with 
their own church. Presently, they sought release 
from this bond. .Some asked for dismission and re- 
commendation. Several were dismissed but not re- 
commended. Councils were resorted to and counter- 
councils were held, with the usual results of ex parte 
proceedings. Each party in turn was sustained. At 
last a council constituted the disaffected, with others, 
into a tow church, the history of which, under the 
name of the < lalvinist or < entral Church, will be given 
in its proper place. A war of pamphlets followed, 
able and exhaustive on both sides; and to them the 
reader must be remitted for further and fuller details 
of the unhappy controversy. This church quarrel 
was the most serious that ever afflicted any church of 
any communion in the town. Ill health compelled 
Mr. Goodrich to lay down his charge on the 14th of 
November, 1820, and the same cause prevented him 
from resuming the pastoral office. For the rest of 
his life he devoted himself to literary pursuits. He 


1 157 

became a maker of books; his school histories were in 
their day greatly in vogue, and of one more than one 
hundred thousand copies were printed. A list of his 
principal works is to be found in the "Worcester 

The sixth pastor of the Old South and the next 
after Mr. Goodrich was the Rev. Aratius Bevil Hull. 
Bom at Woodbridge, Conn., in 1788, graduated in 
1807 at Yale, where he was a tutor for six years, he 
was ordained and settled at Worcester on the 22d of 
May, 1821. He came to his new calling with a high 
reputation both as a scholar and as a teacher. Ill 
health, however, kept him down, and altera protracted 
sickness he died in office on the 17th of May, 1826. 
His virtues as a man and a minister were celebrated by 
his contemporary neighbor, Dr. Nelson, in a funeral 
sermon. He was eminently social, simple, refined, 
charming in conversation and "a welcome friend to 
the poor." A quarter of a century after his death 
men often spoke of him "with kindling emotion." 
His church attested their affection by erecting to his 
memory a monument inscribed all over with elaborate 
encomium. In 1.N27 the church and parish united in 
a call to the Rev. Rodney A. Miller. The call was 
accepted and he was ordained on the 7th of June in 
that year. For nearly seventeen years he remained 
pastor of the church. During this period more than 
four hundred were added to its communion. At 
length differences arose between Mr. Miller and mem- 
bers of the church and parish ; in consequence, a mu- 
tual council was called and the result of its advice 
was the dismission of Mr. Miller. For many years 
after, he continued to reside in Worcester, but in the 
end returned to Troy, N. Y., his native place, where he 
died at an advanced age. Mr. Miller was the first presi- 
dent of the first Temperance Association ever formed 
in Worcester. For some years he was one of the 
overseers of Harvard University and had a zeal for 
the rectification of its theological standards. 

A series of seveu pastorates followed that of Mr. 
Miller. The first was that of the Rev. George Phil- 
lips Smith, a graduate of Amherst in 1835. He was 
installed on the 19th of March, 1840, and died at 
Salem, while in office, on the 3d of September, 1852. 
His ministry was a happy and successful one. Fol- 
lowing him came the Rev. Horace James, a graduate 
of Yale in 1840, who was installed on the 3d of Feb- 
ruary, 1853. Mr. James was full of devotion to his 
charge, but when the Civil War broke out, devotion to 
his country overbore the former and issued in his ap- 
pointment as chaplain of the Twenty-fifth Regiment 
of Massachusetts Volunteers, and his consequent dis- 
mission from his pastoral charge. This event occurred 
on the 8th of January, 1863, and his death on the 9th 
of June, 1875. Rev. Edward Ashley Walker, who 
had been ordained chaplain of the First Connecticut 
Heavy Artillery in June, 1861, was installed as Mr. 
James' successor on the 2d of July, 1863. Like some 
of his predecessors, he was compelled by ill health to 

retire altogether from the ministry. His death oc- 
curred on the loth of \piil, L866. During his min- 
istry, September 22, 1863, the one hundredth anni- 
versary of the building of the Old Smith meeting- 
house was elaborately commemorated. At the meet 
ing-house the Hon. Ira M. Barton made an introduc- 
tory address, and Leonard Bacon, D.D., of New 

Haven, gave a historical discourse; wildcat Mechan- 
ics Hall, in the after part of the day, much reminis- 
cent discoursing was had. The old meeting-house, a 
typical specimen of New England church architecture 
of the last century, with its elegaut slender spire and 
faithful weathercock, was suffered to remain for nearly 
a quarter of a century longer before its demolition in 
August, 1SS7, under a municipal decree. 

After Mr. Walker's dismission the Rev. Royal I!. 
Stratton was installed on the 2d of January, 1867. 
Serious disability, more or less impairing his useful- 
ness, led to his dismission on the 25th of April, L872. 
His death occurred in this city on the 24th of Janu- 
ary, 1875. On the 21st of May following Rev. Wil- 
liam M. Parry, of Nottingham, England, received a 
unanimous call to the pastorale. He practically ac- 
cepted the call and performed his duties as acting 
pastor, but was never installed. On November 3, 
1873, he " resigned," but the resignation, taking the 
church by "surprise," was not accepted. On the 
11th of December it was withdrawn, but on the 4th 
of January following he preached his farewell ser- 
mon. His preaching had been both dramatic and 
eccentric and consequently had drawn crowded houses. 
Leaving the Old South, he drew after him nearly 
one hundred and fifty of its communicants, and to- 
gether they at once proceeded to organize a new 
church in Mechanics Hall by the uame of the Taber- 
nacle Church. Without loss of time a Congrega- 
tional Council was convened for the purpose of recog- 
nizing the church and installing Mr. Parry as its 
pastor. The council received the church into fellow- 
ship but refused to install Mr. Parry. The church 
then proceeded to violate the principle of the fellow- 
ship, to which it had just been admitted, by an auto- 
cratic installation. The services on the occasion 
were performed by lay members of the church ; and 
in that fashion Mr. Parry became the first and, as it 
proved, the only pastor of the Tabernacle Church in 
Worcester. Church and pastor both came to a 
speedy end. Mr. Parry suddenly died in his chair 
while making a call upon two of his female parish- 
ioners, and the church, already grown disgusted and 
disintegrated by his gross and increasing eccentrici- 
ties, vanished into the inane. 

To return to the Old South : The Rev. Nathaniel 
Mighill, a graduate of Amherst in 1860, was installed 
as Mr. Stratton's successor, September 25, 1875. The 
fate of so many of his predecessors overtook him 
also, and because of ill health he was dismissed on 
the 15th of June, 1877. Then followed the Rev. 
Louis Iicvier Yoorhees a graduate of Princeton in 

I 158 


1867. After occupying the pulpit for six months, a 
nearly unanimous call led to his installation on the 
same day on which his predecessor was dismissed. 
But neither in this instance did a change of ministers 
secure the church against the fate which so inveter- 
ately pursued its chosen pastors. After preaching for 
a time Mr. Voorhees was compelled to relinquish his 
charge, but his formal dismission did not take place 
till the 5th of May, 1880, when his successor, the 
Rev. Joseph F. Lovering, was installed as the four- 
teenth pastor of the church and so remained. 

A question had long been in issue between the city 
and the First Parish touching their respective estates 
in the land occupied by the Old South. The city 
claimed the land and wished to remove the building, 
and the parish resisted the claim and wished In pre 
serve the building. Things remained in this condi- 
tion until 1885, when the city obtained from the 
legislature authority to take all the title and interest 
ol the parish. In May, 188b, the city council voted 
to take under the act. Thereupon the parish made 
an overture to the city towards an agreement upon 
the amount of damages. The city having declined to 

entertain the overture, the parish then | :eeded 

undei the provisions of the act, to ask the Superior 
Court For the appointment "t commissioners to award 
damages; and this was done. The case came on to 
be heard in .Inly, 1887, when the citj solicitor, 
Frank 1". Goulding, appealed for the city, and Sena- 
tor George F. Hoar for the parish. \n exhaustive 

preparation and all the legal learning and skill of the 

respective advocates went into the case, ^.ftei weeks 
nf deliberation the commissioners brought in an 
award of $148,400. tin city refused to pay the 

award, and under the ael claimed a trial by jut 

compromise lull. .wicl resulting in the payment "l 

$115,895.25. With this money the parish pur- 
chased a lot on the corner of Main and Wel- 
lington Streets, and proceeded In erect iher a 

church worthy of its history and rank as the I ire 
Parish in the city of Worcester. The corner-stoni 
was laid mi the Itfa of July, L888, and the exterioi 
walls, nf red aandatone throughout, were substantially 
completed by the end of the year. It is. without 
doubt, the most imposing church edifice in the city. 
A massive central tower, fort] feet Bquare and rising 
nn four square marble pillars to tin height oi oni 
hundred and thirty-six feet above I lie pavement, i- 

the dominating feature. Another feature, ap] 

to a different sentiment, is the low belfry at tin 

northeast corner, <A' architecture curious and fine, in 

which is suspended, as the sole rein ,■ acting nev 

and old, the hell (cast in 1802) thai swung for eighty- 
five years in the old belfry nn the Common. A par 
ish-house at the rear,adding to the mass and architec- 
tural completeness of the whole structure, contains a 
variety and abundance of spacious apartments suited 
to all the multiplied and multiplying requirements of 
modern church life. The cost of this New ( >ld South 

at its completion is reckoned at one hundred and 
forty thousand dollars. 

The Calvinist or Central Church. — The second 
church of this order was first named the Calvinist 
Church. It was an outcome, hut nut an outgrowth, 
of the First Church. As we have already seen, the 
settlement of Mr. Goodrich resulted in a serious dis- 
affection Inwards his ministry. Among the disaf- 
fected and aggrieved were Deacon David Richards, 
his wife and eight others. In their extremity these 
persons summoned a council (the third) to advise 
them in the premises. This council was convened 
on the HHh of August, 1820, and having heard the 
ease and approved a Confession nf Faith and a Cove 
mini which had been presented, proceeded mi the 

17th In constitute the applicants into a separate 

church under the name of the Calvinist Church in 
Worcester. It is worthy of note t lint the moderator 

of this council was the Kev. Nathaniel Emmons, 
D.D. fur a certain length of time the new church 

maintained public worship in private places. The 

aousi of iis first deacon, David Richards, seems to 

mi the first and principal place of worship. 

flu- ii..iis,- m i near the -He reci utly purchased by 

ile- United States for tin- new post-office building. 
In this private way, without any paslur or parish, 
the church held itself together until 1822. In that 
year " articles of association " looking towards a par- 
ish organization were drawn up and signed, The 

first signature "as that Of Daniel Waldo, under date 

of April 3d; others of the same date followed, and 
within the next nine years more than two hundred 
and Bixty others were added. On the first Sunday 
following, April 3, 1822, regular public worship was 
ourt-bouse. This continued until 
Octobei 13, 1823, when the society took pusses-inn 
of iis mi -a 1 1 had been erei led by .Mr. 

Waldo at a cost of fourteen thousand dollars. The 

sen i at the dedication of this house was preached 

by I'r. \iisiin, who was in sympathy with the new 
church. In the next year the property was conveyed 

the use nf the church and society. 

Early in L825 the organization was perfected by the 
incorporation of the Calvinist Society. Meanwhile, 
on tin- 15th "f April, 1823, the Kev. Loammi Ives 

iloadlv, who had supplied preaching fur the pre- 
viuiis year, was uidained SS the first pastor. His 

ministry was embarrassed by the unhappy relations 

which continued between this church and the Old 
South, but still wen! on with increasing BUCCess until 
, sickness brought it in a close. His dismis- 
sion, by a vote Of the church, took place nn the 19th 

of .May. L829. Recovering in a measure, be engaged 
in various activities,— as pastor again fur a brief 

period, editor of The Spirit <// tin Pilgrim*, assistant 
editor nf the " ' lomprehensive < 'ummentary," teacher 
and farmer. His 1 was in North field, 

Conn., his native place, and there he died ijuite re- 
cently at the great age of ninety-one, having outlived 


1 159 

all his successors in the pulpit of the Calvinist 

Church but the last two. 

During Mr. Hoadly's ministry Mr. Waldo made a 
further addition of five thousand dollars to the re- 
sources of the society. Its growth continued un- 
checked, aud in 1830, and again in 1832, the church 
edifice was variously enlarged and improved. This 
prosperity was due, in no small degree, to the popu- 
lar ministry of the Rev. John S. C. Abbot, who 
became the successor of Mr. Hoadly on the 28th ol 
January, 1830. During five years Mr. Abbot con- 
tinued to go in and out among his people with great 
acceptance. While discharging his pastoral duties, 
he found time to write and publish two books which 
made his name known in both hemispheres. These 
were " The Mother at Home " and " The Child at 
Home," the former of which has been translated and 
published in nearly all the languages of modern 
Europe. In 1835 Mr. Abbot asked and obtained a 
dismission on account of ill health. After recupera- 
tion by a year of travel in Europe, he spent the 
remainder of bis very active life in various pursuits, 
but became known to the wide world chiefly as the 
author of many popular books. Mr. Abbot was 
born in Brunswick, .Me., and graduated at Bowdoin 
in 1825. He died at Fair Haven, Conn., on the 17th 
of June, J 877. His successor was the Rev. David 
Peabody, who was installed in 1835 within six 
months after the pulpit had become vacant. His 
ministry was short and much interrupted by ill 
health. In the year following his settlement, under 
the advice of his physicians, he sailed for the 
South, where he spent the winter. A temporary 
improvement enabled him to resume his pastoral 
duties iu Worcester. But the attack on his lungs 
— for that was his malady — again enforced cessa- 
tion from pulpit labor. He improved the time 
in travel. Arriving in Hanover the day after com- 
mencement, he learned to his surprise that he had 
been appointed Professor of Rhetoric in Dartmouth 
College, his alma muter. This, taken with the state 
of his health, determined his course. He obtained a 
dismission from his pastoral charge and in October, 
1838, entered upon the duties of bis new office. His 
tenure of this, however, was brief. I lis death occurred 
on the 17lh of ( tetober, 1839, after one year of college 
service much interrupted by illness. The career of 
Professor Peabody was as brilliant as it was brief. 
His intellectual powers were of a high order. His 
mental discipline was thorough, his scholarship fine. 
His character was " a rare combination of strength 
and loveliness." With a figure and face of manly 
beauty and a rich and mellow voice, he stood before 
his people in the pulpit a preacher of singular at- 
tractions. His memory long continued to be fragrant 
in Worcester. 

The next pastor of the Central Church was the 
Rev. Seth Sweetser. His pastorate covered a period 
of forty years. It began on the 19th of December, 

1838, and ended with his decease, in 1878. During 
this period, in L845, occurred the death "i Daniel 

Waldo, in a large sense the founder of I he society. 

In his will he. continued to remember ii l"i- good by 
devising to it, in connection with the church, a valu- 
able real estate upon which stood the chapel of the 
society and a dwelling-house. In 1858 occurred the 

first interruption to the prevailing harmony. Until 
then the expenses had been defrayed by a tax on the 
polls anil estates of the members. Under a new 
statute the expenses were taised by an assessmenf on 
the pews. This change caused the withdrawal of a 
considerable number of rich and influential mi 
Butthe vital forces of the body soon healed tin bi 

and supplied new strength. Forty additional pews 
Were provided to help bear the burden of I he new tax. 
Dr. Sweetser was not a magnetic preacher; he had 

not the gift oratorical, but his compositions for the 
pulpit were of rare finish, lie published occasional 
sermons which amply repaid perusal. On the death 
of President Lincoln he gave a discourse which had 
no superior, whether of pulpit or platform, in the whole 
range of productions called forth by thai event. Ii 
was sought for from distant cities and the edition was 
exhausted before the demand was supplied, hi Ins 
last years Dr. Sweetser's health declined until he was 
at length compelled to surrender the pulpit. Put 
church and parish were unwilling to sunder the tie 
which had hound them so long together, aud though 
his service ceased, his supporl (not his salary) was 
measurably continued until his death. Dr. Sweetser 
was born at Newburyport in 1807 and graduated at 
Harvard in 1827. For a time he was a tutor in the 
university, and in after years a member of the Hoard 
of Overseers. He sustained the same relation to An- 
dover Seminary. Of the Polytechnic Institute in 
Worcester he was an original corporator and trustee, 
and to it he gave his best thought aud work. ( >f the 
city he was an unobtrusive leading citizen, and among 
the clergy of the State he was a power. The bases of 
his influence were wisdom and reserve. 

On the 19th of November, 1874, the Rev. Henry E. 
Barnes, a graduate of Yale in 1860, was installed as 
junior pastor. On the 3d of May, 1876, altera year 
and a half of service, he was dismissed, and soon set- 
tled iu Haverhill, Mass., where a large measure of 
success rewarded his labors. For nearly two years 
the pulpit was supplied by candidates and quasi-can- 
dates. Many were called, but few chosen. Then the 
Rev. Dauiel Merriman, a graduate of Williams Col- 
lege, united all voices in- calling him to the vacant 
place. The call was accepted, and in February, 1878, 
he was installed, the Rev. Dr. Richard S. Storrs, of 
Brooklyn, N. Y., preaching the sermon. Within a 
mouth came the death of Dr. Sweetser. In no long 
time after, the subject of building a new church be- 
gan to be agitated, and foremost in the agitation was 
the new pastor. A conditional subscription was set on 
footand the required amount was provided for ; but, the 


enterprise developed antagonisms, which, in the inter- | the part of church and parish, had been declined 
est of peace, made it necessary and certain that one | by Mr. Woodbridge. Upon a second and more urgent 
party or theother should and would withdraw. Accord- call he had consented to come, only to discover in 
ingly, four-fifths of the trustees, all butone of the dea- one short year that he and his people could never 
cons, the men whose money had been chiefly relied on, agree on the great divisive question of the day. His 
and a large body of others, old and young, quietly left dismission took place on the 1 4th of February. After 
their church home of a generation, voluntarily sur- leaving Worcester he became more widely known 
rendered all the property and dispersed themselves to the churches as editor of the New England Fwrir 
among the other churches. But Providence, " from tan, afterwards made one with the Boston Recorder 
seeming evil still educing good," inspired the crip- : under the name of the Puritan Recorder, The second 
pled church with courage to arise and build, and the pastor of the Union Church was the Rev. Elam 
result was one of the most beautiful churches in the Smalley, who was installed on the 19th of September, 
eity or elsewhere. It stands as a conspicuous monu- 1838. For nine years previous he had been associate 
of the recuperative power of a Christian democ- ' pastor with the Rev. Nathaniel Emmons, I>.I>., of 
racy under adverse conditions. At its completion no Franklin. Doubtless he had profited by such a long 
root of bitterness remained to bear evil fruit, and i association with that remarkable divine, but no two 
those who withdrew and those who remained sat persons could be more unlike in their mental charac- 
amicahiv side bj side at the dedication of the new teristics. Reasoning, so eminently characteristic of 
house ii bcauti< were afterwards celebrated by the Franklin doctor, was not Dr. Smalley's forte or 
the graceful pen of Prof. Churchill in the Andover aspiration. He sought rather to edify by pleasing. 

If he did not prophesy smooth things, be yet prophe- 
tn the autumn of 1834 a few sied in a smooth way. What be aimed at heaccom- 
young men, chiefly from the Old South Church, con- plished. The church was built up, and his ministry 
long whom was [chabod Washburn, laid of fifteen years was a success. The society testified 
their plans for a new church. The need of it had its appreciation by repealed additions to his salary. 
been fell fol several years, and it seemed to them that In due time he was decorated with the doctorate of 
, he time !•• acl had fully come. Accordingly, the divinity. After seven years the meeting-house was 
preliminary steps were taken, and on the 11th of altered so as to secure one hundred additional sittings, 
March, 1835, they were duly incorporated under the while Deacon [chabod Washburn at his own cost 
,,;,,,,,. and style of the " Proprietors of the Union provided a vestrj and Sunday-school room in the 
Meeting-house." At a meeting held in December of basement. In 1844 the society accepted from the 
the B am< yi at it was voted that the name of the new ' "Proprietors of the Union Meeting house " a deed ol 
church should be " The Union Church." In January, all their corporate property and assumed all their 
is:;,-,, Articles of Faith and a Covenant were unani- corporate liabilities. < >n the 8th of May, 1854, I>r. 
mousl) adopted, and on the ::<1 of February follow- Smalley asked a dismission, in order " to enter another 
ins a council constituted the new church with the field of labor." The request was -ranted, and he 
customary formalities. On the 5th of -March the shortly after became the pastor of the Third Street 
society held its first meeting, and on the 6th of July Presbyterian Church in Troy, N. W.and there, on the 
its ic worship was dedicated. It was a 30th of duly, 1858, he died. In 185] he published 

plain bnck structure of 90 feet by 54, situated on "The Worcester Pulpit, with Notices Biographical 
Front Street, opposite the historic Common. Made and Historical." The plan of the work included a 
more commodious in 1845-46, it was superseded in sketch of each church and pastor in each deuoinina- 
isso In a more beautiful butnot more spacious edi- tion, with specimen sermons. It is a valuable source 
lice creeled on the same site. The first pastor of the of information touching the churches of Won 
1 n ion i 'lunch was the Rev. Jonathan E. Woodbridge. The Rev. J. W. Wellman, a graduate and afterwards 
His installation took place on the 24th of November, a trustee of Dartmouth, was the next choice of Union 
1886. Mis ministry began when the anti-slavery Church. He justified their choice by declining the 
movement was burning its way through the churches, call from a sense of duty to the obscurer church of 
I ,, ion Church did not escape. Mr. Woodbridge took which he was then the pastor. Dr. Wellman at a 
one side and the society took the other on theques- later day became conspicuous as the only trustee id' 
tion ol opening the church to anti-slavery lectures. Andover Theological Seminary who resisted the " new 
On the L9th of January, 1838, the society, by a vote departure." Failing to secure him, the church next 
of forty-five to twelve, decided to open the house to extended a call to the Rev. Ebenezer Cutler, of St. 
the famous anti-slavery agitators, James G. Birney Albans, Vt. The call was accepted and the pastor- 
anil Henry B. Stanton. Mr. Woodbridge thereupon elect was installed on the 6th of September, 1855. 
promptly tendered his resignation, and on the 2d of At the same time a subscription lor a pastor's library 
February the society as promptly accepted it, and was set on foot which resulted in a substantial sum 
called a council to dissolve the relation between them, for that essential but much-neglected furnishing of a 
The first call to this pastorate, though unanimous on church. In 1859 began a series of efforts, continuing 


through several years, for either the enlargement of 
the old or the building of a new house of worship. 
Votes were passed to mortgage, to sell the old house, 
to examine sites, to build a new house, to raise money 
by subscription. An abiding feeling that the church 
was not well housed for doing its most effective work 
lay at the bottom of these spasmodic efforts. But out 
of it all the chief thing realized at the time was only 
a small addition to the rear for the organ and choir. 
The new church was still in the future. Dr. Cutler 
continued his ministry with growing reputation until 
1865, when he was elected president of Vermont Uni- 
versity. This called forth an urgent appeal from his 
people not to leave them, and he consequently de- 
clined the flattering offer. Shortly after, he received 
a tender of the Professorship of Ecclesiastical History 
in Hartford Theological Seminary, but this also he 
promptly put aside without waiting for it to take for- 
mal shape. In the autumn of 1874 he initiated the 
proceedings which resulted in the organization of the 
Worcester Congregational Club, of which he became 
the first president. The subsequent history of the 
club amply vindicated itself and him. In the winter 
of 1877 a bronchial trouble compelled him to seek 
relief in other climates. First going to Florida, and 
in the summer to Europe, he was absent from his 
pulpit until the following October, when he resumed 
preaching, though not fully recovered. Early in 
1878, under stress of circumstances, he finally resigned 
his pulpit, retaining, however, his office. The pas- 
toral relation was not dissolved until the 11th of Octo- 
ber, 1880, just before the installation of his successor. 
The council, in dismissing him, made mention of his 
"wide usefulness ' and "profound scholarship," and 
gave him the name of "a Christian man without fear 
and without reproach." He continued to worship 
with the Union Church which subsequently testified 
its affection and esteem by honoring him with the 
title of pastor emeritus. 

For nearly two years the Rev. George H. Gould- 
D.D., supplied the pulpit in connection with the 
testingof candidates by preaching. During this period 
the new church, so long desired and so long delayed, 
was erected on the old site. As already remarked, it 
was a more beautiful though less capacious edifice 
than the old one. The cost was thirty-seven thousand 
five hundred dollars. A new organ of fine quality 
and appearance added to the attractions. The dedi- 
cation of the house took place on Sunday, the 10th 
day of October, 1880, on which occasion the sermon 
was preached by the Rev. Henry A. Stimson, the 
pastor-elect. On the 14th, Mr. Stimson was duly 
installed. He was a graduate of Yale, and came 
to his new charge from a highly successful ministry 
in Minneapolis. His ministry in Worcester was dis 
tinguished by remarkably energetic parochial work. 
The young were especially soon made to feel of how 
much church work they, too, were capable. The print- 
ing-press was brought into play, and a Sunday bulletin 

was issued every week. The service of song u as 
extended and enriched. And by the plan of free 
seats on Sunday evenings the poor had the 
preached to them. I. urge congregations rewarded 
these efforts, large additions to the church followed. In 
the midst of, perhaps because of, this marked BUCCess 
Dr. Stimson received a call from the church in St. 

Louis of which the lamented I >i i onstans I. < I lei I 

had been pastor, and he decided il to be his duty to 

accept the call. His dismission. -h to the sorrow 

of his people, took place in June, 1886. The present 
pastor, Rev. William V, W. Davis, was installed as 
his successor on the loth of \pril. L887. He was :i 
graduate of Amherst in the class of L873, had hie 
first settlement in Manchester, \. EI., and was called 
to Worcester from the Euclid Avenue Presbyterian 
Church in Cleveland, Ohio. Within the lirst year of 
his ministry one hundred members were added to 
the -church. The present membership is five hundred 
and thirty-four. 

Salem Street Church. — This church was the resull of 
a joint contribution of men and means from the < H.I 
South the Calvinist and the Union Churches. The 
rapid growth of the city from I x 4 1 > to 1848 had im 
pressed the pastors and brethren of those churches 
with a conviction that the time had come for the 
organization of a fourth church of their way, \t.-i- 
ures were accordingly taken in 1847 for the erection 
of a church edifice. Meanwhile the persons enlisted 
in the riew enterprise held preliminary meetings, 
adopted a creed and covenant, and on the 14th of 
June, 1848, were recognized as a church in a formal 
manner. Of the one hundred and thirty-three who 
constituted the membership, eighty went out from 

the Onion Church, thirty from the Calvinist I I b 

and the rest mostly from the » 'Id South. The new 
church had its place of worship in the city hall until 
the 1:2th of December, 1848, when the new I 
which had been erected on Salem Street, was dedi- 
cated. The cost was somewhat less than twenty- 
eight thousand dollars ; the money was collected out 
of the three sponsorial churches. On the day fol 
lowing the dedication occurred the ordination of the 
Rev. George Bushnell, and bis installation as the 
first pastor of the church. The sermon on thi 
sion was preached by his brother, the I :. 
Bushnell, D.D. Mr. Bushnell was a graduate of 
Yale in 1842, and had his theological education at 
Auburn' and New Haven. He prosecuted his minis 
try with great satisfaction to bis parishioners for nine 
years, and then found it prudent, because of unpaired 
health, to withdraw from pastoral labor By accept 
ing the position of superintendent of public 
in Worcester he hoped to regain his health Bow 
ever, after nearly a year of this labor il seemed expe 
dient to lay down his pastoral charge and b 
accordingly dismissed on the 27th of Januarj 
Prior to this date the church had taken action at 
sundry times to provide a new pa-t a tl 

I 162 


of June, 1857, a vote was passed by a small majority 
to call the Rev. Merrill Richardson, of'Terryville, Ct. ; 
then at the same meeting the matter was indefinitely 
postponed. On the 9th of November, by a nearly 
unanimous vote, a call was extended to the Rev. Eli 
Thurston, of Fall River, which, however, was de- 
clined by him. < In the -list of December the church 
again voted to call Mr. Richardson, and the society 
concurred in the call. To this action, however, there 
was serious opposition, which found expression before 
the council convened to install him. The council, 
nevertheless, while giving respectful heed to the re- 
monstrants, of whom there were forty-eight, pro- 
ceeded with the business before them, and on the 27th 
of January, L858, Mr. Richardson was installed as 
pastor of the Salem Street Church. After this un- 
toward beginning lie went forward with his ministry 
lor twelve years. Then,' on the 27th of September, 
L 870, he was dismissed at his own request, because 

his eve- had failed him for purposes of study. "When 
he came there was a storm, bill when be went away 
there was a clear sky." In two months after, he was 

settled over the New England Congregational Church 

in the city of New York ; and in two years after that 
he became pastor of the church in Milford, .Mass. 
His death occurred in December, 1876, It was said: 
" He gave the church uniting; power, and a certain 
healthiness of spiritual life." It was said again: 
"He was a warrior ami a child; he was rough and 
gentle." And again il was said : " lie sought to pro- 
duce everywhere the peace of God in Jesus Christ." 
But it was also said by the late Judge Chapin, a 
leader of the 1 nitarians and at one time president 
of the American Unitarian Convention: ".Mr. Rich- 
ardson is a good enough Unitarian for me." These 
testimonies are all to be considered in forming an 

estimate of the minister who won t he Salem Street 

pulpil with so much difficulty, but who, having won 
it, kept it undisturbed till he chose to give it up. 

On the 8th of March, L871, the Rev. Charles M. 
Lamson, of North Bridgewater, received a unanimous 
call from both church and parish. In his letter ot 
acceptance he said that he viewed it as " a call to a 

work rather than to a place," and in this spirit be pros- 
ecuted bis ministry. His installation took place on 
the 3d of May. In .lime be was appointed chairman 
of a committee to revise the church standards and to 
prepare a new manual. I >n May 1, 1872, the creed 
as re-written by the committee was reported and 
unanimously adopted. It would be a just description 
to s:i\ that it was the old creed liberated from the old 
straitness, and some might think from the old Straight- 
ness, even. Entire harmony and deepening affection 
between Mr. Lamsen and his people, increasing in- 
fluence within the city and widening reputation 
without, marked his ministry from the beginning to 
the end. After more than fourteen years of service 
he felt admonished by the state of his health to ask 
a dismission. Very sorrowfully bis people yielded to 

his wish, and on the 28th of September, 1885, his dis- 
mission was declared in a result of council, which 
expressed in tones of rare encomium the appreciation 
of his clerical brethren. After a year and more the 
Rev. Isaac J. Lansing, of Brooklyn, N. Y., was called 
to the vacant pulpit. The call was unanimous, save 
for a single vote. Mr. Lansing was a minister of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, lie was content with 
its doctrines, but dissatisfied with its polity. I le dis 
liked its three years' limitation of ministerial labor. 
He preferred the Congregational permanency. The 

call to Salem Street was opportune and he at once 

signified his acceptance. The installation took place 

on the 11th of November, lSSii. The loss of Mr. Lam- 
son, and the loss of members because of thai loss 
and also because of their nearness to other churches 
had greatly reduced the prosperity of the Salem 
Street church. To the work of its recovery and en- 
large ut Mr. Lansing brought all his methodisl 

energy and forth-putting. He devised liberal things, 
all of which, however, he could not at once bring to 

pass, lint a debt of five thousand dollars was paid 
Off, and the meeting house was renovated and re- 
seated at an expense of about eight thousand dollars 
more. Once more it was tilled with an old-tune eon 

gregation. In August, 1888, a unique departure was 

initiated. At its own motion and its own cost, with- 
out aid from the parish treasury, the church deter 
mined to provide an assistant minister lor 

over and above and outside of the pastor's proper 

work. This plan was carried into effect on the L8th 

of October, by the engagement of the Rev. William 
W. Sleeper, Several definite lines of activity were 

contemplated. The new minister, a thoroughly edu- 
cated musician, was to take in hand the musical train- 
ing of the congregation. He was to have a large 
Bible-claSS of the young men. He was to act as a 

missionary in the highways and hedges. And he was 
to do service at funerals and minister consolation to 
such as had no pastoi to call upon. \i the opening 

id' the year 1889 this new and varied WOl k was in BUC 

cessful progress; while, as an important reinforcement 
for its more pronounced success, the church had in 
that year secured the services of Prof, Benjamin I ». 
Allen, wdio for thirty-four years had been the organist 
of Union Church. 

Summer Street Mission Chapel, This church had its 
origin in the benevolent heart of [chabod Washburn, 
To provide' the benefits of moral and religions in- 
struction and restraint tor a pretty numerous class of 
persons, living in Worcester," was his aim. Accord- 
ingly be had erected, at his own expense, and caused 
to be dedicated in the sprint: of 1855, a Mission 
Chapel on Summer Street in that city. At the same 
time he made provision for the lice ministrj of the 
gospel to all who should resort to the chapel for such 
a privilege. The first minister employed in this ser- 
vice was the Rev. William T. Sleeper, then the city 
missionary. His term of service closed with the close 



of the year 1856. Rev. Samuel Souther, a graduate 
of Dartmouth in 1 842, followed him and remained 
until 18(33, when he enlisted as a private in the army 
of the Union and gave up his life on the battle-field. 
Under his ministry an Industrial School was organ- 
ized in December, 1857. In 1864 the Rev. Henry T. 
Cheever, a graduate of Bowdoin in L834, succeeded 
to the ministry of the Mission Chapel. Through Ins 
inspiration a movement was begun for the formation 
of a church, and on December 23, L864, eighteen 
persons constituted themselves the " Church of the 
Summer Street Mission Chapel," by the adoption of 
a Confession of Faith and a Covenant and the elec 
tion of deacons and a clerk. On the '2M of January, 
1865, the church was received into the fellowship of 
the churches by public " services of recognition held 
li\ a council in Union Church. On the 3d of April 
the church "constituted itself a religious society " or 
parish, " according to the statutes of the Common- 
wealth, under the name of "The Society of the Sum- 
mer Street Mission Chapel." In March, 1866, Deacon 
Washburn executed his will and made ample provi- 
sion therein for the perpetual maintenance of this 
charitable foundation. The Mission Chapel estate 
was devised to the Union Society, in trust, " for the 
purposes and trusts declared in the will, and n<« 
other." In addition, the sum of twenty thousand 
dollars was given tor defraying the expenses of main- 
taining a minister ami public worship, and a further 
sum of five thousand dollars to maintain the Indus- 
trial School connected therewith. By the decease of 
Deacon Washburn on the 30th of December, 1868, 
these gifts became operative. Mr. Cheever continued 
to be the minister of the Mission Chapel until the 
1st of April, 1873, when Mr. Sleeper was appointed 
to his place by the joint action of two deacons of 
the Union Church and two of the Mission Chapel 
Church, in accordance with the provisions of the 
will. On the 26th of January, 1886, the trustees 
voted that it was expedient to sell the Summer Street 
property and locate the church elsewhere. This 
action was in harmony with the views and wishes of 
the Mission Church and its minister. But it was 
strenuously resisted by the former minister, Mr. 
Cheever, and by the widow of Deacon Washburn, 
on the ground that it was in violation of the letter 
ami intent of his will and in defeasance of the object 
which he had at heart. The question went up to the 
Supreme Court by petition of the trustees for leave 
to sell and was decided in their favor. 1 The founder 
of this important charity began his life in Worcester 
as a workman for daily wages. At the close of his 
life he left an estate of more than half a million of 
dollars accumulated by his own industry and rare 
sagacity. The bulk of this great wealth he devoted 

1 The writer is authentically ipfor I thai it 

Washburn to contest the sale al the proper tin 
such sale would destroy "the testamentary 
School .mi the Missi impel." 

the purpose <■! Mrs. 

on ili'- ground that 

en "I the rndustrial 

to the good of his fellow-men. All along the path- 
way of his life he was setting up monuments of his 

munificence, while his testamentary gills tor school 
and church ami hospital tar exceeded those of his 
life-time Or those of any previous benefactor of the 

Plymouth Church. — The beginning of this church 
was in 1869. More than twenty years had passed since 
the last church of this faith and order had been organ- 
ized. In that time the city had grown from sixteen 
thousand to forty thousand inhabitants. The churches 
were crowded ; it had become difficult to obtain seats; 
some, even, through failure to do so, had gone into 
the Methodist foldi Under these circumstances, 

fifteen young men met together in a private room to 
confer respecting a new church. They had acted 
together in the Young .Men's Christian Association, 
had thus become acquainted with each other, anil said 
it would be a good thing if they could have a Young 
Men's Christian Association church. They formed a 
nucleus around which other young men gathered. 
Soon the circle of interested persons widened and 
came to include older men and men of substance. 
Then the enterprise rapidly gathered headway. The 
first meeting was held on the loth of April, 1869. On 
the li'.lth it was announced that Mechanics Hall had 
been secured for public worship during one year. 
Forthwith a subscription of three thousand three 
hundred and forty dollars was made by sixty-three 
persons to defray the current expenses ; ami within a 
week or two the sum was raised to about three thou- 
sand eight hundred dollars. A Sunday school em- 
bracing more than three hundred was at once begun, 
and on the second Sunday in May public worship was 
held in Mechanics Hall with preaching by Rev. Dr. 
I •;. B. Webb of Boston. On the same evening a meet 
ing was held to take measures for organizing a church. 
A committee was charged with the duty of preparing 
ami presenting a creed and covenant. When the time 
came for action thereon difficulties were encountered. 
Among others, the Rev. George Allen, who had pro- 
posed to become a member of the church, rose and 
gave his voice against tin' adoption of any creed what- 
ever. Failing to convince the meeting he recalled 
his letter of recommendation and withdrew from any 
further connection with the enterprise. At a subse- 
quent meeting the articles of the creed as reported 
were largely changed ami then adopted. The question 
of a name came up. Edward A. I foodnow, the largest 
giver, and many others were in favor of making ii a 
free church. Mr. Goodnow, therefore, moved that the 
name lie the " Free Congregational Church," anil to 
make it free he subsequently subscribed one thousand 
live hundred dollars a year to pay for the hall. His 
associates, however, were not yet prepared for I he 
measure, and instead of that name voted that the 
name be "Sixth Congregational Church." Meanwhile, 
;, uociet] had been organized by the name of the Plym- 
outh Society, ami the church afterwards made its 


own name conform to that. On the 7th of July a 
council assembled in the Old South meeting-house to 
assist in organizing and recognizing the new church. 
With a recommendation to amend the 4th article of 
the creed they proceeded to the performance of their 
functions. Of the one hundred and ninety-four 
persons proposing to be of the church, one hundred 
and twenty-seven were then present and were duly 
constituted the Sixth Congregational Church. A 
week later fifty-one of the remainder were received 
into the membership. Four deacons having been 
elected; and a communion and baptismal service 
having been presented by Mr. Ooodnow and his wife, 
Catherine B. Ooodnow, on the nth of September Un- 
church celebrated its first communion. From that 
time onward a great variety of preachers occupied the 
pulpit until April, 1870, when the Rev. Nelson Millard, 
of Brooklyn, N. Y„ received a call to become the 
pastor. The call was declined on the ground that 
continuous preaching in so large a hall would cause 
too serious a strain on the physical powers of the 
preacher. On the 26th of October a unanimous call 
was declined by the Rev. William J. Tucker, now the 
distinguished professor at Andover, perhaps for the 

same reason. A practically unani ue call of the 

Rev. B. F. Hamilton met with the same fate. Mean 
while the future pastor of Plymouth Church, the Rei 
George \V. 1'hillips, of Columbus, Ohio, had been 
heard in its pulpit for the first time at Christmas in 
1870. After this experience had been repeated al 
intervals through the following year, In' accepted a 
call and was installed on the listh of December, 1871. 

A r lition of his acceptance was that the society 

should build a church edifice. Accordingly fun. Is and 
a site were the next tilings in order. In April, 1872, 
t In- site was fixed by a vote to build on the ground 
where the church now stands. This action -|>lii 
churcb ami parish in two. 'flu- soreness of tin- » id 

however, was soon assuaged, and both halves continued 

to live as two wholes with a two-fold prosperity and 

usefulness. Fifty-six members received a peaceable 

dismission and straightway with others proceeded to 
organize a church in the more southern part of the 
city, fhc load became heavier on Plymouth Church 
hut the sturdy shoulders under it did not succumb. 
On the 26th of April, 1873, the corner-stone was laid ; 
on the 19th of April, 1S74, the chapel was dedicated 
fin- use; and on the 29th of April, 1875, the entire 
edifice was done and dedicated. It is a structure of 
granite, with perhaps a larger seating capacity than 
that of any other church in the city, having seats for 
the comfortable accommodation of fourteen hundred 
persons. Its cost, including recent decorative improve- 
ments, has somewhat exceeded one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars. In 1881 sixty-six thousand dollars 
of this cost still rested as a debt upon the Plymouth 
property and people. It was determined to obtain 
relief from the incubus by effecting, if possible, a 
large reduction of this debt. Suddenly, in the month 

of April, Edward Kimball, of Chicago, the good 
genius of debt-burdened churches, appeared before 
the congregation to assist. While the matter was 
thus in hand, Edward A. Ooodnow sent in a written 
proposition that if the debt were not merely reduced 
hut extinguished he would make a gilt to Plymouth 
of an organ and a chime, each to cost five thousand 
dollars. Under this incentive, coupled with Mr. Kim- 
hall's inspiration, the effort was redoubled, the debt 
was extinguished, and chime and organ were put in 
place, at a cost to the giver of nearly eleven thousand 
dollars. The chime was made a memorial of his 
deceased wife, for whom the church had before held a 
special commemorative service, by the inscription on 
the principal bell — In Memoriam t htherine H. Ooodnow, 
After a successful pastorate of more than fourteen 
years Dr. Phillips, at his own request, was dismissed 
on the 10th day of May. 1886, and immediately settled 
as pastor of the important church in Rutland, N't. 
tin the 80th of June, in the same year, Plymouth 
Church and Society extended a unanimous call to the 
Rev. Arthur Little. D.D., of Chicago. The call was 
declined, and the church remained without a pastor 

until April 7, 1887, when the Rev. ( liarles Wadsworlh, 
,lr., of Philadelphia, was installed. In May of the 
in- he resigned bis office on the ground that In- 
had accepted a call to a Presbyterian church in San 
Francisco. The church was quite unreconciled to 
this sudden bereavement, but yielded to it under 
protest I low ever, the council called to dissolve the 
tie advised against it. This led to a reconsideration 
which resulted in a cordial re-establishment of the old 
relation. As the year 1888 wore on, howevei the 
church was admonished by the failing health of its 
reinstated pastor thai if it would keep him something 
must be done for Ins relief. Accordingly, in January, 
1889, the parish voted to have, and provide for, a 

pastor's assistant. In this matter the Ladies' Benevo- 
lent Society had taken the initiative by assuming an 

obligation to pay one-half of whatever salary the 
parish should fix upon. By way of further relief, the 
pastor's annual vacation was doubled and a large 

addition made to hi> salary. In making these anxious 

and liberal provisions Plymouth Church fell justified 
by the magnitude of the work upon its hands. With 
the costliest church edifice of its order in the city 
and the largest church membership and no church 
debt and a constituency "rich and increased in goods," 

it was in a position both to devise and to execute 

liberal things. 

Piedmont Congregational Church. — In the sketch 
of Plymouth Church it was stated that fifty-six 
members of that body were dismissed tor the purpose 
of forming a church in the southern part of the city. 
This was the origin of Piedmont Church. The first 
steps were taken at an informal meeting held on the 
3d of May, 1872. On the loth of the same month it 
was resolved to organize a parish and purchase a lot 

on the corner of Main ami Piedmont Street-. ( In the 



10th the lot had been purchased and fifty-nine per- 
sons had signed an agreement to become a religious 
society. On the 23d the associates assembled under 
a warrant and organized the society according to law. 
On the 30th the name of " Piedmont Congregational 
Church ' was adopted. The corporate name, how- 
ever, continued to be the "Seventh Congregational 
Church in Worcester." On the 6th of June by-laws 
were adopted whereby " any person " proposed and 
elected by the major vote might become a member of 
the society. On the 14th the first subscription was 
made among those present at the meeting, and a sum 
of fifteen thousand dollars was pledged. Plans were 
adopted August 23d, and by September 20th the sub- 
scription had increased to twenty-four thousand dol- 
lars. Meantime, on the 2d of June, the first public 
religious service had been held in the Main 
Street Baptist Church. In the same place a 
council was organized, on the 18th of Septem- 
ber following, for the purpose of constituting the 
church. The confession of faith, covenant and 
all preliminaries being found satisfactory, the church 
was duly constituted by the council. The sermon 
was preached by the Rev. George H. Gould, D.D., 
who remained as acting pastor from that date until 
1877. In October ground was broken for the church 
foundation, which, by contract, was to be finished by 
the 1st of June, 1873. In due time the basement was 
completed and occupied for public worship during 
the period in which the superstructure was being 
finished. On the 1st of February, 1877, the audi- 
torium was ready for occupation. It has a seating 
capacity of one thousand one hundred and twenty. 
The building is one of the largest church edifices in 
the city, and through improvements, chiefly of a 
decorative character made in 1888 at a cost of ten 
thousand dollars, is one of the most attractive. The 
original cost of land and construction has been set at 
one hundred and thirty thousand dollars. A fine 
organ, the gift of Clinton M. Dyer and wife, was 
placed in the organ-loft in 1884, at a cost, including a 
complete apparatus for blowing it by water-power, of 
about six thousand five hundred dollars. With the 
completion of the building came the first and only 
pastor, Rev. David O. Mears, D.D., whowas installed 
on the 3d of July, 1877. Under his ministry church 
and parish kept pace with the most progressive. His 
reputation went abroad beyond Worcester, so that 
several doors were opened to him elsewhere. In 1885 
he was invited to take the presidency of Iowa Col- 
lege. This, after careful consideration, he declined 
as he did also the pastorates of several important 
churches to which he had been invited. 

Park Congregational Church,— -The beginning of 
this church was a Sabbath-school gathered by a 
woman. To Lydia A. Giddings the praise is due. 
Along with and reinforcing her activity came that of 
the city missionary, the Rev. Albert Bryant. This 
was in the autumn of 1884. Presently a council ad- 

vised the establishment of a church and measures 
were taken accordingly. In May, 1885, the Brat ser- 
1 1 u i ti was preached in Agricultural Hall by the Rev. 
J. F. Lovering, pastor of the Old South. The labor 
ing oar was now placed in tin- bands of the Rev. I>r. 
A. E. 1'. Perkins, a resident minister without charge 
Through bis efficient labors, with those of bis coad- 
jutors, such progress was made that in the summer of 
1886 a commodious chapel bad been erected, and on 
the 26th nf September was dedicated. The land for 
the site, cm the corner ol Elm and Russell Streets, 
was the gift of David Whitcomb. Including this, 
the whole cost was aboul nine thousand dollars. 
The title of the properly is in the City Missionary So- 
ciety. On the 24th of February, 1887, the church 
was constituted and at the same time the Rev. Oeorge 
S. Pelton, formerly of Omaha, was installed as its 
lirst pastor. At first a Society was organized on the 

old double-headed plan ; but after near!} e year of 

church life passed in this way Park Church took 
advantage of the general law for the incorporation of 
churches enacted in 1887, and on the 17th of Janu- 
ary, 1888, took on corporate powers and became 
itself a parish. Both men and women were named 
among the corporators, and both were made responsi- 
ble for the " government of the body " so far as they 
were "legal voters.'' The aim was to make impossi 
ble the old-time antagonism of church and parish. 
I'h is the scheme assured. But just as under the old 
Congregational way, so now, there still remained two 
bodies in Park Church— a spiritual body independent 
of law and an artificial body subject to law. 

Pilgrim Congregational Church. — The origin of 
this church was in marked contrast with that of the 
Plymouth and Piedmont Churches. While they 
sprang into existence as it were full-grown ami dis 
played masculine vigor from the first, Pilgrim Church 
bad a childhood. It was, in a sense, the child of the 
City .Missionary Society. That society explored the 
ground and prepared the way and supplied the first 
preaching. Because of that society it came to exist 
when and where it did. It first became visible in 
the form of a diminutive Sunday-school, al No. 6 
Hancock Street, on the 13th of May, 1888. Mrs. 
Fannie M. Bond, a city missionary, bad gathered a 
little Hock, and Mrs. Fannie II. tYIighill, whose warm 
co-operation bad been secured, opened her doors for 
its reception. At this first meeting exactly ten 
scholars were present, of whom \\\*i had never before 
been in a Sunday school. By the 8th of July the 
ten had become a crowd and W Hand street school- 
house was secured for its accommodation. In i\\f 
years it had grown to nearly si\ hundred members. 
On the 1st of July, 1884, the school received the gift 
of a lot of land from Mr. F. 1!. Knowles, of Pied- 
mont Church, ami Mrs. Helen C. Knowles, of Union 
Church. The same persons, with others, contributed 
money for the building of a chapel which was tin 
ished and occupied on the 25th of January, L885. 



When completed it was the first of six houses of 
worship now (1888) standing between Piedmont 
Street and New Worcester. On the 16th of Novem- 
ber, 1884, the Rev. Charles M. Southgate began pas- 
toral work. He was a graduate of Yale in the class 
of 1866, and came to Worcester from a pastorate of 
nine years with the Congregational Church in Ded- 
hara. Under the fresh impulse imparted by him the 
enterprise went rapidly forward in the way of its en- 
largement and consummation. On the 19th of 
March, 1885, the church, embracing eighty-eight 
members, was organized, and at the same time the 
pastor was installed. On the 19th of August, 1887, 
ground was broken for the new church edifice, and 
on the 1st of July, 1888, it was dedicated. It stands 
on the corner of Main and Gardner Streets, is one of 
the most attractive churches in the city, and, with the 
other property, is valued at one hundred and ten 
thousand dollars. The auditorium has more than 
one thousand and fifty sittings, while the rooms ilc 
TOted t" the Sunday school accommodate more than 
six huudred persons. The society connected with 

this church was incorporated on the 13th of April, 
1885. The by-laws provide that all male adult mem- 
bers of the church shall, and "any'' adult members 
may, become members of the society. 

Three things distinguish this from other Congrega- 
tional Churches, and probably from all Other churches 
in the city. The first is, the church and parish 
status. By requiring adult male members of the 
church to become members of the parish and mem- 
bers of the palish to be members of the church, it 
was designed, as in Park Church, among other things, 

to make antagonism between the two bodies impossi- 
ble. One further thing seems essential to thee 

plete success of this plan, and that is, to require all 
female, as well as male, adult members of the church 

to become membersalso of the parish. Without this, 
antagonism, however improbable, is nevertheless 
possible. The second distinguishing thing is the 
unh|iic and admirable provision lor the accommoda- 
tion of the Sunday school. A 'spacious primary 
room, parlor and ten separate class-rooms have been 
so arranged that each can he shut off from the rest 
during the study of the lesson and then all thrown 
into one again for the general exercises. The third 
thing is the provision for the secular side of this 
church organization. The first chapel was moved to 
one side, named Pilgriui Hall, and fitted up with 
rooms for a gymnasium, carpenter's shop, boys' read- 
ing room, hall for social purposes and a kitchen. In 
this Hall the healthful secular lifeof Pilgrim Church 
goes on through all the secular days of the week. 
The membership of this church at the close id' the 
year (1888) was two hundred and fifty. 

Church of the Covenant. — This church is an anom- 
aly of Congregationalism. At present it is tripartite, 
hut it may become quadrupartite and indefinitely 
more. Under one church organization there are thus 

far three " sections," each in a different part of the 
city. The names of these are, the Houghton Street 
Section, South Worcester Section and Lake View 
Section. Eich section is an inchoate church, having 
some, but not all the powers of a Congregational 
Church. The peculiar organization grew out of the 
needs of the chapel congregations in charge of the 
City Missionary Society. Upon the incorporation of 
this society, in 1883, the congregations at South Wor- 
cester and Lake View Came under its care. On the 
L9th'of October, 1884, it organized a Sundayscbool 
in the neighborhood of Houghton Street, and on the 

loth of October, L885, dedicated the Bough street 

Chapel. In the chapel a council assembled on the 
10th of December following to organize the church. 
At an adjourned meeting of the council held in the 
vestry of Plymouth Church, on the 22d of December, 
the business in hand was completed by the public re- 
cognition of the ( Ihurch of the Covenant. In Janu- 
ary, 1886, there were forty communicants in all the 
sections, of whom more than one half were in the 
Houghton Streel Section. 

Due provision was made lor the practical working 
■of this anomalous church. It was placed under the 
''pastoral care" of the City Missionary Society, with 

the city missionary, Rev, Albert Bryant, for its pastor. 
K:eli section was I anage its own sectional affairs. 

liie pastor of the church was to be the pastor of tile 

section and preside at all its meetings He was to 
perform all pastoral, pulpit and sacramental duties 
for each separately. There was to lie a secretary of 
the section and a clerk of the church, the former of 
whom was to transmit his record of sectional doings 
to the latter for permanent record. Each section was 
to elect one deacon or more, and the sectional deacons 
were collectively to he the deacons of the church. 
Any section might admit and dismiss members of il8 
own body, hut the duty of issuing letters of dismis- 
sion and recommendation was laid upon the clerk, 

The discipline of its own members was placed exclu- 
sively in the hands of the section, as though it were 
an independent church. Matters of interest common 
to all the sections were referred to a general advisory 
board. This was to consist of the pa-tor. standing 
committees of the sections and two representatives of 

the City Missionary Society chosen annually. Bj 
this board the clerk of the ihurch was to he annually 
elected. If the church was to he represented in any 
ecclesiastical body, each section wa- to take its turn 
in appointing the representative. Finally, the whole 
church and each section were to hoi, I separate annual 
meetings. The title to all the property was vested in 
the City Missionary Society. After a trial of several 
years the working of the plan fully met the expecta- 
tion of its authors. At the close of the year L888 
the membership had increased to siyty, more than 
half of which still belonged to the Houghton Street 

Presbyterians. — In the year 1718 about one bun- 


l 167 

dred families of Scotch descent and Presbyterian 
principles emigrated to this country from the north 
of Ireland. Landing at Boston, they dispersed to 
various points in Massachusetts and New Hampshire. 
A part came to Worcester, and in the next year 
gathered a church after the Presbyterian way. A 
minister, Rev. Edward Fitzgerald, accompanied them 
and preached to them for some months. Their place 
ill' worship was at first in the garrison -house, then 
recently built, near the junction of the Boston and 
Lancaster roads. Very soon they began to build a 
house of worship for themselves ; but while it was in 
the process of erection " a body of the inhabitants 
assembled by night and demolished] the structure." 
Discouraged by this unwarrantable 'opposition, they 
made no further attempt to build a sanctuary. But 
the church continued to hold on its way for some 
years. For awhile they worshipped with the Congre- 
gational church, nearly equalling them in numbers; 
but, failing in this way to secure any preaching of 
their own kind, they withdrew and again became 
separate with the Rev. William Johnson as their 
minister. While supporting him, however, they were 
also compelled by law to contribute their share to the 
support of the church of the "standing order.'' From 
this burden they, in 1780, asked but failed to he re- 
lieved. In the end, by successive removals and other- 
wise, this first Presbyterian Church in Worcester 
gradually vanished out of existence, and for nearly 
.one hundred and fifty years no further attempt was 
made in that direction. Conspicuous among this 
early company of Scotch Presbyterians was William 
Caldwell, who very soon went from Worcester with 
his family and became the founder of the town of 
Barre. He lived to be one hundred yearsold, lacking- 
one year. His grandson, William Caldwell, became 
the sheriff of Worcester County — " the mode] sheriff,'' 
as Governor Lincoln styled him. An ancestor of 
General George B. McClellan was also among these 
early Presbyterians of Worcester. 

After the long interval already mentioned a second 
Presbyterian church was constituted. The first 
meeting for this purpose was held on the 21st of Feb- 
ruary, 1886, and on the first Sunday in April follow- 
ing public worship was inaugurated. The church was 
formally organized by the Presbytery of Boston on 
the first Sunday in September, 188C, with forty-eight 
members and the Rev. J. H. Ralston as actiug pastor. 
Mr. Ralston was a graduate of Alleghany Seminary, 
afterwards was in Kansas for seven years as a home 
missionary, and was called to Worcester from that 
distant field of labor. The place of worship for this 
church is a hall in the building of the Young Men's 
Christian Association. 

I'xitarian Congregationalists — First Unita- 
rian c/nirr/i. — For about three-quarters of a century 
one church and one parish sufficed for the inhabitants 
of Worcester. Then the "Second Parish in the town 
of Worcester " was organized. That was and Mill 

remains it.-- corporate name, although tl ganiza- 

tion is commonly known as tin- First I nitarian 
Church, 'file genesis of the new body came about 

"M this wise: The Rev. Mr. Maccarty, after a long 

and peaceful ministry with the first Church, had 

grown old, fallen sick and be< le unable to preach. 

A young man about thirty years old, Mr. Aaron 
Bancroft, was found to take his place in the pulpit. 
Alter be had preached for eight Sundays, M r. Mac 

carty bad so far recovered as to be able to resume 
bis pulpit, and Mr. Bancroft went away. In the next 

year the aged minister died and Mr. Bancroft was 

again called in. This time bis preaching caused 
commotion. Differences of opinion sprang up; the 
parish became divided, the peace of the town was 
disturbed and social intercourse interrupted. \ sec 

ond time Mr. Bancroft went away. Then the town — 
not the church — improved the opportunity to vote in 
town-meeting " that there be a day set apart lor fast- 
ing and prayer in this town for calling on the Divine 
assistance for the re-establishment of the gospel min- 
istry in this place." The town adjourned its meeting 
for one week, and then, four days before the one 
appointed for the fast, voted to have'' Mr. Haven" 
preach four Sundays and after him Mr. Bancroft lour. 
This arrangement brought Mr. Bancroft's first Sunday 
on the 10th of January, 1785. The date is significant. 
Three days later, without waiting to hear him on the 
remaining three Sundays, his admirers to the number 
of fifty-four signed and presented a petition for the 
town — not the church — to take action looking 
towards his settlement as Mr. Maccarty's succes ot 
In the town-meeting held in response to this peti- 
tion on the 1st of March, they moved this remarkable 
proposition : "That the town agree to settle Mr. Ban- 
croft in the work of the gospel ministry, and such 
other person as may he agreeable to and chosen 
solely by those who are desirous of hearing Curt her, 
and the settlement and salaries of both to be at the 
expense of the Town at large." The record says 
that " there was some debate." It adds that it 
passed in the negative. Defeated on this point, the 
petitioners then moved for leave to form a religious so- 
ciety over which Mr. Bancroft might be settled. This, 
too, passed in the negative. They then proceeded to 
take what the town had refused, with all its financial 
consequences. A voluntary association was formed, 
a covenant adopted and a church organized. Of 
the sixty-seven associates, only two men anil four 
women had been communicants. But these, even, 
not having been dismissed from any other church for 
the purpose, were not competent, according to usage, 
to form the new one. A novel expedient was devised 
to meet this novel situation. A public " lecture" 
was appointed, at which the covenant was read and 
explained and then signed by all who chose to. In 
this way the church connected with the Second Parish 
was constituted. Public worship began on the third 

Sunday of March in the court-house, with preach- 



ing by Mr. Bancroft. On the 7th of June he con- 
sented to become the minister of the new society, and 
on the 1st day of February, 1786, he was ordained. 
Only two ministers of the vicinage could be found to 
assist, the rest coming from Boston, Salem and Cam- 
bridge. After much difficulty and delay the new 
parish was duly incorporated on the 18th of Novem- 
ber, 1787. It was a poll and not a territorial parish, 
and was the first of the kind in Massachusetts outside 
of Boston. Here some notice may fitly be taken of 
what seems not to have arrested the attention of any 
previous writer. By the ancient law of Massachusetts 
the method of choosing and settling a minister was 
after this manner : the church first made choice ; then 
the parish — i.e., town — concurred or non-concurred. 
Unless there had been church action there was no 
place for parish action. This law, originating in 10!)2i 
continued down through the last century and was in 
force when the Constitution of the Commonwealth 
was adopted. That instrument contained two provis- 
ions bearing on the matter in hand: first, parishes 
were given the exclusive right of electing their public 
teachers; and second, all the laws theretofore in 
force were declared to " remain and be in lull force 
until altered or repealed by the legislature ; such 
parts only excepted as are repugnant to the rights 
and liberties contained in this Constitution." Now. 
on the one hand, the law of 1692 giving to the church 
first and the parish afterwards the right of election 
never was repealed ; but, on the other hand, that law 
was repugnant to the " exclusive right" of election 
given to parishes. And this appears to have been the 
legal status at the date of Mr. Bancroft's candidacy 
in 178f>. The right of the church to any voice in the 
election of its minister had been simply annihilated. 

Whether this was known and fully Linderst 1 at 

that time may well be doubted. Nevertheless, the 
business about Mr. Bancroft went forward precisely 
as though it was understood. The first and only 
resort was to the parish. The parish alone took 
action ; the church took none. So far as its records 
show, Mr. Bancroft was not a candidate before that 
body. His name, even, does not appear on its records. 
The scheme to make him the minister of the First Par- 
ish manifestly originated outside the church and was 
carried on outside. And however much it turmoiled 
the town, it neither rent nor hardly ruffled the church- 
This view is supported by the fact, already stated, 
that only six communicants were found in the new 
movement. After the Bancroft party had withdrawn 
the First Church and Parish resumed their ancient 
relations and proceeded to elect Mr. Story as their 
minister by the rule of 1692; the church choosing 
and the parish concurring. The same course was 
pursued in the subsequent election of Dr. Austin. 
And this would seem to show that the procedure in 
Mr. Bancroft's case was accidental and exceptional, 
and not in the way of using the new power conferred 
on parishes by the new Constitution. 

A house of worship for the Second Parish was the 
next essential thing. With much self-denial on the 
part of both parish and pastor — the latter relinquish- 
ing one-third of his salary — a building was erected, 
and on the 1st day of January, 1792, was dedicated. 
The modest edifice, shorn of its bell-tower and con- 
verted into a school-house, still stands on the spot 
where it was first placed, at the north end of Summer 
Street. Once installed in its pulpit, Dr. Bancroft for 
many years pursued the even tenor of his way, mak- 
ing many friends and no enemies, ami by his virtues 
and writings building up a great and solid reputation. 
After forty-one years a colleague was provided, and 
on the 28th of March, 1827, the Rev. Alonzo Hill 
was ordained to that office. In 1829 the old meeting- 
house was deserted for a new and more spacious one 
builtof brick on thesite occupied by the present edifice. 
On the 19th of August, 1839, Dr. Bancroft departed 
this life at the age of nearly eighty-four. He began 
his preaching in Worcester as an avowed Arminian. 
He was also from the first, .-is he said, an Arian, but 
not an avowed one. At first he forebore to preach the 
Arian or Unitarian doctrine "because,"in his own 
words, "the people were not aide to bear it." When, 
thirty-six years after, he preached a course of contro- 
versial sermons in advocacy of that doctrine, he 
found they were aide to bear it, :is they evinced 

by asking for their publication. Curiously enough, 
one of these old sermons, on the " Annihilation ol 
the Incorrigibly Wicked," places the Unitarian' 
divine squarely by the side of the late rector of 
orthodox " All Sainte." ' The volume called forth a 
high encomium from President John Adams. "Your 
twenty-nine sermons," he wrote, " have expressed the 
result of all my reading, experience and reflections 

in a manner more satisfactory to me than I could 

have done in the besl days of my strength." Besides 

this volume and the best " Lite of Washington" in 
the day of it, l>r. Bancroft was the author of thirty- 
four other publications, chiefly sermons. In the 
" Worcester Pulpit" his character was drawn by the 
"orthodox'' author of that work, with fit expansions 
and illustrations, as that of a benevolent, candid, 
brave, discreet, much-enduring and conscientious 
minister and man. His face, which art has made 
familiar in many places, has all the attractions of the 
ideal saintly pastor. 

On the death of Mr. Bancroft, his colleague, Or. 
Hill, became sole pastor, and so remained for more 
than thirty-one years. On the 29th of August, 1849, 
the church was destroyed by fire. Three days after 
the society began to build anew, and on the 26th of 
March, 1821, dedicated the present church edifice. 
While the body of the building is in the plain 
rectangular style of that day, the spire is a model of 
architectural beauty, [n the pulpit of this church 

'Compare I»i Bancroft's twenty-seventh Bermon with l»r. liuutiug- 
don'a "Conditional Immortality," published more than b^li 'a centun 


i inn 

Dr. Hill completed his ministry of more than forty- 
three years. At the end of forty years from his 
ordination he preached a historical discourse, wherein 
maybe found much interesting information touching 
the Second Parish and his own ministry. His death oc 
curred February I. 1871. 1'r. Hill was a man of rare 
benignity ; his face was a benediction. As a colleague 
he lived in entire harmony with his senior, and a^snle 
pastor he perpetuated all amiable traditions. For 
nearly a century the Second Parish flourished under 
the two pastorates in an atmosphere of peace, diffused 
by the personal influence of the two pastors, 'flic 
third minister of the parish was the Rev. Edward 
H. Hall. He had been installed as the colleague ot 
Dr. Hill on the loth of February, 1809, and succeeded 
as sole pastor at the decease of the latter in 1871. 
Mr. Hall closed his ministry of thirteen years to ac- 
cept the charge of the Unitarian Church in Cam- 
bridge. He had so endeared himself to his parish- 
ioners that with unfeigned regret they yielded to the 
separation. He had continued and re-enforced the 
traditional amenities of the Second Parish ministry. 
He had approved himself "a scholar, and a ripe and 
good one." As a thinker he had pushed his way 
among the deep problems of thought, beyond what 
was commonly known of him. In the literature of 
art he was so much at home that many outside, as well 
as within his own parish, gladly came for instruction 
to the art lectures which he gave on several occasions. 
A broad and tine culture, coupled with a liberal faith, 
appeared to expiess the ideal towards which he con- 
tinually aspired. And so, his transfer to the univer- 
sity town was a fit recognition of his aspirations and 
.growth in that direction. 

A vacancy of about three years was terminated by 
the installation of the Rev. Austin S. (Jarver, in 

Ckwrch of the Unity. — Sixty years alter the forma- 
tion of the First Unitarian Church proceedings for a 
second were initiated. At the close of service in the 
afternoon of June 23, 1844, some pers)ns, at the re- 
quest of eleven members of the Second Parish, tarried 
to hold a conference on the subject. In August a 
committee reported in favor of a new Unitarian society. 
On the 25th of that month a meeting was held at 
which it was voted "to procure funds to pay for 
preaching, to hire a preacher, and to procure a place 
in which to hold religious worship, also to procure 
subscriptions of funds to build a church." Forthwith 
subscriptions were opened, a building fund inaugu- 
rated, the present lot on Elm Street purchased, and 
early in the spring of 1845 the erection of a church 
edifice begun. On the 26th of January in the same 
year the first religious service was conducted by the 
Kev. Dr. James Thompson, of Barre, in a hall over 
the Clarendon Harris book-store. On the 27th of 
November, after the necessary preliminaries, the 
"Second Unitarian Society in Worcester" became a 
body corporate under that name aud style. The 

number of corporators was forty-one, among whom 
were Pliny Merrick and Benjamin F. Thomas, aftei 

wards justices of the Supreme ( 'unit of Massachusetts, 
< >n the 7th of February, 1846, the parish adopted the 
following, which is its only by-law: "Any person 
signing his name to a certificate in a book kept by 
the clerk for that purpose, signifying his intention to 
do so, shall thereby become a member of this parish." 
At the same meeting, by regular action on an article 
which had been pill into the warrant, the' parish 
voted that it> name should be the "Church of the 
Unity." Bui it does not appear that anything was 
ever done to legalize this change of name. • In the 
pith of February, 1846, the Kev. Edward Everett 
Hale was unanimously invited to become the minister 
of the parish. On the 25th of April occurred the 
dedication of the church, and on the 26th the in 
stallation of the minister. The dedicatory sermon — 
a remarkable one — was preached by the Kev. Orville 
Dewey, D.D., and that of the installation by the Rev. 
Samuel Lothrop, D.D. Xo church was ever formed 
in connection with this parish, no creed <>i covenant 
ever adopted, no deacons elected. But, in semblance 
of church order, on the 25th of May, 184o\ the parish, 
at a meeting duly warned, adopted these resolutions : 
" That a committee bedirected to make the necessary 
arrangements for the administration of the ordinances 
of religion : That this church has united for all means 
and purposes of Christian fellowship: Therefore, that 
an invitation be given to all persons present to par- 
take with us of the Lord's Supper." This action 
marked the striking departure from the First Unitar- 
ian Church, which from the beginning had a church 
organization with a covenant, diacouate and solemn 
admission to membership. The ministry of Dr. Hale 
continued for ten years. He then, June 30, 1856, 
resigned his office, not because of any dissatisfaction, 
but because he had received a call to Boston, where he 
would have leisure for study which the constant 
draft for sermon-writing in Worcester would not 
allow. His parishioners were dismayed at this threat- 
ened calamity aud earnestly sought, but were unable 
to avert it. The brilliant career of Dr. Hale since he 
sundered this tie is known to all the world. Nine 
months went by before action was taken to provide 
his successor. On the 19th of April, 1857, from among 
several who had been nominated in the parish meet- 
ing, the parish by a major vote invited the Rev. 
George M. Bartol, of Lancaster to accept the vacant 
place. Mr. Bartol declined the call and the parish 
went on without a minister for a year aud eight 
months longer, wdien, December 22, 1858, the Rev. 
Rush R. Shippen was installed. In July, 1871, -Mr. 
Shippen resigned to take office as secretary of tin 
American Unitarian Association. In a printed dis- 
course Mr. Shippen said : " We observe the Com- 
munion as a Memorial Service only." Under his 
ministry, in 1865, the church edifice was enlarged by 
the addition of forty -six pews at a cost of five thousand 

1 170 


dollars. After nearly two years the Rev. Henry 
Blanchard was installed on the 4th of May, 1873. 
Mr. Blanchard came into the parish from among the 
Universalists, and when he left returned into that fold. 
But while with the Church of the Unity, he sought, 
in a printed letter addressed to his parishioners, to 
define more exactly their dogmatic position by this 
utterance: "We stand for liberty of thought and 
Christianity. We define this latter, in the words of 
Noah Webster, to be 'the system of precepts and 
doctrines taught by Jesus Christ.' We learn these 
from the words of the teacher as they are taught in 
the New Testament." Mr. Blanchard's resignation 
was dated March 4, 1880, and was accepted to take 
effect on the 1st of April following. The Rev. Roland 
A. Wood, by birth an Englishman, was installed as 
his successor on the 1st of June, 1881. On the 14th 
of September, 1884, he resigned his office, and oil the 
1st of January, 1885, the resignation took effect. A 
year elapsed before another minister was settled ; 
.luring this interval extensive improvements were 
made upon the church edifice by the construction "I 
parish rooms and a general application of decorative 
art. The colt of this outlay was fifteen thousand 

dollars. In this renovated and attractive edifice the 
Rev. Calvin Stebbins was installed as the fifth 

minister of the Church of the I uity in January, L886. 

In the autumn of 1888 Mr. Stebbins and other 
Unitarians began a mission of that order near New 
Worcester. By the 27th of January, L889, the enter- 
prise bad made such progress that measures were 
then adopted for the organization of the third I uitai 
ian Society in Worcester. At that date every pros- 
pect favored the consummation of the plan. 

Baptists — Firtt Baptist Church. -James Wilson 
was the founder of the Baptist Societies in Worces 
ter. He was a layman who came here from England, 
bringing .his Baptist principles with him. <>n his 
arrival he found no one in Won ester like minded 
with himself save two old persons and Dr. John 
Green, who soon disappeared, leaving him alone. 
Trinitarian Congregationalism and Unitarian ton 
gregationalism were in complete possession of tin 
ground, with two doughty doctors of divinity to 
maintain it against all comers. But Mr. Wilson was 
neither dismayed, nor converted, nor driven away 
He had a great staying quality, and because of it tin 
Baptist idea at last took root and Hourished. From 
1795, the year of his coming, until the constitution ol 
the First Baptist Church, in 1812, he kept the faith, 
occasionally had meetings for religious worship in 
his dwelling-house, and did what he could to nourish 
the seed he had planted. In time an association was 
formed, occasional preaching was had and the Cen- 
tre School-house was rented for Sunday service. 
"Opposition applied the spice." On the 28th ol 
September, 1812, the Rev. William Bentley was em- 
ployed on a salary; on the 9th of December "the 
Baptist Church in Worcester" was constituted. It 

was composed of twenty-eight members, equally di- 
vided between the sexes. The first pastor was in- 
stalled on the same day. Mr. Wilson became one of 
the deacons, and probably the first. He had long 
before won the respect and confidence of his fellow- 
townsmen, so that, in 1801, he had been made the 
postmaster of Worcester, and he so continued until 
his removal to Ohio, in 1833. The creed of the 
church is given at length in Lincoln's " History." 
In the year 1813 the first meeting-house was begun 
and completed, and on the 23d of December was 
dedicated. It stood on tin- site of tin present build- 
ing. Mr. Bentley remained in charge until the Hist 
of June, 1813, when he asked and obtained a dis- 
mission. On the 3d of November, in the same year, 
the Rev. Jonathan Going accepted a call to the va- 
cant pulpit. He remained till January, 1832, when, 
at his own request, he. too, was dismissed. The rea- 
son which he assigned lor this step was, " that he 
might devote himself to the interests of home mis- 
sions, especially in the valley of tin' .Mississippi." 
IB- had visited the West the J ear before, and had 
come back greatly pressed in spirit to go to its help. 
I )i . i biing was a remarkable man. 1 le had been edu- 
cated beyond many of his Baptist brethren, while his 
natural powers W( re "f a superior order. In advance 

of his contemporaries he had a vision of the wonder- 
ful future of the great Western valley, and deter- 
mined to do his part in giving it a Bet towards the 

right. Without loss of time the Rev. Frederic A. 

Willard stepped into the pulpit left vacant by Dr. 
Going. He was a graduate id' Amherst in the class 
of 1826. The year before coming to Worcester be 

had received, but declined, an appointment to the. 
professorship of chemistry in Waters die College. 
Having remained with the Worcester church till 

July 30, 1835, he then resigned, to become later the 
pastor of the first Baptist Church in Newton. He 
was succeeded, on tin J7tli of October, by the Rev. 

Jonathan Aldrich, Who, after seeing the church en- 
larged, by the addition ol' two hundred and eighteen 
members, took his dismission in May, 1838. In 
April of the following year the Kcv. Samuel B. 
Swaim became the pastor, and s,, remained for more 
than fifteen years, lie was a graduate of Brown 
University in the das, of 1830; in 1835 he had ac- 
cepted a professorship of theology in Granville Col- 
lege, which the poverty of the college had not al- 
lowed him to retain. His ministry was one of great 

power. Under it the church "attained its highest 
numerical, social and financial condition." His 
death, at the age ol fifty-five years, was felt to be 
nothing less than a calamity. In 1855 the Rev. J. D. 
E. Jones became the next pastor. After holding his 
office during four years he resigned it, in 1859, to be- 
come superintendent of public schools. He was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Lemuel Moss, on the 14th of Au- 
gust, 1860. Remaining until the 25th of duly, 1864, 
he then resigned his pulpit. Dr. Moss subsequently 



became president of Indiana State University. On 
the first Sabbath in April, 1865, the Rev. II. K. 
Pervear entered upon his duties as the next pastor of 
this church. On the last day of the year 1N72 his 
past. nate came to an end, and ou the 1st day ol 
April, 1873, the Rev. I'.. D. Marshall began his la- 
bors as the ninth pastor of the First Baptist Church. 
After a service of fourteen years Dr. .Marshall re- 
signed his office on the last Sabbath in March, 1887. 
His successor, the Rev. George 0. Craft, was in- 
ducted into office in January, 1888. 

The present church was erected in the lime of Mr. 
Aldrich, on the site of the original building, which 
had been destroyed by fire. It was a larger and liner 
building than the first, and from time to time under- 
went important improvements, the latest of which, 
in 1S88, involved an expenditure of nine thousand 

Second Baptist Church. — This was a colony from 
the First Church. It was constituted on the 28th 
day of December, 1841, with ninety-eight members, 
of whom eighty-nine were from the parent church. 
In one year one hundred more were added. The 
first preacher was the Rev. John Jennings, and the 
first place of worship was the Town Hall, where 
religious services continued to be held till the close 
of L843. On the lib of January, 1844, the new 
house of worship on Pleasant Street was dedicated. 
No society was organized; the business of the body 
was transacted by the church, which was the owner 
of the property. The Rev. Mr. Jennings had be- 
come the pastor early in 1842, and he resigned 
his charge on the 27th of November, 184!f, after 
nearly eight years of successful service. His succes- 
sor was the' Rev. Charles K. Coiver who accepted a 
call to the pastorate on the 14th of April, 1850. 
After four years of service failure of health obliged 
him to resign his place. The next pastor was the 
Rev. Daniel W. Faunce, who entered upon his duties 
on the 1st of September, 1854. 

In the year 1856 the house of worship was repaired 
and remodeled ''at a large expense." The front was 
rebuilt because of the change in the street grade ; the 
style of architecture was altered and a tower added. 
In 1860 Dr. Faunce tendered his resignation, to take 
effect on the 30th of April. On the 11th of June 
following the Rev. J. J. Tucker accepted a call to 
the pastorate, but after a service of fifteen months 
felt compelled, by the force of circumstances, to re- 
sign his place on the 30th of September, 1861. For 
nearly a year the church was without a pastor; then 
it was fortunate in securing the services of the Rev. 
David Weston. Having accepted a call some weeks 
before, he was duly "ordained in August, 1802, as the 
fifth pastor id' the Pleasant, Street Church. Dr. 
Weston fulfilled bis office with great satisfaction to 
the people of his charge for more than eight years, 
and then, ou the 25th of November, 187(1, laid it 
down " to engage in another sphere of labor." The 

church, in a series of lender resolutions, bore it- tes- 
timony I' i him as "a ripe scholar, skillful aeroionizer 
inil sound theologian." 

Two ministers in succession were now called, bul 
both declined the call. On the 7th of June, 1872, 

the Rev. I. R. Wheelock received a call, accepted il 
mi the Dull of July, and was ordained on the 1st of 

August. After nearly three years his resignation 

was accepted ou the 28th of March. 1875. He was 
followed by the Rev. Sullivan S. dolman, who was 

installed on the loth of June .if the same year. 

Having accepted a call to another field of labor. Mr. 
Holmau offered his resignation, which was accepted 
on the loth of March, 1882, " with feelings of -or- 
row." Six months after Rev. J. S. James, of Allen- 
town, Pa., received ami declined a call. On the 7th 
of December following the Rev. Henry 1'. Lane ac- 
cepted a unanimous call, and ou the first Sunday in 
January, 1883, entered upon his new mini -try. On 
the 1-4 day of March, 1888, his term id' service was 
terminated, by the joint action of pa-tor and people, 
alter live years of uninterrupted harmony. On the 
27th of June the Rev. H. J. White accepted a call 
which bad been giveu on the 6th of thai month. 

Main Street Baptist Church. — This was a second 
colony from the First Baptist Church. In June, 
1852, a petition by Eli Thayer and fifteen others was 
presented to that church, expressing a desire to form 
a third Baptist Church. They declared their readi- 
ness to begin at once, and dutifully asked for the 
support and approval of the mother church. The 
maternal sanction was promptly and cordially 
granted; the City Hall was at once engaged, and 
there, in July, the Rev. Dr. Sharp, id' Boston, 
preached the first sermon for the new colony. Pub- 
lic worship was maintained in the same place until 
November, when the place of meeting was trans- 
ferred to Brinley Hall. There a Sunday school was 
organized, and there preaching by the Rev. S. S. Cut 
ting was continued through the winter. In the even- 
ing of February 26, 1853, a parish organization was 
duly perfected under the name of the "Third Bap- 
tist Society in Worcester." The business was done 
in the law-office of Francis Way land, Jr., under a 
warrant issued by Isaac Davis. On Sunday, the next 
day, a committee was appointed to prepare Articles 
of faith and a Covenant with a view to a church 
organization. On the 6th of March what were known 
as the "New Hampshire Articles of Faith" and 
"Covenant" were adopted, a clerk was chosen, and 
the church constituted with thirty-three members. Al 
the same time the Rev. William 11. F. Hansel was 
chosen to be the pastor ; but the call he declined. 

On the 18th of May the society voted to build a 
chapel at the corner id' Leicester (now llcrmon) and 
Main Streets. On the 23d of June the recognition 
of the new church look place with a sermon by the 
Rev. Dr. [de, of Springfield. In the course of the 
year the chapel was completed at a cost, including 



that of land and furnishing, of $6461.17. On the 
first Sunday in January, 1854, it was occupied for the 
first time for public worship. On the 18th of Sep- 
tember following Mr. H. L. Wayland was unanimously 
called to the pastorate. In accepting the call he re- 
linquished two hundred dollars of the moderate sal- 
ary which had been voted to him, as a contribution 
to the expenses of the society. On the 1st of 
November occurred his ordination, President Way- 
land preaching the sermon. On the 12th of Febru- 
ary, 1855, plans for a church edifice were adopted 
and a building committee chosen. Early in May 
ground was broken ; in the course of the year the 
house was finished, and on the second Sunday in 
January, 1856, was occupied for public worship. The 
whole property, including church, chapel, hind and 
furnishing, had cost $25,174.01. 

After a highly successful ministry of seven years 
the resignation of Mr. Wayland was accepted, with 
much regret, on the 4th of October, 1st;]. A week 
before he had left his home to enter the service of 
the Republic as chaplain of the Seventh Connecticut 
Volunteers. For twenty-eight months be continued 
in that service; then became successively a home 
missionary in Tennessee, a teacher in two Western 
colleges, an editor in Philadelphia. On tin' first 
Sunday in May, L862, his successor, Rev. Joseph 
Banvard entered upon the duties of his office'. On 
the 15th of February, 1864, the parish voted to 
change its name, and take the name of the " Main 
Street Baptist Society," and al the same time took 
measures to obtain the legislative sanction thereto. 
Dr. Banvard having resigned after a ministry of 
nearly four years, adhered to his purpose against the 
earnest wishes of the church expressed in its vote ol 
March '.'. 1866. The church then elected as his suc- 
cessor the Rev. George B. Gow, in recognition of 
whom public services were had on the 18th of April, 


In the next year an attempt was made to introduce 
the system of free seats ; but, though the church 
adopted a vote affirming it to be " unscriptural and 
unchristian to rent seats,'' and offering to sustain the 
society in abolishing rentals, the latter body was 
found to be not then prepared for the innovation. In 
1872 Mr. Gow's resignation was accepted, to take 
effect on the last Sunday in October. His successor 
was the Rev. F. W. Bakeman, who, after a pastorate 
of about three years and three months, terminated 
the same on the 1st of July, 1876. After an interval 
of sixteen months the Rev. George E. Horr became 
the fifth pastor of the church. He entered upon the 
duties of his office on the 4th of November, 1S77, 
with services of recognition on the 20th. Before the 
close of this year the chapel was enlarged and im- 
proved at a cost of $4829.40. 

On the 2d of November, 1879, the twenty-fifth an- 
niversary of the ordination of the first pastor, Rev. 
Dr. H. L. Wayland, was appropriately observed. A 

discourse full of interesting reminiscences was deliv- 
ered by Dr. Wayland, and afterwards printed by re- 
quest. In honor of him it was voted, about this 
time, " that the bell to be placed on the tower bear 
the inscription, Wayland Memorial." By a change 
in the by-laws on the H>th of February, 1881, no 
person was thereafter to be admitted to membership 
in the parish who was not already a member of the 
church. On the 24th of October in the same year 
the resignation of Mr. Horr was accepted; and on 
the 3d of October in the next year, by a vote of 
thirty-nine to three, the Rev. Henry A. Rogers, of 
Moutpelier, Vt., was called to the pastorate. 

In 1883 an act was consummated by the parish that 
was, perhaps, without precedent. Acting upon the 
written opinion of the Hon. Peter <'. Bacon, LL.D., 
the Nestor of the Worcester bar, the parish, at a 
meeting held on the 24th of April and .Sth of May, 
under a warrant drawn by Mr. Bacon, transferred, in 
the way of gift, its meeting-house an.! all its other 
property, real and personal, to the deacons, " for the 
Use Of the Church.'' In tin' warrant was an article 

"to Bee if the society would take any action in re- 
gard to dissolving the society." No formal action 
was taken under this article. After provision had 
been made for transferring the property it was 
■ voted to adjourn without clay." N eeting oi the 

parish was ever held after that, and evidently it was 
assumed that (he parish "as " dissolved." But to all 
appearance the " Main Street Baptist Society " still 
live- and has a name to live. 

Mr. Rogers continued his ministry with the Main 
Street Church until 1886, when a growing disagree- 
ment between him and certain ol' the membership, 
and also within the membership itself, culminated in 
the summary dismission of himself and fifty-six 
others on the 27th of October, "for the purpose of 
forming a Baptist church in the south part of the 
city." At the same time the pastor ga\c in his res- 
ignation, to take effect on the 31st. On the next day 
it was unanimously accepted. On the 19th of I >e- 
cember the Main Street Church proposed a mutual 
council to the "South Baptist < 'hurch," but the over- 
ture was declined. On the 31sl of January, L887, 
Professor ('. R. Newton was employed to supply the 
pulpit as acting pastor. This continued until the 23d 
of September, when the Rev. Charles H.Pendleton 
was duly installed. 

Dewey Street Hnj'iist Church. — As in many other 
cases, a Sunday-school was the beginning of this 
church. It was organized in the Mason Street 
school-house oit the first Sunday in August, 1867. 
Mr. L. M. Sargent and other laymen from the First 
Baptist Church were the original movers in the en- 
terprise. For several years Joseph II. Walker, mem- 
ber of Congress elect, was its superintendent. Under 
his efficient administration the school prospered so 
greatly that more ample accommodations were 
i speedily called for. This led to the building of the 


1 it:; 

chapel on Dewey Street. The lot on which it was 
erected was the joint gift of t lie late Judge Francis 
H. Dewey and Joseph Mason, Esq. Including this 
land, valued al $750, the cost of the property was 
s4,-".7o. Of this sum, §1000 was the gifl of Mr. Walk- 
er. The dedication of the chapel took place on the 
8th of February, 187:2, and from that date it was oc- 
cupied for the Sunday school and religious services. 
The church was organized on the 8th of July in the 
same year with a membership of twenty-eight. Its 
first pastor was Mr. Sargent, the layman to wdiose 
zeal and efliciency the church had owed its origin. 
During five years of devoted service he had approved 
himself in that and other ways, worthy of recognition 
as one among the clerical brethren. Accordingly, on 
the 2d of May, 1872, he was called to the ministry of 
the Dewey Street congregation. This was two months 
before the church had been formed. On the 5th of 
September it was recognized by a council convened 
in the chapel, and at the same time Mr. Sargent was 
ordained to the work of the ministry and installed as 
pastor of the church. Ilia ministry was brief. On 
account of ill health he resigned on the 2d of May, 
1873. At the close of his term of service the mem- 
bership of the church had increased to forty-four 
persons. The next pastor was the Rev, D. F. Lam- 
son. Coming on the 1st of July, 1873, and remain- 
ing nine and a half years, he left, on the 1st of Janu- 
ary, 1S82, a church embracing ninety-five members. 
His successor, Rev. B. H. Lane, entered on his office 
on the 1st of June, 1882, and vacated it on the 15th of 
October, 1884. tin the l!>th of the same month the 
Rev. D. H. Stoddard assumed the office. Growing 
congregations and consequent prosperity soon made 
apparent the inadequacy of the chapel accommoda- 
tions. Mr. Stoddard therefore took in hand the busi- 
ness of building a church edifice; and the Baptist 
City Mission Hoard, seeing the importance of the Held 
and its manifest needs, cordially co-operated with Mr. 
Stoddard in his scheme of church-building. With 
the aid of $7,000 from this source, more land was 
bought and a commodious edifice, with "perfect ven- 
tilation," was erected at a cost of $14,844. The value 
of the enlarged lot was reckoned at §2,01)0 additional. 
( )n Thanksgiving day in 1886 the vestry was first oc- 
cupied, and on the 13th of January, 1887, the com- 
pleted building was dedicated. The property is held 
by trustees, there being no parish organization. The 
seats are free and the current expenses are paid by 
weekly contributions. At the close of the year 1888 
the membership of the church was one hundred and 

Lincoln Square Baptist Church. — This church grew 
from very feeble beginnings. Sunday schools had 
been begun and discontinued ; only occasional preach- 
ing had been had. Material resources were limited 
and lack of courage prevailed. Many years elapsed 
before the decisive step of forming a church was 
taken. There came a time, at last, when some of the 

waiting ones "heard a call from God to go forward," 
anil on the 4th of April, 1881, the church was organ- 
ized. The original membership consisted of thirty- 
one persons, largely from the Pleasant Street Church. 
Public services of recognition were held on the next 
day in accordance with the vote of council. Through 
the summer following preaching was supplied by the 
Rev. 1). F. Lamson, of the Dewey Street Church. In 
October the Rev. J. J. Miller entered upon his work 
as the first pastor. Till then public worship had been 
conducted in a hall; but the new pastor made it his 
first business to provide a church edifice. To his un- 
wearied endeavors and personal influence it was owing 
that the enterprise was successful. In May, 1882, a 
building-lot on Highland Street near Lincoln Square 
was purchased and a substantial edifice of brick and 
stone of excellent architectural design was erected. 
The lower part of the house was occupied for relig- 
ious services on the 8th of July, 1883. On the 10th 
of June, 1884, the dedication of the complete build- 
ing took place. The cost of land, building and fur- 
niture was about thirty thousand dollars. Of this 
amount Joseph H. Walker, of the Main Street Bap- 
tist Church, was the largest contributor. Gifts also 
were made by friends outside the Baptist fold. "The 
property is held and controlled by the church through 
its appointed officers." The seats are free and current 
expenses are met by weekly offerings. In 1888 the 
membership was three hundred and seventy. 

South Baptist Church. — The inception of this 
youngest of the Baptist Churches was as early as 1883, 
and was due to the Rev. Henry A. Rogers, then re- 
cently installed as pastor of the Main Street Baptist 
Church. Mr. Rogers believed in " missions," and had 
passed much of his life in setting them on foot. Im- 
mediately on beginning work in Worcester he took 
note of the fact that the whole section lying south of 
the Main Street Church was without any kind of 
Baptist organization. He therefore proposed to his 
own church the establishment of a mission in that 
quarter. The proposal met with little encourage- 
ment. Then he began a mission at his own charge. 
( >ne day in June, 1883, he was casually introduced 
to a young Frenchman named Isaac B. Le Claire. 
This man had led an abandoned life, had been a 
Roman Catholic, and not very long before had been 
converted to the Baptist faith and was now living a 
sober life. A brief interview ended in his being em- 
ployed by Mr. Rogers as a colporteur. He at once 
went to work holding meetings in school-houses and 
private houses. The results of his work proved him 
to be the right mau in the right place; and, indeed, 
his subsequent career in a far wider field showed 
that he had a remarkable fitness for his work. His 
immediate success in South Worcester was such that 
by August the Main Street Church felt constrained to 
assume the charge of the mission. By the winter of 
1884, every available place of meeting had become so 
crowded that Le Claire was moved to ask for the build- 



ing of a chapel ; his request was promptly heeded, 
and the chapel at Jamesville was the result. All this 
was preparatory for the South Church scheme. The 
first suggestion for a chapel on the site which it after- 
wards occupied was made in January, 1884, at a 
prayer -meeting in the house of William A. Norton. 
In February Mr. Rogers urged the new chapel upon 
his people, expressing with much detail the reasons 
for the enterprise. After a time the Baptist City Mis- 
sion Board became possessed, as not before, with the 
mission idea and adopted a comprehensive plan for 
the city, including the South Worcester Mission. On 
the 14th of September, 1886, the Board took measures 
to secure the lot already mentioned, on the corner of 
Main and Gates Streets. On the 1st of October the 
Main Street Church, at a very large meeting of eighty- 
one members, unanimously voted in favor of the 
South Church enterprise. In view of this action, the 
board on the 19th made over all claim to the lot in 
favor of the South Church. On the 21st a large 
number of the Main Street Church agreed together 
to ask letters of dismission for the purpose of organ- 
izing the South Church. On the 27th, at a covenant 
and business meeting of the Main Street Church, 
where one hundred and thirty persons were present, 
of whom not less than one hundred and twenty were, 
by estimation, of the membership, fifty-seven were 
dismissed by a large majority vote. But of the fifty- 
seven only forty were present at the meeting. ( >n 
the next day, October 28th, the fifty -seven members, 
including Mr. Rogers, assembled in the chapel on 
Canterbury Street and were constituted a church by 
the adoption of Articles of Faith and the election oi 
deacons and clerk. At the same meeting was con- 
summated the settlement of Mr. Rogers as pastoi oi 
the new church. On the 27th of February, 1887, the 
church was publicly recognized by a council duly con- 
vened. The Baptist Mission Board, having acquired 
possession of the old Dewey Street Chapel, conveyed 
the same to the new organization and it was removed 
to the lot already described, and there, fronting Clark 
University, on the 30th of December, 1887, it became 
the church home of the South Baptist Church. No 
parish was organized, but the deacons were made 
trustees, to hold the property for the use of the 
church, after the method advised by Mr. Bacon in 
the case of the Main Street Church. Laud, chapel 
and other property cost the South Church $5,000. 
The membership was one hundred and fifty-seven at 
the close of the year 1888. 

Methodists. — Methodism made its first approaches 
for the capture of Worcester after a somewhat strag- 
gling fashion. In 1790, the Rev. Freeborn Garrettson, 
" that princely class-leader," as Dr. Dorchester styles 
him, came to Worcester, looked about town, fell in 
with Dr. Bancroft, by him was invited to tea, " drew 
back " because the Unitarian doctor did not think it 
worth while to say grace over the evening cup, and 
went on his way. Mr. Garrettson tells the story in 

bis private diary. The urbane Unitarian doctor was, 
perhaps, no less devout than his demonstrative Meth- 
odist brother, but in the seclusion of his own home he 
chose to order his devotions in his own way. Next 
after Mr. Garrettson came Bishop Asbury, in 1798, in 
1805, 1807, 1812 and 1815. But neither he nor any 
other itinerant found any foothold in Worcester until 
1823. Then the Rev. John E. Risley came and 
preached the first Methodist sermon heard in the 
town. Mr. Risley was travelling the Milford Circuit, 
embracing eighteen towns. In these he preached 
two hundred and thirty-five times in one year, but 
only five of them were in Worcester. These preach- 
ings were in a school-house at New Worcester, where 
were the only Methodists in town, anil of these only 
a family or two. Other preachers came in subsequent 
years, but not until 1831 was any permanent society 
organized, forty-one years alter Garrettson's advent. 
In . June, 1830, the Rev. Dexter S. King had been 
appointed to this vacant Geld "to break up new 
ground." He began at New Worcester where he 
organized a class. This class was " kept alive" with 
preaching in the school-house once in two weeks. 
In 1833, Solomon Parsons joined the class and then 
began a movement foi a society in the centre of the 
town. The way had been prepared by a young lad 
named Jonathan L. Estey, who came to town early in 
1832 full of zeal to hunt up and cons Mt with Meth- 
odists. He at last found an. I became a member of 
the class at New Worcester, and by his zeal so in- 
fected his associates that in I lie end Methodist preach- 
ing was established in the Centre. Early in 1833, a 
room was hired at the corner of .Mechanic and Union 
streets for the use of a < lass. There the Rev. William 
Routledge preached at times ; at other times he 
preached in the Central Church vestry and in the 
Baptist Church. In the autumn what was considered 
a bold step was taken. Eighteen persons, at the 
head of whom was Solomon Parsons, presented to the 
town authorities a petition tor leave to use the Town 
Hall for Methodist meetings. Leave was formally 
I granted, and the first Methodist sermon was preached 
there by the Rev. Ira M. Bidwell. Then the work 
I went on " in the eld Methodist style.'' " The hall 
was crowded, and," says Bidwell, " we had a time of 
power. Alter this we did not want for a congrega- 
tion in Worcester." Early in 1834 the Rev. Joseph 
A. Merrill was appointed by the bishop to this, the 
Worcester Mission. On the 8th of February thirteen 
persons were duly organized as the " Methodist Epis- 
copal Religious Society in the town of Worcester." 
This was a parish organization, and Dr. Dorchester 
says the step was taken to obtain relief from taxation 
in other parishes. But this is a mistake. Prior to 
1834 the law which would have made this step neces- 
sary had been changed. The further history of this 
organization is now to be pursued as that of the 

First Methodist or Trinity Church. — In June, 1834, 
the Rev. George Pickering was appointed preacher to 


1 t75 

this church, but was also charged with duties that 
carried him into several of the surrounding towns. 
Meantime, a board of trustees was appointed and a 
lot of land purchased for a church site. In the first 
year the membership had grown to one hundred and 
nine. In 183- r > the Rev. John T. Burrill was sent to 
this charge. At this time the anti-slavery fever was 
at its height, and an incident occurred which imper- 
illed the infant church. On the 10th of August 
Rev. Orange Scott, then the presiding elder, under- 
took to deliver an anti-slavery lecture in the Meth- 
odist place of worship at the Town Hall. In the 
midst of his discourse Levi Lincoln, Jr., eldest son of 
the Governor, entered the hall with an Irish accom- 
plice, advanced to the desk, seized the speaker's man- 
uscript and tore it in pieces. At the same time the 
Irishman laid violent hands on the speaker himself. 
This was done in the presence of an audience " em- 
bracing many persons who held the highest offices in 
the county and the state." The contemporary account 
of the affair in the Worcester Sjiy styled it a " Breach 
of the Peace." Hut the notice taken of it by the authori- 
ties seemed to indicate that the assailed and not the 
assailants were regarded as the peace-breakers ; for 
directly after, the selectmen, at the head of whom was 
the late Judge Merrick, notified the Methodist 
society that if the Town Hall were ever opened again 
for an anti-slavery meeting their use of it for preach- 
ing would be forfeited. The society, in its weakness, 
was intimidated and did not again offend. But it 
marks the temper of the time that, later on, the 
courageous Scott was, by his own brethren, deposed 
from, or not re-appointed to, the presiding eldership 
because he would not promise to refrain from anti- 
slavery lecturing. 

In the autumn of 1836 the erection of a church 
was begun on the southeast corner of Exchange and 
Union Streets, completed in March, 1837, and then 
dedicated. This was the first Methodist meeting- 
house in Worcester. The building was in the centre 
of population, but also in the centre of a mudhole. 
It stood on piles, and was approached by hopping 
from tuft to tuft of grass across puddles and ooze. 
The Spy of that day took pay for advertising the 
dedication of this lowly church, but took no notice 
whatever of the dedication itself, although it said in 
every issue that " its office was to noise abroad." 
The church survived all neglect, and, waxing 
stronger and stronger, in the end erected one of the 
finest church edifices in the city, compelling the 
homage of the public and the press. 

In 1837 the Rev. James Porter came, and remained 
one year. Although a year of general bankruptcy, it 
was one of great enlargement for the church. About 
one hundred and seventy-five probationers were added 
to the membership during his year. Mr. Porter was 
succeeded by the Rev. Jotham Horton, whose term 
of service was equally brief. In May, 1839, the 
church property was legally transferred to a board 

of trustees, in accordance with the Discipline of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. The Rev. Moses 1,. 
Scudder succeeded to the pastorate in this year, to 
be followed by the Rev. .Miner Raymond in 1841. 
Mr. Raymond remained two years, showed himself 
eminent as a preacher, and " made many friends 
beyond the limits of his own society." This yeai 
was made memorable lor Worcester Methodism by 
the meeting of the New Kngland Annual ( 'onference 
in the town for the first time. In 1843 the Rev. 
Charles K. True, D.D. was assigned to the charge 
of this church. He was a graduate of Harvard and 
a Methodist minister of mark. Cnder him the pro- 
ject for removing the church to a site near the Com- 
mon was " renewed." But while they still delayed, 
it was burned to the ground. Then a site was speedily 
purchased and the Park Street Church erected. The 
Rev. Amos Binney had become the pastor in 1*44, 
and under him the new church was dedicated on the 
Kith of August, 184- r >. It was noted that Mr. Bin- 
ney's term of service was very " profitable " finan- 
cially, since he had carried his people through many 
embarrassments growing out of the church-building. 
After him came in succession the Rev. Jonathan 1 >. 
Bridge, Rev. Loranus Crowell, Rev. Nelson E. Cob- 
leigh, Rev. Z. A. Mudge, Rev. Daniel E. Chapin la 
favorite, sent a second time), Rev. Fales H. Xowhall, 
Rev. Chester Field, Rev. John H. Twombly, Rev. 
John W. Dadmun, Rev. John H. Mansfield (whose 
ministry of three years was very prosperous), and 
Rev. Charles N. Smith in 1868. 

By this time the Park Street church had become 
too strait for the congregation. The society, there- 
fore, now grown strong in numbers in courage and 
in resources, determined upon building a new church 
adequate to its new demands. Accordingly, a site 
was procured on the corner of Main and Chandler 
Streets, in the close neighborhood of the new Tinted 
States Post-Office building, and there they erected 
Trinity Church at a cost, including the land, of one 
hundred thousand dollars. This crowning church of 
Methodism in Worcester was dedicated on the 25th 
of April, 1871. The Rev. F. W. Mallalieu, D.D. 
(afterwards bishop), was the first preacher appointed 
for Trinity after the occupation of the new house. 
He came in April, 1871, and remained one year. 
Rev. Ira G. Bidwell, appointed in 1872, remained 
three years. He was followed by Rev. V. A. Cooper, 
who was appointed to help the church financially 
as well as spiritually. In that respect there was no 
disappointment, as through his agency the debt was 
reduced by thirty-five thousand dollars in one year. 
The Rev. A. P. Kendig followed him in 1877, after 
whom came in succession Rev. J. A. Cass, in 1879 ; 
Rev. C. S. Rogers, D.D., in 1882; Rev. W. T. Perrin, 
in 1885, and Rev. W. H. Thomas, D.D., in 1888. 

Laurel Street Church— -The selection of Park street 
for the new site of the First Church had not been 
satisfactory to all the members. Some thought it 



carried the church too far from the centre of popula- 
tion ; it was too far south. Out of this dissatisfaction 
grew the Laurel Street Church. This was as far to tin- 
north. For a time, however, the new colony had its 
place of worship on Thomas Street, which was more 
central. The church was duly organized on the 20th 
of July, 1845; but it was not until the 27th of February, 
1849, that the new house on Laurel Street was dedi- 
cated. The first pastor was the Rev. Richard S. East. 
He was soon elected principal of the New Hampshire 
Conference Seminary, and after a pastorate of seven 
months was released from his engagement. The 
Rev. J. \V. Mowry followed, after whom came the 
Rev. George Dunbar. This pastor was indefatiga- 
ble in bis efforts to secure the erection of the new 
house of worship. In April, 184!>, he was succeeded 
by the Rev. Francis A. Griswold, after whom came in 
succession the Rev. Cyrus S. Eastman, Rev. William 
M. Mann in 1850, Rev. David H. Higgins, Rev. Jo- 
sephW. Lewisinl853, Mr. Mowry again in 1854, Rev. 
Henry W. Warren in 1855 (afterwards bishop), Rev. 
Ichabod Marcy in 1857, Rev. Samuel Kelly in 1858, 
and Rev. Jefferson Hascall, who bad long been favor- 
ably known as a presiding elder and was with the 
Laurel Street Church in the latter pari of 1861 to 
fill out the term of Rev. Joseph C. < 'roinack, who 
bad been appointed in I860, but bad left in August, 
I SCI, tn become chaplain of the Nineteenth Regiment 
of Massachusetts Volunteers. In 1862, Rev. T. W. 

Lewis was appointed to the 'barge but left iii 1868 

to become Superintendent of Methodist missions in 

South Carolina, Rev. .lame- Dean completing Ids 
term. Alter him came Rev. M. M. Parkhurst in 
1864, Rev. Samuel Kelly again iii 1865, under whom 
the church reached its highest prosperity ; Rev. An- 

gelo Carroll in 1867, under whom the sit I two thou 

sand dollars was expended in church improvements; 
Rev. William Pentecost in L869, Rev. II. D. Weston 
in 1872, Rev. William Pentecost again in 1875, Rei 
Fayette Nichols in 1878, Rev. Garrett Beekman in 
1880, under whose ministry " the congregation dou- 
bled ;" Kev. G. M. Smiley in 1883, continuing three 
years, in the last of which the fortieth anniversary 
of the church was celebrated; Rev. Ira G. Rose 
in 1886, and the Rev. Alonzo Sanderson in 1887. 
Resides his spiritual work, Mr. Sanderson devoted 
himself energetically to the improvement of the 
financial condition of the society, and among othej 
measures established a monthly paper called the 
Worcester Methodist, from which about fifty dollars a 
month come into the parish treasury. The value of 
the church property, aside from the parsonage, is set 
at twelve thousand dollars. The membership in 1888 
was about one hundred and thirty-two. 

Third M. E. i Webster Square) Church.— This church 
was organized in 18G0. Two thirds of its first mem- 
bers came from Park Street Church. Its first pastor 
was the Rev. Daniel Dorchester who had also been 
the chief agent in its organization. In 1855 he had 

become a member of the Connecticut Senate where 
he acted a prominent part in various directions. But 
in later years Dr. Dorchester became greatly more 
distinguished as the learned historian and statistician 
of the Methodist Connection. The first religious ser- 
vices of this church were held in Union Hall. The 
membership, at first small, increased more than ten- 
fold during the first year. Members of other denom- 
inations in the vicinity took a lively interest in the 
enterprise and contributed to its maintenance. In 
L863 the Kev. William Gordon became the pastor. 
To him succeeded, in due order, Rev. William A. 
Braman in 1864, Rev. "William Pentecost in 1866, Rev. 
Edward W. Virgin in 1867, and Rev. Benjamin !•'. 
Chase in 1869. This last pastor was in the midst of 
a work of great spiritual power, when be was sud- 
denly prostrated by a hemorrhage which, after pro- 
longed illness, terminated his life. His memory long 
remained fragrant in the church. After him came 
the Rev. Charles H. Hanaford, in 1870. Under him 
the long-agitated subject of church-building assumed 
definite shape ; contributions came in from members 
and from other- outside, notably from Albert Curtis 
and the Messrs. < 'oes, and the bouse was erected on a 
fine site purchased long before, and on the 27th of 
April was dulj dedicated. The cost was about 
$20, [nl872the Kev. Pliny Wood was appointed 

to I In- charge. Alter him came the Kev. Mr. Parsons 
in 1873 Rev. E. A.Titus in 1875, Rev. V. M. Sim- 
mons in 1878, Rev. Daniel Richardson in 1879, Rev. 
.1. W. Finn in L880, Kev. V fellows in 1882, Kev. .1. 
0. Knowles in L888, and Kev I.. W. Staples in 1886, 
completing hiB term of three years in 1889. 

Graa Church.- The growth of the city and the in 
Mux of Methodist families led up to this enterprise. 
To save these families from wandering into other 
folds, as well as to help on the religious life of the 

city, was the burden laid on pious and sagacious 
Methodists. The decisive push, however, was given 
by the presiding elder, Dr. Dorchester, in a sermon 
on the moral condition of our cities preached in Feb- 
ruary. 1867. This was reinforced by the approval of 
' the Annual Conference in April following. Bj this 
body the Kev. .1. ( iraniel l'eck, a graduate of Amherst 
in 1862, was appointed to the pastoral charge of the 
society, which bad already beeu organized under the 
name of the "Main Street Methodist Episcopal 
Church." Washburn Hall was secured for Sunday 
services and Lincoln House Hall for other meetings. 
Pluck and push ruled from the first. Said Dr. Dor- 
chester: "A more spirited and liberal company of 
Christians have seldom been united in church fellow- 
ship." The hall was filled to overflowing; the Sun- 
day school quickly became one of the largest in the 
city; in the first two years the society raised about 
twenty thousand dollars. Dr. Peck, afterwards dis- 
tinguished in a wider sphere, was a man of great 
power, physical endurance, untiring activity and 
worthy ambition. To him was ascribed in a large de- 



gree the instant success of this church enterprise. 
The edifice was not completed till 1872, under the 
ministry of his successor, the Rev. Andrew McKeown. 
The site finally chosen was on Walnut Street instead 
of Main Street, and the name of Grace Church was 
substituted for the one first adopted. The cost of the 
land was ten thousand dollars. In July, 1871, the 
vestry was completed and occupied for religious ser- 
vices. The church was dedicated in January, 1872, 
with a sermon by the Rev. Dr. Eddy, of Baltimore. 
The successor of Mr. McKeown was the Rev. .1. 0. 
Knowles. He came in 1872 anil remained one year, 
and was then succeeded by the Rev. C. D. Hills, who 
remained three years. In 187(i the Rev. George S. 
Chadbourne, afterward presiding elder of the Boston 
District, was appointed to Grace Church. lie .inn 
pied his term of three years largely in pushing the 
church through a period of financial embarrassment. 
That serious business, however, was relieved by the 
observance, in May, 1877, of the tenth anniversary of 
the church, when an eloquent sermon was preached by 
Bishop Foster. In 1880 the Rev. J. W. Johnson, an 
Englishman, was appointed to the charge. His pastor- 
ate of two years resulted in securing the warm attach- 
ment of his people. The Rev. D. H. Ela, D.l>., fol- 
lowed him, and continued in charge till 1885. He 
was eminent alike in preaching and in providing for 
the payment of the church debt. His successor, the 
Rev. George YVhittaker, will long be remembered 
with gratitude for his powerful and successful advo- 
cacy of the no-license cause in the city. In Septem- 
ber, 1887, he was called to the presidency of Wiley 
University, a Southern college, aud the church uas 
left to the strange experience of hearing till the next 
Conference a succession of preachers not appointed 
by that authority. But in April, 1888, Grace Church 
resumed its normal condition under the Rev. John 
Galbraith, who was then appointed the minister in 

Coral Street Church. — In olden time a gentle emi- 
nence to the southeast of the "little village of Wor- 
cester'' bore the Indian name of Sagatabscot. There, 
in 1679, the first white man, Digory Serjent, built 
his house, and there, in spite of warnings 
against the red savages, he persisted in living until 
1702, when a rescuing party arrived only to find him 
lying slain in his dwelling and his family carried into 
captivity. Sagatabscot remained bare and open till 
1809, when the city began to creep over its slopes and 
it was christened Union Hill. The houses soon mul- 
tiplied to such an extent as to attract the attention of 
the Methodists to the locality. The Rev. Mr. Mc- 
Keown, of Grace Church, was the first to move, and 
by him well-known laymen of that and other Method- 
ist churches were enlisted for work there. On the 
15th of September, 1871, a church lot was purchased 
on the corner of Coral and Waverly Streets for the 
sum of seventy-two hundred dollars. In the same 
month open-air Sunday services were held on the lot 

at live o'clock in the afternoon by the Methodist min- 
isters of the city. Subscriptions toward the enter- 
prise of about nine hundred dollars were there ob- 
tained; through the personal solicitations of Mr. .Mc- 
Keown the amount was increased to about eighteen 
hundred dollars. Tn January, 1872, a Sunday school 
with one hundred and fifty members was organized 
in Scofi eld's block at the foot of Coral Street. Teach- 
ers from other denominations were enlisted, and 
among the scholars were twenty boys of Roman Cath- 
olic parentage. Presently, the presiding elder ap- 
peared on the field, conferred with the committee in 
charge and decided that the mission should be 
erected into a regular appointment at the next meet- 
ing of the Conference. This body assembled in Wor- 
cester on the 27th of March, when the Rev. S. E. 
Chase was appointed the first pastor in charge. 
From that time a regular preaching service was held 
in the third story of Scofield's block. The first con- 
gregation consisted of twenty persons. On the 23d ot 
April various plans and estimates for a church edifice 
were presented to the committee, anil the result was 
that a contract was closed for a partial completion of 
the building at a cost of eighty-eight hundred dol- 
lars. On the 8th of May following the church was 
organized with eighteen members by Rev. L. Crowell, 
the presiding elder. Hard work and dark hours be- 
cause of limited means followed this beginning. But 
through the zeal and labors, notably of Alpheus 
Walker and N. H. Clark, the building was completed 
at a cost of thirteen thousand dollars, and on the 16th of 
April, 1 87:5, was dedicated. In March, 1872, the mis- 
sion had been named Christ Chapel, but in January, 
1883, it received the name of Union Hill M. E. 
Church. Still another change was made on the 24th 
of April, 1870, when it assumed the name of Coral 
Street M. E. Church. Mr. Chase remained in charge 
for three years and was then succeeded by the Rev. 
H. D. Weston. In 1875 a vestry was built at a cost of 
three thousand dollars and dedicated in December of 
the same year. In the spring of 1878 the Rev. 
. I esse Wagner was appointed to the charge. His 
term of service closed in April, 1881, when he was 
succeeded by the Rev. Austin F. Herrick. About 
this time serious financial complications threatened 
the existence of the society. A compromise was at 
last happily effected, whereby claims to the amount of 
fifteen thousand dollars were canceled and a solid 
financial basis secured. In April, 1S83, the Rev. 
Charles Young came in charge and remained till 
April, 1886, when the Rev. William I'. Ray became 
his successor. 

Roman Catholics. — The canal and the railroad 
were the means of bringing Roman Catholicism into 
Worcester. First came the digging of the Rlackstone 
Canal from Worcester to Providence ; this brought 
many Irish laborers to Worcester and vicinity. The 
construction of the Boston and Worcester Railroad 
followed, bringing many more. These people and 



their families naturally desired the kind of spiritual 
guidance to which they had been accustomed. As 
they found nothing of the kind then in Worcester, 
they asked Bishop Fenwick, of Boston, to send them 
a priest. In answer to this application, the bishop 
sent them the Kev. James Fitton, a recent student of 
his, then just settled in Hartford, Conn. This led to 
the inclusion of Worcester in the "missionary cir- 
cuit" to which Mr. Fitton had also been appointed. 
He came to Worcester in 1834, and in the spring of 
that year held the first religious service of the Roman 
Catholic Church. It was held in the old stone build- 
ing, still standing, on Front Street, near the lineof the 
old Blackstone Canal, the front wall, however, being 
now of brick. At that time only six or seven familiesi 
embracing about twenty-five persons, were enlisted. 
In the next year the first Roman Catholic church in 
Worcester was erected on the site now occupied by 

St. John's Church. It was named Christ Church, 
and was ;i wooden structure thirty-two by sixty-four 
feet. This sufficed until 1845, when it was removed 
to make way for St. John's. Christ Church, after it- 
removal, received additions and became the "Catholic 
Institute." The corner-stone of St. John's Church 
was laid on the 27th of May, L845, with imposing 
ceremonies, under the episcopal supervision of Bishop 
Fitzpatrick; and on the 24th "i June, 1846, the 
church was dedicated with still more imposing cere- 
monies. The dimensions of the building were -i\ty 
five by one hundred and thirty-six feet, and for a long 
time it was the largest church in the region. The 
cost was forty thousand do liars. It was ample for the 
whole Roman ( !a1 bolic population, which at that time 

. mbraced onlj aboul thirteen hundred souls. Fathei 

Fitton, who may well be styled the father of Roman- 
ism in Worcester, left the town in 1843, and returned 
to Boston, where be was born, and where later on he 
died, lie was a man of some literary part- and the 
author of several volumes. The Kev. A. Williamson 
succeeded Mr. Fitton in October, 1848, and remained 
till April, 1845, when be resigned because of ill heal ill. 
His successor was the Kev. Mathcu W. ( lib-on, who 
was characterized as "a man of great energy and 
power." He remained in the pastorate till April, 
1756, and was largely instrumental in building not 
only St. John's, but al-o St. Anne'.-, spoken of further 
on. After Father Gibson came the Kev. John Boyce, 
who had been his predecessor's assistant. He died in 
1864, while in charge, greatly regretted. He, too, was 
a writer of merit, " an able writer of fiction," and the 
author, among other things, of " Paul Peppergra--." 
His birthplace wa- Donegal, Ireland, and Maynooth 
was hi- alma mater. The Kev. Patrick T. O'Reilly, 
D.D., afterwards bishop of the diocese, was the suc- 
cessor of Father lioyce as pastor of St. John's. From 
1857 to 1802 he had been the assistant pastor. In the 
latter year he removed to Boston, whence he returned 
to become the pastor of the Worcester church. Upon 
his elevation to the bishopric, in 1870, bis assistant, 

the Rev. Thomas Griffin, was appointed to the pastor- 
ate of St. John's. 

St. Anne's Church. — This church was an offshoot of 
St. John's. Commenced in 1855, it was completed 
in 1856, under the direction of the Rev. John J. 
Power, who became its first pastor. He remained 
such until 1872, when the Rev. Dennis Scannell was 
appointed to the place, which he still held in 1888. 
In 1884-85 came a great enlargement and aggrandize- 
ment by the erection of " new St. Anne's." The old 
church was of wood, and the new one of brick and 
stone. The old one stood on the low level of the un- 
sightly "meadow," hard by; the new one, placed on 
a sharp elevation, was made a conspicuous object of 
admiration for all beholders. The dimensions of the 
ediliee were seventy by one hundred and fifty-seven 

feet. The auditorium has a capacity foi Beating 
one thousand one hundred persons. Twin towers, 
rising to a lofty bight, form a distinguishing feature 

of this imposing edifice. It i- one of the costliest 
churches in the city. 

St. Paul's Church. — This church was formed on the 
4th day of .Inly, L 869, and on the same day the cor- 
ner-stone of the superstructure was laid with appro- 
priate ceremonies. The basement had been com- 
pleted and served as a place for public worship until 
July 4, 1X74, when the church itself (save the towel l 

was finished and dedicated, h is a ( tothic structure, 
of cathedral proportions, with a fagade of ninety 

feet In width, and with a length "I one hundred and 
eighty-five feet, and stands upon elevated ground in 
the heart of the city. It is constructed of granite 

throughout, and cost two hundred thousand dollars. 

When its tower shall have been C pleted, according 

to theoriginal plan, it will overtop any other structure 
inthecity. This noble edifice owes its origin and com- 
pletion to the Rev. John J. Power, D.D., the first and 
only pastor of St. Paul's, ami the vicar-general of the 

church of Notre Dame. This is the only French 
Catholic Church in Worcester. The first movement 
toward it- establishment was in L869. Its name in 

full is " Church of Nbtre 1 lame des < lanadiens." The 

first pastor was the Kev. .1. J. Primeau. In 1*7(1 the 
Methodist Church on Park Street wa- bought for its 
use at a cost of thirty-two thousand seven hundred 
dollars. Here the fir.-t Mas- w as celebrated in June. 
1870. At the beginning the church embraced seven- 
teen hundred and forty-three souls, of wl eleven 

hundred and fifty-nine were communicants. In 
eleven years the first number bad grown to be forty- 
three hundred, and the number of communicants to 
be twenty-live hundred, while in 1884 there were 
over five thousand souls. In 1880-81 the great in- 
crease of the congregation required an enlargement 
of the edifice, and the result was, in effect, a new- 
structure. The plain old building was transformed, 
byline architectural touches, into a handsome and 
spacious edifice, adding much to the surrounding at- 



tractions of the historic Common upon which it fronts. 
The dimensions are fifty-four by one hundred and 
twenty-eight feet ; the cost of the improvements was 
thirty-five thousand dollars. The pealing of the 
angelus from the massive bell in its tower daily re- 
minds the city of its existence and the faithful of 
their duty. After Mr. Primeau's retirement the 
Rev. Isadore Beaudry became in 1882 the pastor, 
and in the following year he was succeeded by the 
Rev. Joseph Brouillet, who was in charge in 1888. 

Besides the church of Notre Dame, Father Brouillet 
has charge of several French missions, which he es- 
tablished after coming to Worcester. The first of 
these was, — 

St. Anne's. — This mission was established at South 
Worcester on the 9th of January, 1886. A house was 
purchased by Father Brouillet at a cost of five thou- 
sand dollars, and was converted into a temporary 
home for the mission. 

St. Joseph's was established on the 9th of January, 
1887, at the corner of Wall and Norfolk Streets, on 
Oak Hill, where a chapel was built in that year at a 
cost of sixty-five hundred dollars. Incipient meas- 
ures have been taken to add to the number of these 

When Father Brouillet came in 1883 be at once 
proceeded to take a census of the French Catholic 
population of Worcester, and found it to be eight 
thousand. According to his careful estimate, this 
had increased to nine thousand in 1888. Of that 
number four thousand were communicants. 

Church of the Immaculate Conception. — This enter- 
prise was inaugurated in February, 1872, under Bishop 
O'Reilly and Rev. Thomas Griffin, chancellor of 
the diocese. The church was organized in November, 
1873 ; the erection of the church edifice was begun in 
the same year. In the next year the basement was 
completed and used for worship until December, 1878, 
when the whole superstructure was finished. It was 
dedicated by Father Power, vicar-general, with a 
large body of the priesthood assisting. The building 
is seventy feet wide by one hundred and twenty-four 
feet long, and has eleven hundred and fifty sittings. 
The cost was thirty-five thousand dollars. Rev. Rob- 
ert Walsh became the pastor in 1874, and has re- 
mained such ever since. 

Church of the. i Sacred Heart. — This, the sixth Roman 
Catholic church in chronological order, is located on 
Cambridge Street, at New Worcester. (Jn the 2d of 
July, 1879, the first excavations for the building were 
made; and on the 14th of September following the 
corner-stone was laid by Bishop O'Reilly. On the 
24th of January, 1880, the parish was organized, and 
at the same time the Rev. Thomas J. Conaty, assis- 
tant at St. John's Church, was appointed its first pas- 
tor. The superstructure was finished, and the base- 
ment furnished for use on Easter Sunday of the same 
year. On the 21st of September, 1884, the auditorium 
wus opened for 'public service and the church was 

then dedicated. There are eight hundred sittings in 
the basement and eight hundred and forty in the 
auditorium. The Sunday school has a membership 
of six hundred. The organization of total abstinence 
societies in this parish has been made a conspicuous 
feature by the pastor. The several societies for 
young men, young ladies and boys include three 
hundred and fifty members. The cost of the pariah 
property was about eighty thousand dollars. 

St. Peter's Church. — This church stands on the 
comer of Main and Grand Streets. The corner-stone 
was laid on Sunday, the 7th of September, 1884, by 
Bishop O'Reilly, under the supervision of the pastor, 
Rev. Daniel H. O'Neill. The event was marked by 
a great military display, with a procession of various 
orders through Main Street. The vicar-general and 
the chancellor of the diocese were also present assist- 
ing. The building is of brick, with granite trimmings, 
seventy feet by one hundred and thirty, with a mas- 
sive tower, ninety-eight feet high. It has a seating 
capacity for one thousand, but for the present public 
worship is held in the basement. 

St. Stephen's Church. — This church is on Grafton 
Street, at the corner of Caroline. It was founded in 
1887, and is the most recently organized church of this 
order. The Rev. R. S. J. Burke was the pastor in 1888. 
The Roman Catholic population of Worcester, 
other than that of French descent, was supposed to be 
about twenty-five thousand in the year 1888. 

Episcopalians. — The parishes of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in Massachusetts are organized 
under a special statute. This provides that the rec- 
tor or one of the wardens, unless other provision is 
made in the by-laws, may preside at meetings with 
ill the powers of a moderator; and the wardens, or 
wardens and vestry, may exercise all the powers of a 
standing committee. To secure as much uniformity 
is possible, the "Convention '' of this church prints 
with its annual journals, and recommends for adop- 
tion, a standing form of by-laws for the government 
of the parishes. Among other things this Form pro- 
vides that the wardens shall be communicants and 
that all officers shall be baptized men ; that the rec- 
tor, wardens, treasurer, clerk and vestrymen shall 
constitute "the vestry;" and that the rector shall be 
chosen by the parish, or by the vestry, when so au- 
thorized by the parish. A noticeable feature of this 
Form, in its latest expression, is, that "any person,'' 
subject to the other conditions, may become a mem- 
ber of the parish. In earlier editions of the Form the 
words used are "any male person." Provision is 
thus made for the admission of women to a partner- 
ship in the management of Protestant Episcopal par 
ishes. This change in the direction of progress con- 
forms also to the statutes of the Commonwealth. 
In general but not altogether exact accordance witli 
these provisions, the Protestant Episcopal parishes 
in Worcester have been organized. The oldest, and 
the mother of the rest, is the parish of 



All Saints. — The beginnings of the Episcopal 
Church in Worcester are reported by the late Judge 
Ira M. Barton in two letters written in the year 1835, 
but first printed in the year 1888. From this con- 
temporary and authentic source of information it 
appears that in the former year Dr. Wainwright vis- 
ited Worcester "to see as to the practicability of 
establishing a church here." An arrangement was 
then made for services in the Central Church, but 
through a misunderstanding it fell through. This 
failure was less discouraging than the difficulty in 
finding persons " to sustain the burden." " No such 
persons have yet offered themselves," wrote Judge 
Barton under date of October 2d. A little later the 
prospect had brightened. Under date of December 
13th he wrote: "Regular church services were, for 
the first time, held in Worcester to-day." At that 
first meeting there were present "some sixty people." 
The preacher on the occasion was the Rev. Thomas 
11. Vaill, then in deacon's orders only. And now 
the time had arrived when this enterprise took to 
itself a body and a name by an act of incorporation 
under the style of the " Proprietors of the Protestant 
Episcopal Churoh in Worcester." The act bears 
date of April 8, 1886, and the incorporators named in 
the act are Thomas H. Vaill, Ira Barton and Edward 
K. Dixie. The experiment was fairly begun. For 
six months Mr. Vaill continued his ministrations and 
then left " thoroughly discouraged." As the present 
bishop of Kansas he still lives to look back upon 
this day of small things. Seven years of silence fol- 
lowed his departure, when, in L842, services were 
again begun, never afterwards to be intermitted. I >n 
Christmas day of that year the Rev. Fernando C. 
Putnam held a service in the chapel on Thomas 
street belonging to the Central Church. Mr. Put- 
nam was succeeded by the Rev. Henry Black- 

With Mr. Blackaller as minister in charge, 
Thomas Bottomly and Charles B. Ellis as wardens 
and Edwin Eaton as clerk, the first church of this 
order was well on its foundations. It continued, 
however, in a low condition until 1X44, when the 
Rev. George T. Chapman, D.D., came and applied 
his sturdy shoulders to the work of upbuilding. Dr. 
Chapman had a zeal for his church. Organizing and 
assisting churches in various parts had been his self- 
appointed mission, and now the feeble church in 
Worcester was to feel the good effects of his help. 
Coming at Easter, he remained in charge of the parish 
for two full years. At the end of that time he gave 
place to the Rev. George H. Clark, who became the 
first regularly chosen and settled rector of All Saints. 
In January, 1849, Mr. Clark resigned because of ill 
health, and the Rev. N. T. Bent succeeded to the 
office. Mr. Bent remained till the spring of L852, 
when the Rev. Archibald M. Morrison became the 
rector. At the end of four years, illness in his family 
compelled him to lay down his charge. A period of 

three years now elapsed in which All Saints was 
without a rector. In this time the Rev. William H. 
Brook* and the Rev. Albert Patterson were the min- 
isters in charge. But in December, 1859, the Rev. 
E. W. Hager became the rector, and so remained till 
August, 1802, when he resigned his place. 

At the close of the year 1862 began the ministry of 
the Rev. William R. Huntington, which was destined 
to change the whole face of things for Episcopacy in 
Worcester. His ministry of twenty-one years was a 
period of constant and rapid growth. Dr. Hunting- 
ton found his Church of All Saints feeble and left it 
strong. He found it poorly housed and left it rejoic- 
ing in one of the most beautiful and costly of our 
churches. He found it solitary and left it the motbei 
of children, born and to be born. And yet, at the 
close of his ministry, be was moved to Bay that, "in 
the whole English-speaking world there is probably 
not a city of the size of ours in which the Episcopal 
Church is numerically so weak as ours;" Thai this 
reproach is now measurably taken away is owing 
more to his agency and influence than to any other. 
It was on the 3d of December, 1862, that Dr. Hun- 
tington was both ordained and inducted in'o the rec- 
torship of All Saints. His ministry began in the 
church on Pearl Street which bad been erected in 

1846 alter plans drawn by Upjohn of New York. 

Dr. Huntington described it as "a beautiful specimen 
of rural architecture." It remained as originally built 

until 1860, when il was altered to gain additional sit- 
tings. In the course ol twenty-eight years it was four 
times reconstructed: then, on Easter night, April 7, 
1874, it was destroyed by lire. This was the signal 
for removal and enlargement. 

On the Kith of May a committee was empowered to 

build a church and chapel; on the 29th of December 

ground was broken at the corner of Irving and 
Pleasant Streets ; on the 1 -'ith of May following the 
first stone was put in place; on the 21st of July the 
corner-stone was laid ; and on the 4th of January, 
1877, the finished building was consecrated by Bishop 

Paddock. Church, chapel and parish building are 
grouped in one capacious structure. All the walls, 
including bell-tower and spin- to the linial, are of red 
sandstone. The pulpit of the Pearl Street Church, a 
gift from Emanuel church in Boston, rescued fr 

the flames and erected for use in the new church, is a 
memorial of continuity ; while encrusted in the inte- 
rior wall of the tower-porch are stone relics of mediae- 
val architectural ornament, given by the dean and 
chapter of Worcester ( England) Cathedral, as a token 
of " brotherly regard and church unity." 

Having declined various calls from different bodies 
to important ecclesiastical offices, — one, in I 874, to the 
office of bishop — Dr. Huntington at length accepted 
a call to the rectorship of < Irace Church in New York, 
and in 1883 severed his long connection with All 
Saints'. By li i — published writings, by his unwearied 
fidelity to his parochial charge and h\ bis wise ac- 


1 1-1 

tivity in the Church Conventions, he had come to be 
a power in his own communion. 

Shortly after the termination of Dr. Huntington's 
service, the Rev. Lawrence H. Schwab became the 
minister in charge. He was succeeded by the Rev. 
Alexander H. Vinton, who was chosen to be the rec- 
tor on the 28th of April, 1884, and who assumed the 
office in September following. Under his ministry 
the prosperity of the parish was continued. The 
number of communicants last reported was about four 

Parish' of St. Matthew. — In the winter of 1869 a mis- 
sion chapel fund of $721.21 was raised from a Christmas 
sale by the women of All Saints. This was the germ 
of the parish of St. Matthew. Additions were made 
to the fund from time to time, and in 1871 a mission was 
established at South Worcester. An association of 
communicants in All Saints was formed, with the 
rector of that parish as trustee, and by them an estate 
was bought at the corner of Southbridge and Wash- 
burn Streets. On this site a chapel was completed in 
September of the same year, and on St. Matthew's 
day, February 24, 1875, it was opened for public wor- 
ship. The Rev. John Gi-egson, assistant minister at 
All Saints, was made the minister in charge, and he so 
remained for nearly a year. After him Mr. Thomas 
Mackay acted as lay reader until the following Octo- 
ber, when the Rev. Thomas A. Robertson assumed 
the charge and continued in it for a period of nine 
months. Mr. Mackay then resumed his post, and 
with other lay readers held services until January 1, 
1874, when the Rev. Henry Mackay became the min- 
ister in charge. This continued until the spring of 
that year; then the mission was organized with 
Henry L. Parker and Matthew J. Whittall as war- 
dens. The Rev- Mr. Mackay remained the minister 
in charge until July, 1875. In April, 1876, the Rev. 
Amos Skeele was called to the rectorship, which he 
retained for several months; but in April, 1877, the 
church was again without a rector and Sunday ser- 
vices were cared for by the Rev. George S. Paine, of 
Worcester. To him succeeded the Rev. Alexander 
Mackay Smith, assistant at All Saints, by whom, it 
was said, "wonderful work was done." January 1, 
1878, the Rev. George E. Osgood became the rector, 
and in September the church was " renovated " and 
again opened for public worship. All incumbrances 
having been at length removed and a deed of the land 
given by Sumner Pratt, St. Matthew's Church (or 
chapel) was consecrated on Quinquagesima Sunday in 
1880. Mr. Osgood having resigned the rectorship 
January 1G, 1881, on the 8th of April following the 
Rev. J. H. Waterbury became the rector but resigned 
in November of the same year. He, however, re- 
mained in charge until his death, which occurred in 
the next spring. In the summer of 1882 land for a par- 
ish building was secured on the comer of Southbridge 
and Cambridge Streets, and in the course of the season 
St. Matthew's Hal I was erected upon it, fn August the 

Rev. Henry Hague assumed the charge of St. Mat- 
thew in connection with thai of St. Thomas at cherry 
Valley. In February, 1888, the number of commu- 
nicants was one hundred and seventy-live, and the 
value of the parish property $7,500, less an incum- 
brance of $1,250. Thus, from a small beginning, with 
a frequently changing ministry, this parish had slowly 
grown through a period of nineteen years, until it 

appears to have come to rest on a permanent founda 
tion. For its success much was due to the fostering 
care of Dr. Huntington. 

Parish of St. John. — This parish was organized as 
part of a broad and long-cherished plan of Dr. 
Huntington. A scheme of four missions, cmbryniis 
of four churches in different sections of the city, 
named after the four Evangelists, was what he had 
conceived and steadily aimed to realize. St. John's 
was the second in the order of the plan. It was be- 
gun by the formation of a Sunday-school, .March II, 
1883. The first meeting was held in an upper room 
on the corner of Lincoln Square and Main Street, 
and the first church service was held by the Rev. 
Henry Hague, of St, Matthew's, on the 6th of Jan- 
uary, 1S84. On the 9th of March following, the first 
regular Sunday service was held by the Rev. John 
S.Bens, general missionary of the diocese. On the 
9th of March the Rev. Edward S. Cross began work 
with the mission, and on the Kith of April took for- 
mal charge. On the 21st of the same month land for 
a church was bought on Lincoln street; on the 13th 
of May ground was broken ; and July 5th the corner- 
stone was laid. On the 18th of September, 1884, 
the parish was organized under the laws of the 
state. Mr. Cross, the minister in charge, preached 
his farewell sermon on the 19th of October, and on 
the 30th of November, in the same year, the Rev. 
Francis C. Burgess entered upon his duties as the 
first rector of the new parish. Public worship in the 
church was held for the first time on Christmas Day. 
For a time the free church system was tried, but was 
soon abandoned, yet so as in the hope that under 
re favorable conditions it might be afterwards re- 
sumed. In the first four months of parish life the 
average congregation and the number of communi- 
cants increased two-fold. This growth continued 
until, in 1887, it was found desirable to enlarge the 
church in order to gain more sittings. This was ac- 
cordingly done, at a cost somewhat exceeding $2600. 
In 1888 the money to defray this cost had all been 
subscribed and paid. By this enlargement the whole 
number of sittings was increased to 308. At the 
last-named date the church and land were valued at 
$17,000, upon which there rested a debt of $9800. 
The number of communicants at this time was 209. 
This year witnessed a new departure for Episcopacy 
in Worcester by the union of St. John's with the I 'en 
tral (Congregational) Church in the observance of 

Lent. Services were held alternately in the two 
churches, conducted alternately by the two ministers. 



Clergymen from abroad were also brought in to as- 
sist in this fraternal recognition, of whom chiefly to 
be mentioned are the Rev. Dr. Phillips Brooks and 
the Rev. Dr. Samuel Herrick, both of Boston. If 
any ill came out of this unwonted fraternization, it 
was never publicly reported. On the contrary, the 
continued prosperity of St. John's seemed to bear 
witness that this new departure was a safe step in 
the line of progress. 

Parish of St. Mark's Church.— In the order of time 
this was the third in the scheme of four churches 
which Dr. Huntington set on foot. But not till some 
years after he had gone from Worcester did a good 
opportunity for inaugurating the enterprise present 
itself. At length the founding of Clark University, 
in the spring of 1887, became the signal for moving. 
That great educational project causing a marked ad- 
vance in the price of real estate in the quarter selected 
for St. Mark's Mission, spurred on its friends to make 
haste ami secure a suitable lot for church purposes. 
The purchase of a lot was the only object of the first 
meeting, which was in September, 1887; but this 
very speedily led to the formation of a mission by the 
name of St. Mark's Mission. A place for meeting 
was secured, and about October Isi a Sundaj achool 
was opened. Public worship was held for the first 
time on the 23d of October, by the Rev. Alex. H 
Vinton, rector of All Saints, other clergymen in and 
out of the city assisting. After this date the services 
of the Rev. Thomas W. Nickerson of Rochdale were 
secured, lie continued to officiate until the Easter 
following, when the Rev. Langdon C. Stewardson 
took charge of the mission. He came fresh from a 
three years' course of theological study in the uni- 
versities of Germany ^ prior lo which he had been for 
live years rector of a church in Webster. " Under 
his leadership," says a competent authority, "the 
mission has made a progress which is believed lo be 
unprecedented in the history of this diocese." The 
number of communicants, about forty at Easter, had 
nearly doubled within the next live months. From 
the beginning the mission was independent and sell- 
reliant. No aid from any outside source was accepted. 
On the other hand, the mission, in that brief period, 
had raised out of its own resources the sum of twelve 
thousand two hundred dollars. With part of this the 
lot for church and chapel, already spoken of, was 
purchased on the corner of Main and Freeland Streets. 
On the 6th of September, 1888, the corner-stone of the 
chapel to be erected on this lot was laid, a solid silver 
trowel, given by Mrs. Ellen Lawson Card, wile of its 
maker, being used in the ceremony. An imposing 
aspect was given to the occasion. At five o'clock in 
the afternoon nine clergymen from the city and other 
parts, with Dr. Huntington of New York, the origi- 
nator of the enterprise, at their head, marched down 
the street in surplices and took their places by the 
corner-stone. When the ceremonial act was com- 
pleted, Dr. Huntington made a brief address, admir- 

able alike for its substance, expression and tone. 
" Rarely," said he, " is the building of a church under 
such assured circumstances. You haveamarvelously 
chosen building site, you are in perfect harmony 
among yourselves, and your leader you love and trust. 
What more do you want ? Is it the money to com- 
plete the building? That is a very doubtful advan- 
tage. The very fact that it is lacking is a spur to 
never-failing effort." Again he said : " We lay this 
stone in charity. If there are any within the hearing 
of my voice not of this household of faith" (and there 
were many) " let them not feel disquieted. We come 
not as destroyers, but maintainors of peace ; not to 
divide, but to unite. The Episcopal Church sees in 
itself a great reconstructing influence. . . . There 
is one object, one purpose, and that the purpose of 
building up the kingdom of God." The plan con- 
templates in its ultimate realization a chapel and 
church of red sandstone throughout. 

Sit. Duke's Church, the fourth and only one remain- 
ing to complete l»r. Huntington's quadrilateral of 
churches, in his own words uttered at the laving of 
St. Mark's corner-stone, " bides its time." 

Univekkai.ists — First Universalist < hurch. — The 
first Universalist Society was formed on the 3d day of 
June, 1841, in accordance with the laws of Massachu- 
setts, Sosaid the Rev. Stephen Presson Landers in 
In- historical address delivered :> quarter of a century 
afterwards. Mr. Landers was the first pastor and bad 
preached his sermon in Brinley Hall on the 2d of May 
previous. In the summer and autumn ten thousand 
dollars were subscribed for building a church. The 
pastor himselfsnbscribed " more than be was worth." 
A very choice and central site on the corner ol Main 
and Foster Streets was bought fol a little more than 
$1.25 a Bquare loot, lint "stagnant water" caused 
delay. In 1842 a further subscription of more than 
live thousand dollars was added to the former. Then, 
early in 1843, ground was broken, and on tin- 22d of 
November in the same year the lions.- was dedicated 

with a sermon by the Rev. Dr. Miner, of Boston. On 

the evening of the same day " was the recognition of 
our small church,'' wrote the historian, and also its 
first communion with thirty-one participants. The 
pastorate of Mr. Landers terminated on the 16th of 
June, 1844, when he preached bis farewell sermon. 

His death occurred at Clinton, V Y., on the loth of 
April, 187b, in the sixty-fourth year of his age. On 
the 12th of March, 1846. Rev. Albert I asewas installed 
as his successor. Alter somewhat more than four 
years he left his Worcester charge and engaged in 
secular business of various sorts, lie wa- also settled 
again for a time as pastor at Hingham, Mass. He 
died at the age of about seventy on the 29th of 
December, 1877. It was noted of him, as a mark of 
great distinction, that he had, while in the Worcester 
pastorate, "attained to the thirty-third degree, the 
highest of the Masonic grades iu the world." His 
successor, the Rev. Obadiah Horsford Tillotson, was 


I is:; 

installed on the 27th of June, 1849. During his 
pastorate the increase of the congregation was such 
as to require more sittings in the church. To secure 
that end galleries were constructed in 1851. Mr. 
Tillotson preached his farewell sermon on the 31st of 
October, 1852. Meantime he had become a student - 
at-law and practitioner in the office of Judge Chapin, 
of Worcester ; but finding the pursuit uncongenial, 
he resumed his former profession, to which he devoted 
himself for the remainder of his life. On the 19th of 
June, 1863, he fell a victim to consumption in the 
forty -eighth year of his age. His successor, coming 
in April, 1853, was the Rev. John Greenleaf Adams, 
D.I). After a highly successful pastorate of seven 
years he gave place to the Rev. Lindley Murray 
Burlington, who, after a year and four months, was 
compelled to resign because of long-continued illness. 
His term of service closed on the 1st of January, 
1862. To him succeeded the Rev. Thomas Elliot St. 
John, who was inducted into office on the 1st of April 
in that year. With him began a new departure. 
The church was reorganized by the adoption of a 
new Declaration of Faith and a Constitution. This 
had seemed to be necessary because of changes grow- 
ing out of " removals, withdrawals and forfeitures." 
Having put the church on this new footing, Mr. St. 
John closed his first pastorate in June of 1866 to be- 
come the pastor of a church in Chicago. After the 
intervening pastorate of Rev. Benjamin Franklin 
Bowles, who came on the 1st of October, 1806, and 
left December, 1, 1868, Mr. St. John resumed his old 
Worcester pulpit on the 1st of February, 1869, and 
continued to occupy it till April 1, 1879. Within 
this period the fine new church edifice on Pleasant 
Street was erected and occupied. After leaving Wor- 
cester, Mr. St. John pursued his ministry in various 
places until the autumn of 1881, when he accepted a 
call to the Unitarian Church in Haverhill, Mass. 
His successor, the Rev. Moses Henry Harris, entered 
upon his ministry with this church on the 5th of 
October, 1879. Mr. Harris was a native of Greene, 
in the State of Maine. He was graduated from the 
Canton Theological School in 1867, and had his first 
settlement in the ministry at Brattleborough, Yt., in 
1870. From that pastorate of nine years and three 
months he came to Worcester. In 1885 the " Win- 
chester Confession " was adopted by this church as a 
Declaration of Faith in place of the Declaration 
which had been adopted in 1862; the Constitution 
was also amended and the list of membership re- 
vised. The church then embraced one hundred and 
fifty-five members. 

All Souls Church. — "In the spring of 1883 a com- 
mittee was appointed at a meeting of the First Dni- 
versalist Church to see if a room could be hired at 
the south part of the city in which to open a Mission 
Sunday-school for the extension of our church work 
in Worcester." This was the beginning of the Sec- 
ond Universalist Church. No suitable room could 

be hired; then two friends of the cause, who " could 
not lei the movement die for want of a place, offered 

the free use of their rooms." Accordingly, at one of 
these rooms, in the house of Mrs. Martin Russell, 

No. Hi May Street, the new acl 1 was organized on 

the afternoon of January 27 , I ssl. On the Wednes- 
day following, a prayer-meeting was inaugurated ; 
iliis and preaching by Mr. Harris, of the first ( Ihurch, 
were maintained alternately throughout the winter. 
The natural result of this devotion to t lie work was 
growth; by spring " more room" was found neces- 
sary and this led up to thought of building. Money 

was inn abundant, and Mrs. Lucy A. Stone, seeing 
the need, gave the land on which to builds chapel. 
Another act of encouragement was the gift of one 
hundred dollars by the sister of a former pastor of 
the First Church. As the women had been thus 
active in beginning the enterprise, so they were relied 
upon to carry it forward. Accordingly, " at a meeting 
to form a parish held on the 31st of July, 1884," 
Mrs. Stone and Mrs. Russell, were appointed to obtain 
subscriptions for the purpose of building a chapel. 
The result of their efforts was a subscription of one 
thousand three hundred and two dollars. By the 
last of October the building was begun and before 
the cold weather could interrupt was completed. In 
just one year from the time the Sunday school had 
been organized the chapel was dedicated. This was 
on the 27th of January, 1885. On the 21st of June 
following the church was duly instituted. During 
the summer the pulpit was supplied by Rev. Lee 11. 
Fisher, a student at Tufts College. His services proved 
so acceptable that he was engaged to continue them 
till the next annual meeting. On the 1st of April, 
1886, the Rev. Frederic W. Bailey entered upon his 
duties as first pastor of All Souls. Mr. Bailey imme- 
diately set about providing for a church edifice. 
Through his efforts the sum of three thousand four 
hundred dollars was obtained, with which a lot on the 
corner of Woodland and Norwood Streets was pur- 
chased, and the same was conveyed to the parish on 
the 20th of March, 1887. How to raise the money for 
the building of the church was the next and more 
pressing question. This was happily solved by Mr. 
.lames A. Norcross, of the famous firm of Norcross 
Brothers, builders, by the gilt of fifteen thousand 
dollars in the name of himself and his wife, Mary K., 
upon three conditions : 1st, That the parish should 
raise Seven thousand otherwise than by incumbrance 
on the property ; 2d, That a certain room in the pro- 
posed edifice should be legally conveyed to Mr. Nor- 
cross and his heirs ; anil 3d, that the following in- 
scriptions should be placed on the front of the edifice: 
" In memory of our Fathers and Mothers who are in 
Heaven. Our hope is to meet them in that heavenly 
home;" and "All Souls Universalist Church Edi- 
fice." The exact form of the gift was, " all the 
brownstone required for the exterior of All Souls 
Universalist Church cut and set in place." It was 



assumed that fifteen thousand dollars would cover 
this expense. Mr. Norcross' proposition was pre- 
sented on the 9th of November, in a long letter full 
of details. On the 20th All Souls Parish had a 
meeting, accepted the proposal, unanimously voted 
thanks to the donors, and took measures to comply 
with the first condition. The proposed building is of 
unique design, of bold architecture and studied sim- 
plicity. The main structure is seventy feet square 
with a round tower one hundred and fifty feet high 
on the corner of the streets. The principal audience- 
room is designed to seat about five hundred per- 
sons ; other rooms adapted for all modern church re- 
quirements are embraced within the plan. It will 
be a central attraction for the important neighbor- 
hood in that quarter of the city. 

Fkiends. — "Meeting" and "meeting-house'' are 
characteristic terms among the Friends. The Prepara- 
tive, or, as it is called in England, Particular Meeting, is 
theunit. Several of these constitute a Monthly Meet- 
ing; these in turn constitute a Quarterly Meeting, and 
several Quarterly Meetings constitute the Yearly Meet- 
ing. The Monthly Meeting, which is the lowest cor- 
porate body, takes and holds property through trus- 
tees of its own appointing, for the benefit of its Pre- 
parative constituencies. All meeting-houses are so 
held. The Preparative .Meeting exercises no disci- 
pline over its members. Discipline is administered 
by the Monthly Meeting up in overture or com- 
plaint from the Preparative Meeting. Any party not 
satisfied with the discipline dealt out by this body 
may appeal to the Quarterly Meeting and to the 
Yearly Meeting in the last resort. There is no sala- 
ried minister, no sacrament, no set singing, no vot- 
ing, no business official except a clerk. The clerk 
is the one important and sufficient official. Ee re- 
cords no votes, since there are none to record ; but he 
" takes the sense" or consensus of the meeting, and 
makes a minute of that. This sense lie gathers from 

what any Friend may choose to say at the ting. 

Having made his minute, he reads it, and if it is ap- 
proved it stands as the sense of the meeting; and so 
standing, it is as binding and absolute as a vote else- 
where. In this way the clerk himself is made such. 
In this way one Friend may become an "approved 
minister" and another, because of bad behavior, 
may become "disowned." 

From 1810 to 1837 families of Friends residing in 
Worcester went up to worship at Mulberry drove, in 
Leicester. Later on they obtained leave to hold a 
Particular Meeting in Worcester. The place of meet- 
ing at first was in a room over Boyden & Feuno's 
iewelry store, in Paine's block. But in 1846 they 
built their present meeting-house on land given by 
Anthony Chase and Samuel H. Colton, two leading 
members of the Society. After this the Mulberry 
Grove Meeting gradually diminished and finally died 
out. The Worcester Meeting became a part of Ux- 
bridge Monthly Meeting, of which the Uxbridge and 

Northbridge Preparative Meetings were the remain- 
ing constituent parts. The Uxbridge Monthly Meet- 
ing is held in the three places just named twelve 
times a year, five of which are in Worcester. In due 
gradation, Uxbridge Monthly Meeting belongs to 
Smithfield (R. I.) Quarterly Meeting, and this to the 
New England Yearly Meeting, which is now held al- 
ternately at Newport, R. I., and Portland, Me. 

The Worcester Meeting, though small in numbers, 
has included some of the best known, most worthy 
and most prosperous of her citizens. The names of 
Chase, Colton, Earle, Hadwen, Arnold and others 
have figured prominently in the past history of the 
city. Anthony Chase was for a generation the treas- 
urer of Worcester County; John Milton Earle was 
known far and wide as the proprietor and editor of 
that child and champion of the Revolution, The Mas- 
sachusetts Spy; Edward Earle became may or of the city 
But the Friends of Worcester have special reason to 
remember the name of Timothy K. Earle as one of 
the three principal benefactors of the Society. Choos- 
ing to be his own executor, Mr. Earle, shortly before 
his death, which occurred on tin' 1st of October, 1881, 
made a gift of $5000 to Uxbridge Monthly Meet- 
ing, to be held in trust tor the benefit of Worcester 
Preparative Meeting. The fund was to accumulate 
for ten years; then the income was to be used for 
repairs and improvement of the meeting-house. The 
surplus above what might be used lor this purpose, 
when it should reach the sum of $2000, was to be set 
aside as a fund for rebuilding in caso of fire. < >n i he 
other hand, if the meeting should ever come to an 

end, the deed of gift provided that the fund should 
be made over to the Friends' Ne« England Boarding- 
Sohool at Providence. Other gifts from other sources 

and for other purposes, hut of le^s amounts, are also 
held in trust for this meeting. The clerk lor a quar- 
ter of a century, first of the Worcester Meeting, and 
then of the I'xliridge Monthly Meeting, is James ti. 
Arnold, a lineal descendant, through intermediate and 
unbroken generations of Friends, of Thomas Arnold, 
the earliest emigrant of the name and faith into the 
Providence and Rhode Island Plantations. But it must 
he said that the present prospects of the body do not 
justify the expectation that the future will be as the 
past. The number of members reported is about 
eighty, and this is less than it has been. 

SECOND ADVENTI8T8. — The Second Advent move- 
ment in Worcester was made in anticipation of the 
fateful 15th of February, 1848. On Thanksgiving 
Day in 1842 a meeting was held in Fast City Hall, at 
which a committee was appointed to secure a hall 
and hire preachers. Thenceforward, for a period of 
time, meetings were held almost every evening. For 
a part of the time the " Upper City Hall " was occu- 
pied as the place of meeting. When the l-'th of Feb- 
ruary came and went and the sun continued to rise 
and set as usual, the time for the world's t/risis was 
adjourned to a day in April. Disappointment then 


i is;, 

led to further adjournments, but as time wore on 
and showed no sign of coming to an end, the Advent- ! 
ists, who had been gathered out of almost every de- 
nomination, gradually consolidated into a regular 
church organization. For the first seven or eight 
years no records were kept, because it was held to be | 
inconsistent with the fundamental idea of Adventism. 
The first record appears under the date of April 14, 
185(1, and the first, important thing recorded was the 
one Article of Association, which served as the basis 
of organization. This was in the nature of both 
creed and covenant. "The personal advent and 
reign of Christ on the earth renewed," was the dis- 
tinguishing belief, and the solemn agreement to be 
governed by the Bible as the rule of faith and prac- 
tice was the only covenant. Religious services were 
held in various halls until the year 1806. when a 
chapel was built and dedicated. The building was 
erected on leased land on Central Street, at a cost of 
$3113.28. The dedication took place on the 14th of 
June. A succession of elders ministered to the 
church until the 15th of December, 1870, when 
Elder S. G. Mathewson was called to serve "one 
half the time." He remained in charge till October 
17, 1875, when he preached his farewell sermon. Of 
late years preachers have been supplied by a commit- 
tee chosen for that purpose. In 1883 the chapel was 
sold, and a hall for religious services secured in 
Clark's Block, on Main Street. In 1877 the member- 
ship was one hundred and forty-five, and one hundred 
and eighty-five in 1888. The amount of money an- 
nually raised for current expenses and care of the 
poor of the church exceeds $2000, while contributions 
are made for missions abroad, and particular'y in 

Disciples ok Christ. — The church of which the 
lamented Garfield was a minister is an exotic in New 
England. It had its origin in Western Pennsylvania 
and Eastern Ohio in the early part of the nineteenth 
century. Thence it spread through the Southwest 
and West until, in 1888, the number of communicants 
in the United States was reported to be about sev- 
en hundred thousand. Six universities, thirty- 
one colleges and six collegiate institutes provide the 
denomination with the higher educational facilities, 
while fifty-nine missions in Japan, China, India, Tur- 
key, Africa and Australia, as well as other missions 
in various European countries, attest their zeal in the 
propagation of their faith. The central principle of 
the denomination is the union of all Christians on 
the basis of the Apostolic Church with the person of 
Jesus Christ as the only object of faith. Hence, dis- 
carding all sectarian names, they choose to denomi- 
nate themselves simply " Disciples of Christ." They 
hold the great cardinal doctrines of the gospel but 
not in the terminology of the schools. They abjure 
speculative tenets touching Trinity and Unity but 
adhere to the "form of sound words" given in the 
Scriptures concerning the Father, the Son and the 

Holy Spirit. Their polity is congregational, but they 
are not Congregationalists. Their distinguishing tenel 
is of baptism, but they are not altogether liaptists. 
They agree with the Baptists as to the mode and sub- 
jects of baptism, but differ as to its design. While 

the Baptists baptize believers because they are for- 
given, tin 1 Disciples baptize them in order to secure 
the promised forgivenesss. " He that believe! h and 
is baptized shall be saved." The state of salvation 
follows, nut precedes, the baptizing as well as the be- 
lieving. Baptism will not save if repentance and 
faith are wanting. Baptismal regeneration they 
deny. Baptism is the only form accessary for admis- 
sion into the church ; there is no creed nor covenant. 
No one is excluded from the Lord's Supper, and this 
is observed every Lord's Day. The New Testament 
is held to be the sole book of authority ; the Old Tes 

I; lit is helpful, but not now authoritative. 

Only one church of this order exists in Worcester, 
It was organized on the 5th of August, 18(10, with 
two elders in charge of its spiritual interests ami two 
deacons in charge of its temporal interests. There 
was no parish organization, but the church itself was 
incorporated with trustees annually chosen to hold 
the property. Their first house of worship was the 
old Central Chapel on Thomas Street. But the sur- 
roundings were unfavorable and they felt hampered 
in their work. They therefore, in September, 1885, 
sold that property, and while making ready to build 
occupied the old Central Church on Main Street as a 
place of worship. In the next month they purchased 
a lot on Main Street opposite King, and there pro- 
ceeded to erect an attractive church edifice at a cost 
in all of twenty-three thousand dollars. Its dedica- 
tion took place on the 12th of September, 1880. In 
the twenty-eight years of its existence, the church 
has had for its ministers, William H. Hughes, Wil- 
liam Rowzee, Alanson Wilcox, J. M. Atwater, T. 
W. Cottingham, Frank N. Calvin and the present 
minister, I. A. Thayer, who came from New Castle, 
Pennsylvania, and began his work in Worcester in 
October, 1887. To none of these do they apply the 
epithet Reverend, as the distinction of clergy and 
laity is not recognized. In 1888 the membership of 
the church was three hundred and seventy-three and 
that of the Sundayschool two hundred and fifty. 

Fhee Baptists. — Two tenets — free will and lice 
communion — distinguish the Free Baptists front other 
Baptists. They might perhaps be named the Armen- 
ian Baptists and the others the Calvinistic Baptists; 
but those names would not mark the radical distinc- 
tion growing out of the terms of communion. 
Enough that each has chosen its own name ; " Bap- 
tists," pure and simple, and " Free Baptists." This 
denomination had its origin in New Hampshire 
somewhat more than a century ago. Benjamin Ran- 
dall had been a Congregationalist, afterwards became 
a Baptist, and then, by adopting and preaching the 
doctrines of the freedom of the will and free commu- 



nion, became the founder of the Free Baptist denom- 
ination. This was in 1780. Within the century fol- 
lowing, churches of this faith multiplied and spread 
east and west, until now the membership throughout 
the country is reported to exceed eighty thousand. 
In the county of Worcester there are three churches, 
one of which is in the city. The first preliminary 
meeting here was held at the house of Newell Tyler, 
on the 14th of September, 1880. Meetings continued 
to be held at intervals until the 7th of April, 1881, 
when the church was duly organized with thirtv 
members. It continued to live without parish 
powers until the 3d of August, 1887, when by-law* 
were adopted preparatory to incorporation undei 
Chapter 404 of the Acts of that year. On the 1st 
day of September following the church became a 
corporation by the name of the " First Free Baptist 
Church of Worcester." The Rev. A. J. Eastman, 
who had been the originator of the movement, wat 
installed on the 7th of April, 1887, as the first pastor, 
and so continued for one year. The second pastoi 
was the Rev. H. Lockhait. His term began on tin 
1st of May, 1883, and terminated on the 1st of .March. 
1887. Dn the 18th of May following the Rev. D. D. 
Mitchell became the pastor. The place ..I' worship 
is "Free Baptist Hall," in Clark's Building, 192 
Main Street. 

African Chdeches — African Methodist Zum't 
i 'Am/ <'//.—This church was organized in 18 16. Its first 
place of worship was the " < 'entenarv Chapel," « bicb 
had been erected on Exchange Street in 1840, and 
which, at a later day, came into the hands of /ion's 
Church. The house was dedicated for this church 
in the year of its organization. Rev. Alexandei 
Pose; was the first pastor. To him succeeded the 
Rev. Levin Smith, in 1849. The third and most 
noteworthy pastor was the Rev. J. A. Mai-. In 1854 
the house was burned in the great tire of that year 
In July, 1855, another house was begun, and by tin 
25th of September was completed and dedicated. A 
large part of the money for this expense was collected 
by Mr. Mars outside the society. After him came a 
succession of pastors whose names were not obtained 
African Methodist Episcopal Bet/iet Church. — This 
church was organized in the summer of 1867 in Lin- 
coln House Hall. Dr. Brown was a leading spirit in 
the enterprise and continued to manage until a pas- 
tor was assigned. The original membership of the 
church was fourteen. The first pastor assigned b\ 
the Conference was Rev. Joshua Hale, whose term ol 
service was two years. After him came in succession 
twelve pastors, whose names were Mr. Johnson, 
James Madison, Perry Stanford, Ebenezer Williams. 
Jeremiah B. Hill, Joseph Taylor, Elijah I'. Grinage, 
D. A. Porter, Charles Ackworth, Mr. Grandy, A. \V. 
Whaley, Mr. Thomas and G. B. Lynch. Then in 
1887, Rev. J. B. Stephens was appointed to the 
charge, which he was keeping at the close of 1888. 
For a number of years their place of worship was at 

the corner of Hanover and Laurel Streets. But in 
1887 that property was lost and since then their 
place of worship has been at 302 Main Street. The 
number of communicants in 1888 was twenty-five 
and the number of families eight. 

The Mount Olive H'tptisl Church was a child of the 
Worcester Baptist City Mission Board. At first and 
for some years it was maintained as a mission. But 
the brethren of the mission having repeatedly asked 
for organization and recognition as an independent 
church, the Board at length yielded to their wishes. 
Accordingly, on the 24th of February, 1885, a coun- 
cil of the city Baptist Churches convened in the 
Pleasant Street Church and after due examination of 
twenty-two persons constituted them a church with 
the above name, for a long time the Rev. Charles 
E. Simmons served them in the gospel without com- 
pensation. Then they set about procuring a pastor. 
On the 24th of March. L887, at their request, a coun- 
cil convened for the purpose of ordaining Hiram 
Conway, a student in Newton Theological Seminary, 
to the Mount Olive ministry. His examination hav- 
ing proved satisfactory, his ordination and recogni- 
tion as pastor took place on the 29th in the Pleasant 
Street Church. In the summer of the same year 
h,,u-. No 13 John Street, with the connected lot, 
was purchased and lilted tor public worship at a cost 
of about one thousand dollars. On the LOth of < IctO- 

ber, 1888, a membership of forty-one persons was 

The number of persons of African blood in Wor- 
cester by the census of L885 was eight hundred and 
eighty-three; in 1888 the number was thought to be 
about one thousand. 

Christadelphians.- llie Christadelphians, or 
" Brethren of Christ," constitutes small body in Wor- 
cester. The order had its origin in the year 1882. 
Its founder was John Thomas, M.I>., Of New York, 
who believed and proclaimed that tile true teaching 
of Christ was for the fust time discovered in this 
nineteenth century by himself. l>r. Thomas became 
an itinerant, and went through the I'nited States and 

the British Empire publishing bis new-found gospel. 
Disciples were made and are to be found scattered 
through this country, (ireat Britain, Australia ami 
India. Their belief will, perhaps, best be seen by 
what they do not believe. In their own printed words, 
then, "Christadelphians do not believe in the Trinity, 
' in the co-equality and co-eternity of Jesus with the 
Deity, in the existence of Jesus before his conception 
at Nazareth, in the personality of the Holy Spirit, in 
the personality of the devil, in the immortality of the 
soul, in the transportation of saints to heaven and 
sinners to hell after death, in eternal torments, in 
baby sprinkling and pouring, in infant and idiot 
salvation, in Sabbatarianism, in salvation by good 
works apart from the gospel, in salvation without 
baptism, in the validity of baptism where the gospel 
was not understood and believed at the time of its 


I 1-7 

administration, in conversion apart from the intelligent 
apprehension of the Word, in the conversion of the 
world by the preaching of the gospel. They do not 
believe that the Old Testament has been set ;isi<ie by 
the New, but, on the contrary, they base their faith 
on the writings of Moses, the Prophets and the Apos- 
tles comprehensively viewed, and reject everything 
contrary to their teaching." 

To this non-belief they add the belief that " the 
faith of Christendom is made up of the tallies pre- 
dicted by Paul in - Timothy 4 : 4, and is entirely 
subversive of the faith once for all delivered to the 
saints." They have no pastors, deacons or paid 
officers, but in the place of them have "serving 
brethren, presiding brethren and speaking brethren." 
The first meeting of the "ecclesia" in Worcester 
was held in Temperance Hall, on Foster Street, in 
1867. In the beginning there were only twelve mem. 
bers. This number increased in a few years to about 
sixty, then in twelve years fell back to twenty-two. 
The place of meeting is Reform Club Hall, at 460 
Main Street. The sum of one hundred and fifty 
dollars covers the current yearly expenses. 

Swedish Churches. — By the census of 1875 there 
were then one hundred and sixty-six Swedes and Nor- 
wegians in the city of Worcester. In 1888 the num- 
ber was estimated to be over six thousand. For this 
rapidly-growing part of the population five churches 
have already been provided. Two of these are Method- 
ist, one is Baptist, one Congregational and one Luth- 
eran. The oldest is the 

First Swedish. M. E. Church. — Work was begun 
among the Swedes in Worcester as early as 1876 by 
the Rev. Albert Ericson of the M. E. Church. By 
him a church was organized, to which the Rev. Otto 
Anderson afterwards preached. In the fall of 1879 
Mr. Ericson removed to Worcester, resumed his work 
and remained in charge till 1882, when he was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. D. S. Sorlin. In 1883 a church 
was erected at < Juiiisigarnond at a cost, including the 
lot, of six thousand seven hundred dollars, and 
was dedicated on the 31st of March, 1884. In the 
same year the Rev. C. A. Cederberg was appointed 
assistant preacher and in the year following the pastor 
in charge. In 1887 the Rev. Albert Haller was 
appointed to succeed him. 

The Second Swedish M. E. Church was organized on 
the 0th of April, 1885. This church, a colony from 
the First, embraced ninety-four members, including 
twenty-nine on probation. With these came the Rev. 
Mr. Sorlin, pastor of the First Church, under appoint- 
ment as pastor of the new organization. On the 1st 
of September, 1885, the church took possession of the 
chapel on Thomas Street, which had been purchased 
from the Christ Church Society for eight thousand 
dollars. By two successive additions at a cost of three 
thousand four hundred dollars, a seating capacity for 
more than five hundred was obtained ; nor was this 
found to be sufficient. The growth of the society had 

been so rapid that in November, 1888, there was ;i 
membership of two hundred and thirty Inc. On the 
20th of .May. 1^;, the Rev. II. W. Bklund of 
Stockholm, Sweden, became the pastor in charge. 
His ministry resulted in great spiritual and material 

The Swedish /iiangelical Congregational Church in 
Worcester has its root in the Free Church movement 
in Sweden. This movement began about L869 under 
Rev. P. Waldenstrom, D.D., who had been a minister 
of the Lutheran or State Church. Under his vigorous 
lead the membership of this 1'rcc Church bad grown 
in the course of sixteen years to be one hundred thou 
sand. Some of this communion having emigrated I" 
this country had found a home in Worcester. In May, 
1880, a few of these people began to meet I'm prayer 
and conference on Messenger Hill, while others met 
at ljuinsigamond and elsewhere. In June, Rev. A. 
G. Nelson, pastor of a Swedish Free Church in ( lam 
pello, Mass., came by invitation and held Beveral meet 
ings. On the 15th of August the hall at 386 Main 
Street, over the Gazette office, was hired for reli- 
gious services. Some old settees were borrowed from 
the Y. M. C. A., while a small yellow table, still pre- 
served as a memorial of that day of small things, was 
bought and used for a " pulpit." In this place, on 
the 6th of September, 1880, the Swedish Free Church 
was organized, and here, on the 26th, Mr. Nel- 
son held the first Sunday service. In October the 
Rev. George Wiberg was called from Iowa to become 
the first pastor. In May, 1881, the church, finding the 
hall on Main Street too narrow, removed its place of 
worship to a hall in Warren's Mlock, near Washington 
Square. On the 10th of August in the same year 
a council, finding this Free Church in substantial 
accord with itsown, gave it a cordial welcome to the 
fellowship of the Congregational Churches. Only one 
other Swedish Congregational Church then existed in 
the country, that one being in Iowa. On the 1 4lh 
of January, 1882, a parish was duly organized in the 
office of Henry L. Parker, Esq., in Flagg's building, 
under a warrant issued by him. Membership in the 
church was made a condition of membership in the 
parish. In November, 1883, Mr. Wiberg resigned his 
charge, and on the 1st of December following, Mr. 
Nelson, the first preacher to the church, became its 
second pastor. Leaving in July, 1885, he was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Eric Nillson, who began bis work- 
on the first Sunday in August of that year and was 
dismissed on the 6th of December, 1888. At the 
same time occurred the installation of the Ion. Karl 
F. Ohlsson, who had been called from Hedemora, 
Sweden, to the Worcester church. Its membership 
was then two hundred and fifty. 

As early as 1882 this Swedish church enterprise 
j had enlisted the lively sympathies of the Congrega- 
tional body of the city, and a movement was then 
initiated to erect a church edifice. Through a build- 
I ing committee, of which S. K. Heywood was chair- 



man and G. Henry Whitcomb treasurer, the money was 
raised, a commodious edifice erected on Providence 
street, near Union R. R. Station, and on the 25th 
of January, 1885, was dedicated with services by 
nearly all the Congregational pastors of the city. 
The cost, including land and furnishing, was nine 
thousand three hundred and ninety-five dollars, ol 
which the Swedes contributed one thousand five hun- 
dred and ninety-five. As they gain financial strength 
the whole cost will probably be assumed by the parish. 

A most active, efficient and leading person in all 
this enterprise was Dea. John A. Corneli. He had 
been a Lutheran and been urged by his Lutheran 
pastor in Boston to forward that interest on coming 
to Worcester. Being, however, converted at one ol 
Major Whittle's meetings, he had left the Lutherans 
and united with the Summer Street Church. After- 
wards he took a dismission from that church to assist 
in building up the church of his Swedish brethren. 
To him both its spiritual and temporal prosperity was 
largely due. 

The Swedish Baptist Church grew out of a move- 
ment begun in 1879. In that year Mr. Anderson, a 
Swede, came from the Union Temple Church in Boston 
and united with the First Baptist t 'hurch in Worcester. 
Soon he had a Sunday school class of six or ciglii 
Swedes. Then he and his countrymen began to hold 
meetings in the vestry of the First Baptist Church. 
In I ssi, the Swedish Baptist church was constituted 
with a body of nine members. The Baptist City 
Mission Board now came to their help, and board 
and church co-operated in hiring a hall for religious 
services in Clark's Block, now Walker Building. In 
1S82, Rev. I'eter A. Hjelm was called from Sweden to 
the pastorate. He remained till near the close of the 
year 1888, and was then succeeded by the Rev. L. Kal- 
berg. The Mission Board had built, in 1855, a chapel 

on Mulberry Street at a cost, including land, of $9' 

Of this amount the church from the first assumed 
$3000; in the end of 1888 that body had become so 
prosperous that it resolved to relieve the board en- 
tirely. In the same year the membership had in- 
creased to about two hundred and forty. 

The Swedish Evangelical Lutheran Gethtemane < 'hurch 
was organized in 1881. In 1882 the Rev. Charles E. 
Cesander became the pastor. He was succeeded in 
1883 by the Rev. Martin J. Englund, who was or- 
dained on the 17th of June. In the same year the 
church was erected on Mulberry Street at a cost ol 
about §15,000. The Rev. Oscar M. Holmgrain was 
Mr. Englund's successor, being installed in October 
or November, 1885. The installation of his successor, 
Rev. S. G. Larson, took place in April, 1888. The 
Augsburg Confession is the basis of the church or- 
ganization. The membership in 1888 was about one 
hundred and seventy. 

Jews. — Polish Jews began to multiply in Worcester 
about the year 1874. In 1888 the number of souls was 
thought to be not less than five hundred. There are 

among them two incorporated religious societies. The 
oldest of these made an attempt to become incorpo- 
rated in 1880, which, through no fault of the society, 
resulted in failure to obtain what they sought. But 
in 1888 the society became a corporate body by the 
name which it had borne from the first, 

Sons of Israel. — The method of admission to the 
synagogue, or church, is by ballot after the candidate 
has been proposed and personally examined as to his 
fitness. Five black balls defeat an election. Mem- 
bership involves an obligation to make certain annual 
payments, and secures certain pecuniary advantages 
touching sickness and burial. A prime requisite for 
membership, whether in the outset or in continuance, 
is financial integrity. This society has had live 
ministers. The first was M. Metzer who came in 
1880. After him came M. Touvim in 1882; M. 
Binkovich in 1884; M. Newman in L885, and M. 
Axel S. Jacobson in lss7. In 1888 a synagogue was 
built on Green Street at a cost of $U,000, including 
laud, and was occupied for religious services in Au- 
gust of that year. About fifty persons are members 
of the synagogue and two hundred belong to the con- 
gregation. The synagogue possesses three rolls ol the 
live books of Moses written on parchment, the finest 
of which cost $150. 

The second society is named the 

Sons of Abraham. — It became incorporated in 1886. 
Besides Polish Jews it embraced some of Swedish 
nationality. Those constituting the society went out 

from the older body because of lack ol agreement on 
certain matters. Bui theii organization and doctrine 
and way of the synagogue are the same. In 1888 a 

synagogue of brick was erected by this SOciet} on 
Plymouth Street, and was to be ready for occupation 

by the end of that year. The cost of this, with the 
land, was also about $11,000. In that year the mem- 
bership was said to be forty. This synagogue, like 
the other, is the possessor of several copies of the 
I orah, or Law of Moses, executed in the same costly 
style, and kept in an ark or chest for use in the syna- 
gogue service. 

Some half a dozen families of German Jew- belong 
to Worcester/but have their religious affiliations with 

Armenians. — The Armenian nation was great and 
historical centuries before the Christian era. As early, 
perhaps, as any Gentile nation, they received the 
Christian religion; but not till the opening of the 
fourth century, and in the year .'{02, did the Armenian 
Church begin to be established. To St. Gregory, the 
Illuminator, belongs the honor of being its founder, 
and hence it is distinctively styled the Gregorian 
Church. Independent alike of the Greek and the 
Romish Churches, it resembled them in holding a 
hierarchy and the seven sacraments. This ancient 
church, through varying fortunes, has come down to 
our day and still exists in its native seat. An impor- 
tant city of that country is Harpoot, in the great loop 



made by the. river Euphrates, and there, early in the 
century, the American Board of Commissioners estab- 
lished one of their missions. In this way the Ar- 
menians came to have relations with Americans and 
to have knowledge of the United States. From Har- 
poot and vicinity many of them found their way to 
Worcester. The special attraction for them in this 
city was the great Washburn & Moen wire establish- 
ment. They began to be employed in that establish- 
ment in the year 1882, and in 1888 there were 
about two hundred and thirty-six on its pay-roll. 
This particular set towards Worcester was the means 
of drawing others who came and engaged in other 
employments. The whole number in the city was 
last reported at about five hundred. This is said to 
be a larger number of Armenians than is to be 
found, not only in any other place in the United 
States, but also larger than all those in Boston, New 
York, Brooklyn and Philadelphia together. 

It was an obvious duty to provide for these Asiatic 
strangers edifying religious instruction. Accordingly, 
about the beginning of the year 1888, the Rev. H. X. 
Andreasian was invited to come from Harpoot and 
minister to them in their own tongue. Mr. Andreasian 
was a disciple of the American missionaries, and had 
become an evangelical Protestant as towards the Gre- 
gorian Church. He had been an ordained minister 
and preacher at Harpoot for twenty-one years. On 
receiving the call from Worcester he was given leave 
of absence from his charge in Harpoot for from one 
to three years. A place for worship was secured in 
Summer Street Chapel, and there every Sabbath a 
large portion of the Armenians in Worcester have 
diligently attended upon his ministry. There is yet 
no organized church, and the congregation embraces 
Gregorian as well as Protestant Armenians. The 
communion of the Lord's Supper is observed four 
times a year, and to it are invited "all who love the 
Lord Jesus Christ." The version of the Bible in use 
is that published by the American Bible Society in 
the Armenian language. The singing is congrega- 
tional, conducted by Mr. M. S. T. Nahigian. who 
came to Worcester almost before any other Armenian. 
A serious drawback upon the future of the Armenians 
in Worcester is the almost entire absence of Armen- 
ian women, caused by the refusal of the Turkish Gov- 
ernment to allow them to emigrate. The entire con- 
gregation on the last Sabbath of the year 1888 con- 
sisted of men, and mostly of young men. Mr. An- 
dreasian regarded this as such a serious matter that 
he was determined to discourage the Armenian im- 
migration, utiles'! the women came also. About 
fifteen hundred dollars a year havebeen raised among 
them-elves for church and burial purposes here and 
contributions to their poor at home. They have 
manifested their gratitude and a fine sense of the fit- 
ness of things by also making a voluntary contribu- 
tion of two hundred dollars to the funds of the City 

mans. — In 1875 the number of persons in 
Worcester born in Germany was four hundred and 
three. Thirteen years later the number of this na- 
tionality was estimated at somewhat more than one 
thousand. Of these a small portion are of the Roman 
Catholic faith, but without any separate church or- 
ganization. The bulk of these are free from all 
ecclesiastical connection, except — as a leader of this 
sort put the case — "each is a little church by him- 
self." Formerly, and from time to time, the Prot- 
estant Germans essayed to establish a German 
church, but with more of failure than of success. 
In 1880 Charles H. Stephan, a layman of German 
birth, came to the city and was much dissatisfied at 
finding such religious desolation among his country- 
men. He at once bestirred himself to do what he 
might to remedy the evil. The result of his efforts 
was that, on the 30th of November, 188G, a com- 
pany of Protestant Germans was brought together 
for religious service and worship. This first meet- 
ing was held in the Swedish Lutheran Church on 
Mulberry Street. A mission service continued to be 
held from that time on until April 10, 1888, when a 
church was organized under the name of the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church. Ten persons became mem- 
bers by signing the "constitution," and Charles H. 
Stephan and Walter Lester were elected deacons. 
The " unchanged" (invariata) Augsburg Confession 
was made the basis of the organization. The two 
sacraments are baptism and the Lord's Supper. Bap- 
tism is uniformly administered to infants a few days 
after birth by a ternary pouring of water from the 
hand upon the infant's brow. The Lord's Supper is 
administered four times a year, under the imperative 
rule of the Lutheran Church. In regard to this 
Bacrament, Luther's doctrine of consubstantiation is 
strictly held by this Worcester church ; the body 
and blood of Christ are received under and with 
the bread and wine, but not in the bread and wine 
transubstantiated, as the Romish Church teaches. 
The minister of the church is the Rev. F. C. Wurl, 
of Boston, who serves as a missionary under ap- 
pointment by the German Home Mission, at Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. Preaching is held in the hospitable and 
catholic Summer Street Chapel every alternate Sun- 
day, while a Sunday school is maintained every 
Sunday. The average attendance upon the preach- 
ing is forty-five and thirty at the Sunday school. 

City Missions.— The Trinitarian Congregational- 
ists had for many years maintained an unincorporated 
City Missionary Society. But under the efficient and 
stimulating lead of the Rev. Henry A. Stimson, 
D.D., with the hearty co-operation of others, both 
clergy and laity, a corporation was legally organized 
and established, December 10, 1883, under the name 
of the Worcester City Missionary Society. The ob- 
ject of the society was "to promote religion and mor- 
ality in the city of Worcester and vicinity by the 
employment of missionaries ; the establishment and 



support of churches, Sunday schools, mission sta- 
tions and chapels for the preaching of the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ; for the diffusion of Evangelical knowl- 
edge and for the fostering of such works of benevo- 
lence as are especially adapted to commend religion 
to those who undervalue or are ignorant of it." 
This step rapidly led to a great enlargement of 
Christian activity and giving in the direction of city 
missions. Before the incorporation, the sum o 
was about the limit of the fund annually raised for 
the uses of the society. After the incorporation, as 
appears by the several annual report-, the amount 
raised was, in the fir.-t year, $2778.23 ; in the second 
year, $3670.69; in the third year, $3764.81; in the 
fourth year, $3886.53; and in the fifth year. $4006.71. 
With these means in hand a superintendent and as- 
sistants were employed, the city was canvassed, mis- 
sions were established and preaching in them was, 
maintained. Out of all this three organized churches 
have grown up, one of which speedily took matters 
into its own hands, became Btrongand erected one of 
the finest churches in the city. The llev. Albert 
Bryant has been the efficient superintendent from 
the beginning. At the close of the year 1888 the so- 
ciety owned three chapels, valued at .^15,000. 

In the autumn of 1881, the Baptist Churchi 
measures for the united prosecution of city mission 
work. On the 25th of March, 1885, this enterprise 
took body and form by becoming incorporated under 
the name of the Worcester Baptist City Mission 
Board. The object of the association, as declared in 
the Articles of agreement, was " to promote religion 
and morality in the city of Worcester and vicinity, 
the establishment and support of churches, Sunday 

schools, mission stations arid chapels under I 
eral management of Baptists, the employment of mis- 
sionaries to labor in said city and vicinity for the 
furtherance of the above-named objects and the ad- 
vancement of the cause of evangelical religion." 
The policy adopted was to have all the Baptist 
Churches represented in the Board and all con- 
tribute according to ability. Moreover, it was held 
to be good policy for each church to have special 
charge of some one mission, and, if able, to bear al) 
its expenses. The French Mission was reserved 
from this arrangement and kept under the control of 
the Board. This mission was organized in 1881, and 
was placed under the charge of Rev. Gideon Aubin 
in 1886. Its support, in part, is furnished by the 
Home Baptist Mission of New York City. Other 
missions under the charge of this Board are, one at 
Quinsigamond and one on Canterbury Street, both 
of which were organized in 188-5, and a mission at 
Adams Square, which was begun in 1886. The 
amount of property held by the Board and invested 
principally in three chapels is somewhat le s than 

In the spring of 1888, a mission of the New Jeru- 
salem Church, or Swedenborgians, was begun in 

Worcester. Such a mission had been established in 
1874, had been continued for nearly four years and 
had then come to an end. The numbers embraced 
in the new mission did not exceed a score at the 
close of the year 1888, and were all women. These 
provided a place of assembly, which is in Walker 
Building, and there on stated Sundays the Rev. Wil- 
lard H. Hinkley, of Brookline, Mass., a secretary of 
the General Convention, ministers to them as a 
missionary of the New Church. There is no church 
organization ; the members belong to different ehun li- 
es in Boston and elsewhere. It appears from the 
New Church "Almanac" for 1889 that the number 
of societies in America then in "organized existence" 
was 141 ; the estimated number of " New Church- 
men," 10,178; the number of churches and chapels, 
82; and the total number of clergy in active service 
and otherwise, 113. Swedenborg died in 1772. His 
doctrines were first introduced into America in 
17-1: and the first New Jerusalem Church in the 
L'nited States was organized in 1792, in Baltimore. 
The first society in Massachusetts was instituted in 
Boston on the L5th of August, 1818; the whole 
number in the State in 1888 was nineteen. 

Besides tin- foregoing, there are various other mis- 
sions, denominational and undenominational, tbat 
are independent and sell-supporting. 

In 1888, the total valuation, by the assessors, of 
church property, exclusive of schools, parsonaf 
other parochial property, wa- $1,794,900. This amount 
was distributed among the several denominations 
as follows: Trinitarian Congregationalists, $577,300; 
Roman Catholics, $451,800; Baptists, $193,300; 
Methodists, $171,500; Episcopalians, $165,100; Uni- 
tarian Congregationalists, $98,400; Quivers 
$69,300; Disciples of Christ, $27,600; Swedish Lu- 
therans. $11,500, and the balance among the smaller 
organizations. The cost of the New Old South, not 
yet exhibited on the books of n would 

ie the total valuation by more than $100,000. 
file real value of the whole would no doubt 

Our historical review shows that while the largest 
growth has been in the line of the oldest church, the 
city has also been greatly hospitable towards other 
creeds of later advent within its bounds. 

In the preparation of this.sketch of the Worcester 
churches the following is a partial list of the authori- 
ties and sources of information which have been con- 
sulted: Lincoln's "History of Worcester," Lincoln's 
" Historical Notes" (in manuscript , Smalley's " Wor- 
cester Pulpit," Bancroft's " S - - 
men on War of 1812," "Pamphlets on the Goodrich 
and Waldo Controversy, 1820," et seg.; "Sketches of 
the Established Church in New England," Hoffman's 
"Catholic Directory," Hill's "Historical Discourse," 
"Journal of Convention of Protestant Episcopal 
Church," Dorchester's " Early Methodism in W 
ter" (in manuscript), Roe's "Beginnings of Method- 



ism in Worcester" (in manuscript), Green's "Glean- 
ings from History of Second Parish in Worcester," 
Davis' " Historical Discourse on Fiftieth Anniversary 
of First Baptist Church," Way-land's " Sermon on 
Twenty-fifth Anniversary of his ( Irdi nation as Pastorof 
Main Street Baptist Church," Barton's " Epitaphs," 
Drake's " American Biography," Liturgv of New 
Jerusalem Church, New Church Almanac ; printed 
manuals of the various churches and societies, manu- 
script records of same, including records of First 
Parish at City Hall, and of the church therewith 
connected (Old South) in the last century, in the 
handwriting of Rev. Mr. Maccarty ; Worcester Spy 
newspaper, ancient copies of Psalm-books, "Twenty- 
fifth Anniversary Exercises of First Universalis! 
Society," ''One Position" of Disciples of Christ, 
Thayer's " Christian Union." Much information has 
also been obtained from pastors and other living 
persons, actors in and having knowledge of what took 
place. In this way knowledge of what is written 
about the Swedish, Arminian, German and Jewish 
ecclesiastical matters were chiefly obtained. 


WORCESTER (Continued.) 


The earliest public library in Worcester of which 
I have been able to find a trace is that of 

The Military Library Society in the Seventh 
Division. — The preamble to the agreement signed by 
the gentlemen who became members of the society 
recites the (act that " military science is essential to the 
military character,'' and states that the Legislature 
had passed a law which provided for the " creation 
and encouragement" of a library such as that of 
which the formation was contemplated, with the pur- 
pose of making " adequate provision " for " the ad- 
vancement of the object of military inquiry, . . . the 
general diffusion of military knowledge" and "the 
formation and instruction of military men," to the 
accomplishment of which objects "the establishment 
of a military library would greatly conduce." 

The subscribers agreed " to associate in the procure- 
ment of a library,'' which was " always to be kept in 
the town of Worcester, as the most central place." 
Their first meeting was held April 3, 1811. Major 
Levi Lincoln, Jr., Lieutenant Gardner Burbank and 
Dr. John Green were appointed a committee for the 
" procurement of books." 

" John W. Lincoln was " at the same meeting 
"elected clerk" . . . and "chosen librarian." On 
June 13, 1811, rules and regulations were adopted by 
the society. One of those provided that " There shall 

be chosen annually a clerk and librarian, both which 
offices shall be vested in one and the same member." 
On June 24, 1812, John W. Lincoln was chosen clerk 
and librarian, and Dr. John Green, Lieutenant John 
\V. Lincoln and Major Isaac Sturtevant were consti- 
tuted a committee for the procurement of books. 

These few facts have been taken from a manu- 
script volume in the library of the American Anti- 
quarian Society, which coutains records of meet- 
ings of the military society and documents relating 
to its organization. The only other fact not yielded 
by that volume which I have found out respecting 
the library of the society is that in 1824, Dr. John 
Green deposited in the library of "The Odd Fel- 
lows," an organization to be spoken of presently, 
thirty-three volumes, which had belonged to the 
" late military library." ' 

The Library of the Fraternity or Odd Fel- 
lows belonged to a society which was formed in 1820 
or 1821. The date of formation is inferred from a 
statement made in a manuscript volume in the pos- 
session of the American Antiquarian Society, which 
is, that rules adopted in regard to the management 
of the library of the society at a meeting of the or- 
ganization held October 20, 1824, had been agreed 
upon by the members, at that date, in " the fourth 
year of their oddity and the second session." Among 
the rules is the following: "The fine for detention 
shall be six per centum on the first cost of the work 
per day." At the end of the year 1827 the library 
appears to have contained one hundred and sixty- 
three volumes, which were owned by it, and other 
books which had been deposited in the collection, but 
did not belong to it, such, for example, as the thirty- 
three volumes mentioned above, which had been the 
property of the military library. 

The brotherhood consisted of well-known citizens, 
whose names are familiar to the student of the annals 
of Worcester. William Lincoln was at one time its 
librarian, and Isaac Davis served in the same capacity 
at a later date. 

It should be added that the Fraternity of Odd Fel- 
lows appears to have had no connection with the or- 
ganization known as the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, a chapter of which was established in Wor- 
cester a number of years after the formation of the 
Fraternity. The only sources of information regard- 
ing the library of the organization which I know of, 
are three manuscript volumes, which belong to the 
American Antiquarian Society. One of these, namely, 
that which contains a list of the books belonging to 
the library, has just been referred to. The others are : 
"Rules of the Library of the Fraternity of Odd 
Fellows " and " List of Books delivered by the Libra- 

1 See " List of Books belonging to the Library of the Odd Fellows " 
fur tbe titles of tbo books dejwsited in that library by Dr. Green. The 
rolume containing tbe " Lists, Ac," is in the library of the American 
| Antiquarian Society. 



Library of the American Antiquarian So- 
ciety. — The gentlemen who wished to be incorpo- 
rated as the American Antiquarian Society, in the 
petition which they caused to be presented to the 
General Court of Massachusetts, stated that one of 
their number was " in possession of a valuable col- 
lection of books, obtained with great labor and ex- 
pense, the value of which may be fairly estimated at 
about five thousand dollars, some of them more 
ancient than are to be found in any other part of our 
country, and all of which he intends to transfer to 
the proposed society, should their project receive the 
sanction and encouragement of the Legislature." 

The gentleman referred to in the petition was 
Isaiah Thomas, who, as editor, publisher and author, 
had brought together a large amount of valuable 
literary matter of the kind most suitable for an anti- 
quarian and historical library. The prayer of the 
petitioners was granted, and the American Antiqua- 
rian (Society was incorporated October 24, 1812. It 
was organized November 19th of the same year, and 
at a meeting of the society held in February. 1813, 
the president, Isaiah Thomas, carried out his inten- 
tions by presenting to it his private library. Thus 
the founder of the society became also the founder of 
its library. As before remarked, Mr. Thomas' library 
was valued at five thousand dollars. It should be 
stated iii this connection, however, thai a collection 
of books of the kind which constituted his library, 
if sold to-day, would brine; a sum of money many 
times larger than that which represented its market 
value at the time of its gift to the Antiquarian 

Many books were given to the society for its library 
during the earlier years of the existence of the latter, 
and in October, 1819, it contained nearly six thousand 

It is interesting to note the fact that in the begin- 
ning of the activity of the Antiquarian (Society it 
appointed gentlemen of experience and learning in 
different States of the Union, to act as agents or re- 
ceivers in collecting books and manuscripts for the 
library and articles for the cabinet, and that, as a re- 
sult of this policy, contributions of books, pamphlets 
and relics of various kinds were forwarded to it from 
all parts of the country. 

Mr. Thomas was unwilling to have the library and 
cabinet of the Antiquarian Society placed in a large 
city, fearing that, if so situated, their safety would be 
endangered by the presence of large fires. Guided 
also by fears that it was natural for a man to enter- 
tain who lived here at the time of the organization of 
the Antiquarian Society, he would not have them 
placed on the seaboard, because, in time of war, they 
would be subjected to more peril there from the rav- 
ages of enemies than in an interior town, where, with 
the modes of locomotion then available, they were 
much less likely to be disturbed. At his death, in 1831, 
Mr. Thomas bequeathed to the society such of his 

books, engravings, coins, etc., as he had not already 
given to it, and left to it money to constitute the 
librarian's and the collection and research funds. 

In October, 1872, Mr. Nathaniel Paine counted the 
number of volumes in a large portion of the library, 
and made careful estimates regarding the number in 
the remaining portions. Reckoning ten pamphlets 
as constituting a volume, he made up his mind that 
there were about fifty-three thousand volumes in the 
library at the date mentioned. Taking this calcula- 
tion as 3 basis, and adding to the number obtained 
subsequent acquisitions, and subtracting from the 
total the number of volumes which have been taken 
out of the library for purposes of exchange or for 
other reasons, it appears, according to a statement 
given to me by the librarian, that at the time of the 
annual meeting of the society in October, 1888, there 
were about ninety thousand volumes in the library, 
calling ten pamphlets a volume, as in the reckoning 
of Mr. Paine. 

The library is very valuable, but in many respects 
cannot be compared in importance to the antiquary, 
with such magnificent collections as the Lenox Li- 
brary in New York City, and the rich private library 
brought together by the late John Carter Brown, of 
Providence, and s'.ill owned by his family. Certain 
classes of books, however, are represented here by 
numerous and noteworthy examples. Thus, for in- 
stance, the library contains a large and exceedingly 
interesting collection of early volumes of the oldest 
newspapers of the United States. It also possesses 
many rare works which were printed in this country 
in the days of its infancy and a. number of valuable 

The feature which best distinguishes it from other 
libraries and museums is its unique collection of 
memorials of the Mather family. There are from 
three thousand five hundred to four thousand vol- 
umes of newspapers in the library. Among these 
are sixteen of the Boston Newt Litter, the first es- 
tablished newspaper published on this continent. 
These volumes are not wholly complete, however. 
The Newt Letter was first issued in 1704. The library 
also contains several volumes, bearing dates between 
1719 and 1753, of the Boston Gazette, the second 
newspaper established in Boston, and specimen vol- 
umes of the Boston Post Boy, a paper which was first 
i>>iinl in 1734. It has, too, seven early volumes of 
the New Hampshire Gazette, started in 1756, and sev- 
eral of the Newport Mercury, established in 1758, the 
Connecticut Gazette and the Connecticut Courant, first 
printed in 17U4. Of these the New Hampshire Ga- 
zette is said to be the oldest newspaper in the United 
States, still in existence, that has been issued without 
interruption or change of name since its establish- 

The file of the Massachusetts Spy, the first number 
of which was issued in Boston, July 17, 1770, and 
the first number of which printed in Worcester bears 



the date of May 3, 1775, is nearly complete. This is 
the oldest existing newspaper in the State of Massa- 

The library also possesses volumes of Rivington's 
Royal Gazette and of Gaine's Gazette, published in 
New York while that city was occupied by British 
troops. The files of the Polar Star or Boston Daily 
Advertiser, the first daily paper started in Boston, are 
nearly complete. That paper was begun in October, 
1796, but was discontinued after it had been pub- 
lished for a few months. The present Boston Daily 
Advertiser did not begin its life until March 3, 1813. 
That is the first daily paper that was permanently 
established in Boston. There is in the library a 
large proportion of the books printed in the United 
States before the year 1700. For example, it con- 
tains a copy of the "Bay Psalm-Book," which was 
issued from the press in Cambridge in 1G40, and was 
the first volume printed in British America, and one 
of the first edition of Eliot's Indian Bible, the print- 
ing of which was finished at Cambridge in 1663. 

The library also has a handsome and beautifully- 
bound copy of the second edition of that Bible, the 
printing of which ended in 1685, and several rare 
tracts in the Indian language prevalent in this 
vicinity. It possesses a large collection of Bibles. 
Among these there is a fine copy of the folio Bible 
printed by Isaiah Thomas at Worcester, Mass., in 
1791. This was the first folio Bible in the English 
language ever published in America. Mr. Thomas 
had a great printing and publishing establishment in 
this town, and such was the excellence of the work 
which came from his presses that he won for himself 
the name of the American Baskerville. The library 
contains a collection of psalmody and church music 
which is large enough to deserve mention, and has a 
good collection of books which were printed in the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 

Mr. James Carson Breevoort gave to it, a few 
years ago, a number of early books relating to Japan 
which he had been engaged for twenty-five years in 
bringing together. It also possesses accounts of 
many early voyages and travels, a large collection of 
almanacs, a valuable and extensive collection of bio- 
graphical and genealogical works, a noticeably large 
accumulation of American school-books and of liter- 
ary matter relating to slavery in this country and to 
the Civil War. 

Among the manuscripts in the library are forty or 
fifty orderly-books and volumes containing records 
similar to those in books of that kind. The entries 
in these works bear various dates between the years 
1758 and 1812. The matter in them relating to the 
period of the Revolution is of especial interest. The 
library also possesses a large collection of muster- 
rolls, army-orders and other military papers, with 
dates extending from 1745 to 1787. It has, also, two 
diaries of John Hull, mint-master, — one relating to 
private, and the other to public matters, — his letter- 

book for the years 1670-1680, and a manuscript nar- 
rative by him of a voyage to Spitzbergen in the year 
1613, and an interesting, interleaved Edinburgh al- 
manac of the year 1768, with manuscript notes by 
Rev. l>r. John Witherspoon, who in that year was 
inducted into the office of president of the college at 
Princeton, N. J., and who became a member of the 
Provincial Congress of that State and of the Congress 
at Philadelphia which promulgated the Declaration 
of Independence, of which document he is one of the 

Dr. Witherspoon came to America in 1768, and a 
portion of the notes in the almanac were written in 
Scotland and Ireland and another portion in America. 
The library has a manuscript copy of the original 
Connecticut laws of 1650, the Curwen papers of the 
Salem family of that name; the Cragie manuscripts, 
written in the last half of the eighteenth century, 
several bound volumes of letters addressed to Isaiah 
Thomas, and of copies of letters of his own ; William 
Lincoln's manuscripts, relating to Worcester, an in- 
terleaved copy of his history of the town, containing 
corrections and additions to that work, and Christo- 
pher C. Baldwin's papers concerning Sutton. 

Among the more elegant manuscripts in the library 
are an illuminated missal on vellum, written perhaps 
as early as 1304, a Persian tale or romance which has 
gilt borders and is illustrated by highly-colored pic- 
tures, and a folio copy of the Koran which U adorned 
by illuminated borders. 

The manuscripts in the library have lately been put 
in order, income from the recently received Alden 
Fund having been expended in doing the work. 

Two large gifts of books have been made to the 
library within a few years — one in 1879, by the heire 
of the late George Brinley, of Hartford, the other 
under the provisions of the will of the late Joseph J. 
Cooke, of Providence. In both instances permission 
was granted to the Antiquarian Society to bid off 
books to the value of five thousand dollars at the sales 
by auction of the collections of the benefactors. The 
books obtained at those sales form a very noteworthy 
addition to the library of the society. 

At an earlier period in its history the library was 
the recipient of a valuable bequest of books and 
manuscripts from Rev. Dr. William Bentley, of Salem, 
(1759-1819). He gave to it, by will, all his German 
books, such volumes belonging to him as had been 
printed in New England, the manuscripts which he 
left that were not written in his own hand, a cabinet 
with its contents and all of his paintings and engrav- 

Mr. William Bentley Fowle, his nephew and sole 
executor, bequeathed to the Antiquarian Society other 
portions of the library and literary remains of Dr. 
Bentley. In the collection obtained from these two 
sources are nineteen bound volumes of notes contain- 
ing memoranda on various subjects, thirteen diaries, 
letters addressed to its owner by prominent corre- 



spondents, besides books and other objects of interest. 
An alcove in the library contains works on Spanish 
Central and South America; and another alcove, 
books which belong to the department of Local His- 
tory. These collections are added to by purchases 
made respectively from the income of funds provided 
by the late Isaac Davis and the late Benjamin F. 
Thomas. The Haven alcove contains books which 
were bequeathed to the Antiquarian Society by its 
former librarian and which have been given to it by 
his widow. The income of the Haven Fund is ex- 
pended for works which are placed in this alcove. 

The library is dependent for its growth and im- 
provement in quality mainly upon gifts, sales of 
duplicates and exchanges, as the Antiquarian Society 
has but little money that it can spend in buying 
books. The work of making exchanges has been 
carried on very vigorously since Mr. Barton became 
connected with the library. The fact that the library 
contained a very valuable and extensive collection of 
duplicates has rendered this work of great service in 
securing desirable additions to it. It may be noted 
as an interesting fact that at least one-half of the 
gifts come from persons who are not members of the 
Antiquarian Society. 

The average yearly additions to the library for the 
eight and a half years from October, 1879, to April, 
1888, were, I am informed by Mr. Barton, 3622 
books, 10,552 pamphlets and 2:57 volumes of unbound 
newspapers. Collected in the manner in which this 
library has been brought together, it naturally lacks 
completeness in its various departments, and is very 
much in need of a generous gift of money, the income 
of which may be spent for books. For instance, 
while it has an excellent collection of newspapers to 
illustrate considerable periods in the history of the 
United States, it needs to procure files, additional to 
such as it possesses, coveriug the years between I 330 
and 1835 and those of the existence of the Civil War. 
The library was much used by George Bancroft in 
former years in preparing the earlier volumes of his 
"History of the United States,'' and has occasionally 
been consulted by him recently. Mr. McMaster has 
availed himself largely, and Mr. Justin Winsor to a 
certain extent, of its privileges, the former in getting 
ready some of the volumes of his history for publica- 
tion, and the latter in huntiog up illustrations for his 
narrative and " Critical History of America." It is 
constantly used by members of the Antiquarian So- 
ciety and other persons in making historical investi- 
gations and for other purposes. 

As stated before, the library contains a very valuable 
collection of memorials of the life and work of the 
Mather family. It possesses, for example, a large 
number of important manuscripts in the handwriting 
of members of that family of distinguished early New 
England divines. Thus from the pen of Richard 
Mather, who came to America in 1635, it has the 
original draft of the celebrated Cambridge Platform, 

the text of the platform which was finally adopted 
and printed in 1648, and other writings which relate 
to the early ecclesiastical history of the Massachusetts 
Colony. Of manuscripts written by Increase Mather, 
who will be remembered as having been president of 
Harvard College, it owns his autobiography, written 
for his children; his journal, kept in sixteen inter- 
leaved almanacs, of dates varying from 1660 to 1721, 
and many sermons, essays and letters. The library 
has a large number of manuscripts which were written 
by Cotton Mather, the son of Increase, and grandson 
of Richard Mather. Among them are "The Observa- 
tions and Reflections of the Rev. Dr. Cotton Mather 
respecting Witchcraft," 1692 ; " A Brand Plucked out 
of the Burning." which is an account of Mercy Short, 
and is supposed to have never been printed, although 
another " Brand Pluckt Out," etc., has been printed ; 
" Triparadisus," a work on a theological subject; 
"The Angel of Bethesda," an essay on the common 
maladies of mankind. This is a thick quarto volume 
which treats of diseases and their remedies, and con- 
tains, under the names of diseases, religious sentiments 
and specifications of simple and easy remedies ; valu- 
able diaries, covering different years between 1692 and 
1717; many litters written by Cotton Mather and 
received by him ; eci aanuscripts; notesof 

sermons and volumes containing quotations. There 
are in the library manuscripts <>( other members of 
the Mather family besides those some of whose 
writings have just been spoken of. The library 
possesses a very fine collection of the printed works 
of tin- Mathers. It has several hundred volumes and 
pamphlets published by them. Many tracts, and 
among them some of the rarest, written by seven 
different members of the family, were secured at the 
sales of Mr. Brinley's collection of books. Another 
interesting memorial of the Mather family in the 
library of the Antiquarian Society is the greater 
portion of the working library of the celebrated 
members of that family. Their library (writes Mr. 
C. C. Baldwin) was distributed at their decease, with 
other portions of their property, among their heirs. 
The bulk of it, however, was secured by Isaiah 
Thomas and Mrs. Hannah Mather Crocker and pre- 
sented to the Antiquarian Society by them in 1814. 
The society thus came into possession of about nine 
hundred volumes which had belonged to Increase and 
Cotton Mather; and some other books, containing 
their autographs and those of other members of the 
family, have in later years been given to it or bought 
by it. For example, a number of books containing, 
in their own handwriting, the names of Richard, 
Increase, Samuel and Cotton Mather were purchased 
by the society at the sale of the Brinley library. 

Hanging on the walls of the library of the Anti- 
quarian Society are the following portraits : Richard 
Mather (1596-1669), painted from life ; Samuel Mather 
(1626-1671); Increase Mather (1639-1723), painted 
from life; Cotton Mather (1653-1728), painted by 



Pelham; Samuel Mather (1706-1785), painted from 
life. These portraits were given to the society by 
Mrs. Hannah Mather Crocker, of Boston. 

There is an interesting collection of historical relics 
in the rooms of the library. Many of these were 
presented by Isaiah Thomas and other early members 
of the society, or procured by its agents in the first 
years of its existence. Among the objects of interest 
are numerous curiosities which illustrate the life 
formerly led by North American Indians, and a 
small cabinet of valuable coins and tokens, as well 
as some medals, and a considerable number of speci- 
mens of Colonial, Revolutionary and other kinds of 
paper money. 

The exsiccated Indian from Kentucky, familiarly 
known as " the mummy," which at one time formed 
a conspicuous feature in the museum, was sent to the 
Smithsonian Institution several years ago. 

Mr. Stephen Salisbury has deposited in the rooms 
of the library a valuable collection of historical relics 
relating to Yucatan, and has also placed on exhibi- 
tion there many photographs of scenes and ruins in 
that State. Through his liberality there has been 
recently added to the treasures of the society a beau- 
tiful plaster cast of the portal of a ruined building at 
Labna, made from moulds obtained by the personal 
labors of Mr. Edward H. Thompson, our townsman, 
who is the United States consul at Merida. 

The income of the library is mainly derived from 
the interest paid on the securities which constitute 
several of the funds belonging to the Antiquarian 
Society. In the statement made by the treasurer at 
the annual meeting held in October, 1888, the total 
amount of the investments of the society, reckoned at 
their par value, and cash on hand, the first day of 
that mouth, was $105,410.11. The income of the 
whole of that amount, excepting about twenty-four 
thousand dollars, is available for use in the care of the 
building of the library and society, in the manage- 
ment of the library, and in binding, cataloguing and 
buying books. The annual sum receivable is, how- 
ever, as before stated, inadequate and so small as to 
render it impossible for the library to add more than 
a very few books to its collection by purchases during 
the year or to pay its current expenses without aid. 
It awaits and deserves a liberal gift of money. The 
accomodations in the rooms of the library for per- 
sons wishing to make investigations are excellent. 
The building is well-heated, its study-rooms are 
bright and pleasant, an air of comfort pervades 
them and the student is waited upon by attentive 
librarians. The building, moreover, is substantial 
and a safe depository of the treasures of the society. 
The rooms are adorned by numerous works of art. 
Among these are portraits of many men who have 
been prominent residents of New England. Men- 
tion has already been made of those of the Mather 
family. The society has also two portraits of Gov- 
ernor John Endicott (1588-1665), one painted from 

an original by Southland, of Salem, and another, 
which is quite old, although a small and poorly- 
painted picture. It has, besides, portraits of Gov- 
ernor John Leverett (1616-79), Rev. Thomas Prince 
(1687-1758), Governor William Burnett (1688-1729), 
Charles Paxton (1704-88), Loyalist, supposed to have 
been painted by Copley; Rev. Ellis Gray (1717-53), 
minister of the New Brick Church in Boston ; John 
Chandler (1720-1800), the "honest refugee," judge 
of Probate, etc., in Worcester County; Colonel John 
May, Boston (1748-1812), painted by Gullag; Hannah 
Adams (1755-1831), author of " History of New Eng- 
land," painted by Alexander ; Rev. Dr. Aaron Ban- 
croft (1755-1839), minister in Worcester 1785-1839, 
vice-president of the Antiquarian Society 1816-31, 
painted by Chester Harding; Rev. Dr. William Bent- 
ley (1759-1819), minister in Salem 1783, councilor 
of the Antiquarian Society 1813-20 ; Robert B. 
Thomas (1766-1846), editor of the "Old Farmer's 
Almanac;" Edward D. Bangs, Worcester (1790-1838), 
secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
1824-36. The society owns a portrait of one of the 
Higginsons. It was at first supposed to be the like- 
ness of Rev. Francis Higginson, minister in Salem 
in 1629, but is now considered a portrait of some 
other member of the family, perhaps, of Rev. John 
Higginson, Rev. Francis Higginsou's sou. It has 
a portrait of John Rogers. This is said to represent 
the martyr, or if not him, a cousin of the same name. 
The society has added to its collection within a few 
years a fine portrait, by Moses Wight, of Boston, of 
Alexander von Humboldt. It also has a miniature, 
moulded in wax, of James Sullivan, one of the Gov- 
ernors of Massachusetts. 

The society has several interesting memorials of 
the Winthrop family, members of which have always 
had a conspicuous place in the annals of New Eng- 
land. Among these are a small wooden bust, a me- 
dallion and a portrait of John Winthrop, the first 
governor of the colony of Massachusetts Bay. 

The society has also a stone drinking-pot, with a 
"silver lydd," which belonged to Governor Win- 
throp. In 1888 a sword came into its possession 
which bad been worn by John (known as Fitz John) 
Winthrop, a grandson of the first John. A great- 
great-graudson of the latter, Lieutenant-Governor 
Thomas Lindall Winthrop, was the successor of Isaiah 
Thomas in the presidency of the Antiquarian Society 
and held the position for ten years. The society 
owns a portrait of him, painted by Thomas Sully. 
Lieutenant-Governor Winthrop was the father of 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, the eminent and vener- 
able head of the family to day, who joined the Anti- 
quarian Society more than fifty years ago and whose 
name, with that of the distinguished historian, George 
Bancroft, stands at the head of the printed list of its 
living members. 

The society has a portrait of Isaiah Thomas, its 
founder and president from the date of its organiza- 



tion, in 1812, to 1831. This was painted from life by 
E. A. Greenwood. It also possesses a marble bust of 
Mr. Thomas, which was the work of the late B. H. 

Of its second president, — 1831-41, — asstated above, 
it has a portrait by Thomas Sully. It has no por- 
trait of Edward Everett, its third president (1841- 
53), only a framed engraving of Wight's full- 
length portrait. The absence of a suitable likeness 
of Governor Everett is much to be regretted. Of 
Governor John Davis, its fourth president (1853- 
54), the society has a portrait, by E. T. Billings, 
taken from a daguerreotype, a bust by Henry Dexter, 
a representation of his head on a medallion and a 
life-size photograph finished by the use of crayon. 
It has a fine portrait, by Daniel Huntington, of New 
York, of the fifth president, the late Stephen Salis- 
bury, who occupied that position for thirty years, 
from 1854-84. Of its living presidents, Senator 
George F. Hoar (1884-87) and Mr. Stephen Salis- 
bury (1887), it has as yet no | ■< irtraita. 

The librarians of the Antiquarian Society have 
been Samuel Jennisou (1814-25), William Lincoln 
(1825-27), Christopher Columbus Baldwin (1827 80 
and L831 35), Samuel M. Burnside (1880 31), Matu- 
rin Lewis Fisher (1835-38), Samuel Poster Haven 
(1838-March 31, 1881 ; Librarian Emeritus April 1, 
1881, until his death, September .">, i and Ed- 
mund If. Barton (1883). Of these gentlemen, the 
society has portraits of C. ('. Baldwin and Samuel F. 
Haven. They were painted respectively by Chester 
Harding ami Edward L. Custer. It also has copies 
of portraits of Columbus and Vespucius, made by 
Antonio Scardino from originals of Francesco Maz- 
zola (Parmigianino) at Naples. Of Columbus it 
possesses likewise a full-length engraved portrait and 
a likeness by Salviati in the form of a modern Vene- 
tian mosaic. It has also a collection of engraved 
portraits and pictures of other kinds, and busts in 
marble or plaster of Washington, Franklin, Hamil- 
ton, John Adams, Jackson, Clay, Webster, .hired 
Sparks and others. Its halls are adorned with copies 
in plaster of two of the statues of Michael Angelo; 
one from his Christ in the church of Santa .Maria 
Sopra Minerva at Rome and the other from the co- 
lossal statue of Moses in the church of S. Pietro in 
Vincoli, in the same city. 

When Mr. Thomas gave his private library 
to the Antiquarian Society in the spring of 1813 
he was requested to retain it in his possession 
until a suitable place could be prepared for its 
reception. Early in the year 1819 Mr. Thomas 
offered to put up a building at his own expense lor 
the accommodation of the society and its library, 
and in August of that year a committee was ap- 
pointed, at his request, to superintend its erection. 
The work was attended to at once and the central 
portion of the old Antiquarian Hall on Summer 
Street was dedicated to the uses of the society Au- 

gust 24, 1820. The two wings were added to the 
main structure in 1832. The building, however, 
which still stands, although now (January, 1889) 
used for private purposes, proved too small to house 
the growing library and was also found to be damp. 
A new hall was therefore built on the site now occu- 
pied after a time. This was completed in 1S53. But 
the rapidly increasing collection of books demanded 
still ampler accommodations and an addition to the 
present building was determined upon. That was 
finished in 1877. In putting up the existing build- 
ing and adding to it the society was assisted by very 
generous contributions of money from the late 
Stephen Salisbury, who, as before stated, was its 
president for thirty years. 

The executive officers of the society are appointed 
by the council of the society and perform their duties 
under the supervision of a sub-committee of that 

The present librarian, as I, is Edmund 

Mills Barton. He had been assistant librarian for 
seventeen years before he was appointed librarian. 
Reuben Colton was assistant librarian from April, 
1878, to February 1, 1889. At the latter date he re- 
signed the position for the purpose of going into 
business. Miss Mary Robinson became connected 
with the library as cataloguer in the autumn of 1881. 
February 1, 1889, she was promoted to the position of 
assistant to the librarian. 

A catalogue of the books in the library (pp. 571), 
was printed in 1887 by Henry J. Howland. A card 
catalogue has been in preparation lor several years, and 
nearly all of the I pound vol nines in the collection have 
already been indexed. The society also has in its pos- 
session a manuscript catalogue of the books presented 
to it In Isaiah Thomas. The library is kept open 
from nine o'clock a.m. to five P.M. every secular 
day, excepting Saturday, when it is closed at one p.m. 

This account of the library of the American Anti- 
quarian Society has been gathered largely from the 
proceedings of the society. Particular indebtedness 
should be acknowledged to the recorded researches of 
Mr. Nathaniel Paine, as they appear in the volumes 
of the society's publications or in periodicals or 
separate pamphlets. The history of the Antiquarian 
Society, as distinguished from that of its library, is 
given under the head of societies, in another portion 
of the present work. That is also the case in regard 
to the other associations whose libraries are described 
and their histories given in the monograph which I 
am writing. 

The Worcester County Athenedm.— It is 
stated in the Spy of November 4, 1829, that "After 
the adjournment of the Lyceum on Wednesday last, 
pursuant to notice given at the close of the address in 
the meeting-house, a public meeting was held to con- 
sider the expediency of adopting measures to estab- 
lish a public library for the County of Worcester." 
An association was formed to found a library. The 


I 197 

subscribers agreed to unite " for the purpose of estab- 
lishing a Public Library in the Town of Worcester, to 
< niisist principally of such rare works in Science and 
Literature as are not usually found in private Libra- 
ries." The property of the society was divided into 
shares of twenty-five dollars each. At a meeting of 
the members of the organization, held December 16, 
1829, it was voted to call the new association the 
Worcester County Atheneum, and January 6, 1830, 
i His ( '. Wheeler was chosen librarian. At a meeting 
of directors, held the 2d of February, " William Lin- 
coln and Isaac Goodwin reported that they bad leased 
of 1 >r. John Green the room in the second story of the 
new brick building on Main Street, opposite Central 
Street, for the use of the Atheneum, and recommended 
that one share of the stock of the Atheneum be con- 
veyed to him in payment of the rent for one year, 
which report was accepted.'' 

March 4th the directors voted " that the Atheneum 
will receive the deposit of the hooks, minerals and 
property of the Worcester Lyceum of Natural History 
and pay the expenses of making the cases and cabi- 
nets belonging to that association," &c. Some of the 
property of the last-named society was afterwards 
stored in the rooms of the American Antiquarian 
Society, and remained there until, by a vote of surviv- 
ing members, it was given to the organization now 
known as the Natural History Society, of whose col- 
lections it to-day forms a part. The Atheneum was 
incorporated in March, 1830, and chose officers, under 
the act of incorporation, on the 14th of the following 

It seems to have been, in the main, a circulating 
library, but that it was not wholly so appears from 
the following regulations: "The Directors shall 
cause hooks to he procured for the library — and as 
certain books, from their value and beauty, may be 
liable to injury, or their use may be prevented by 
circulation, they may require such works to he 
retained in the apartments of the Atheneum." The 
librarian was appointed by the directors. 

On the 16th of June, 1830, it was " voted that Al- 
fred D. Foster, Frederick W. Paine and William 
Lincoln be a committee to make a catalogue of the 
books of the Atheneum,'' &c, and "that Otis C. 
Wheeler be Librarian, subject to the direction of this 
committee." On the 8th of the following December 
it was voted to execute a lease of Dr. Green's rooms, 
and on the same day the directors appointed William 
S. Lincoln librarian " for the ensuing year." January 
5, 1832, the directors reported that the library then 
"contained 2109 volumes, exclusive of the Cyclope- 
dias and unbound pamphlets." 

Owners of shares (proprietors), life subscribers and 
annual subscribers could take out books from the 
library. William Lincoln, writing in 1836, stated that 
about three thousand volumes of what he denominates 
"general literature" had been collected by the Athe- 
neum when he wrote. The library at that time was 

kept in a room appropriated for the purpose in the 
old building of the Antiquarian Society, on Summer 

The Atheneum has for a long time ceased to exist. 
Mo^t of its hooks were given to the Antiquarian 
Society. This was a natural proceeding, as a large 
proportion of the members of the former society were 
interested in the latter organization. I find that :i 
book was taken out from the library of the Atheneum 
at as late a date as 1851. 

Nearly all of the information relating to the Athe- 
neum given here has been obtained by me from the 
following manuscript volumes in the library of the 
Antiquarian Society : "Rules and regulations, stock 
and property" and records of meetings; "Waste 
hook" — this is a list, under the names of givers and 
depositors, of books placed in the library, — a volume 
in which charges of books taken out from the library 
were made. 

Worcester Social Library.— In the library of 
the Antiquarian Society there is a manuscript which 
is headed " Alphabetical List of the Proprietors of the 
Worcester Social Library." It is dated May, 1830. 
I find no evidence that this library was actually estab- 
lished. No mention of such an organization is made 
by William Lincoln in the " History of Worcester," 
which he wrote a few years after the date of the 
manuscript. There were several movements in Wor- 
cester aboutthe year 1830 looking towards the forma- 
tion of libraries. Thus, as we have seen, the Worcester 
County Atheneum was started late in the year 1829 
and incorporated in March, 1830. The Worcester 
Lyceum, of which I am now about to write, was or- 
ganized in November, 1829. 

Worcester Lyceum. — Anthony Chase, the first 
secretary of the Worcester Lyceum, in a rough draft 
of a letter written to the secretary of the Lyceum in 
Medway, now in the possession of his son, Mr. Charles 
A. Chase, writes : " Our Lyceum was organized the 
5th of November, 1829, though many of the prelimi- 
naries were settled previous to that time." This let- 
ter was written in 1831. Lincoln, writing a few years 
later, gives the date of its formation as November 4th. 
He adds: " The Lyceum " (about 1836) " is possessed 
of a good chemical apparatus and a well-selected 
library of about five hundred volumes, beneficially 
and extensively used by the young artisans and 
operatives of the village." Persons who have resided 
in Worcester for forty or fifty years remember that in 
their younger days the Lyceum was the main depend- 
ence of the people of the town for a circulating 
library, and that it was kept for many years at the 
residence of Mrs. Sarah B. Wood, on the south corner 
of Main and School Streets. The entrance to the 
house was on School Street. Mrs. Wood had a pri- 
vate school for children. The books of the Lyceum 
were in cases in the school-room, and Mrs. Wood 
served as librarian on one or two holiday afternoons 
every week. " By a provision of the constitution " of 



the Lyceum, writes Mr. Lincoln, "no alienation of 
the property is to be made ; to secure its preservation 
during any suspension of the society, the selectmen 
are authorized to deposit the collections with some 
incorporated literary institution of the town, to be 
held in trust and transferred to some new association 
for similar purposes." 

In 1854 or early in 1855 the books belonging to the 
Lyceum were deposited in the rooms of the Young 
Men's Library Association, and a union of the Ly- 
ceum and Hi'' latter society was effected April I:-'. 
1856. Thus two organizations 
were consolidated. 

Library of the Yen n*. Men's Library Assoi i \ 
■ n0Np — That society was formed in August, 1852, and 
fully organized in December ofthe same year. The act 
incorporating it was signed by the Governor, March 
26, 1853, and accepted by the association on the loth 
ofthe following month. Principal purposes of the 
organization were the establishment and maintenance 
of a reading-room and library. A reading-room was 

opened December 31, 1SoL>, and in the Coll., wing 
month steps were taken to obtain subscriptions in 
money and gilts of hooks to he used in forming a 

library ; $1300 was secured in cash, and contributions 
of hooks to the number of about eight hundred and 
fifty volumes were received. The library was thrown 
open to members June 18, 1853. It then numbered 
seventeen hundred volumes. Persons who were not 
members of the society were allowed to take books 
, ,ut of the librarj on the payment of an a ml fee 

of one dollar. It appears from a report made in 
April, 1854, that during the first nine months of the 
existence of the library, 8620 volumes were taken 
out from it by 430 persons. At the date of the report 
the library contained 1762 volumes. John Gray was 
the first librarian. His scrviees to the library became 
of great value at once, and continued to he so till the 
date of his death. 

1 hiring the second year of the Continuance of the 
Young Men's Library Association, which ended April, 
lSf>.~>, the Young Men's Rhetorical Society was t .in 

porarily merged in the former organization, and its 
library of about one hundred volumes came into the 
custody and soon into the full possession of the asso- 
ciation. In April, 1855, the library of the association 
numbered 2126 volumes; 11,000 volumes had been 
taken out of it during the year preceding that date, 
which was the lirst complete year of its life. In De- 
cember, 1855, the late Dr. John Green placed his 
large and valuable private library of 4500 volumes in 
the charge of the association, to be used for purposes 
of consultation and reference. The arrangements in 
regard to its care and use were consummated in April, 
1856. According to these it was to remain in the 
custody of the association for five years or for a 
longer period, should such an arrangement be desired 
by both of the parties in interest. 

April 12, 1856, the library of the Young Men's Li- 

brary Association, consisted of two thousand six hun- 
dred and ten volumes. On that date the act approved 
by the Governor, March loth, of the same year, pro- 
viding for a union of that association and of the Wor- 
cester Lyceum, was accepted by both organizations 
and the name ofthe united societies became 

The Worcesteb Lyceum and Library Asso- 
ciation.— One year later, April 11, 1857, we find that 
the circulating library of this organization contained 
three thousand eight hundred volumes and the refer- 
ence or Green Library six thousand volumes. April 
12, 1858, the circulating department had about forty- 
one hundred volumes and the Green Library sixty- 
live hundred volumes. 1 luring the year ending with 
that date the valuable and rapidly increasing library 
of the Worcester District Medical Association, com- 
prising about twenty-four hundred volumes, was 
placed in a r n in Worcester I'.ank block, adjoining 

iln is of tin' Worcester Lyceum and Library As- 
sociation, and put under tlii' care of the librarian of 
the latter organization. April 9, 1859, the circulating 
department of the library under consideration con- 
tained four thousand three hundred and titty volumes, 
and the Green library seven thousand live hundred 


John Gray, the esteemed librarian of the Lyceum 
and Library Association, died suddenly in the latter 
part of 1859, and at a special meeting ofthe Hoard of 
Directors held Nbvembei 25th of thai year, the first 
regular business was to choose a committee to confer 
with Dr. Green in reference to the selection <>f a li- 
brarian. Dr. Chandler, Albert Tolman and T. W. 
Uigginson were appointed i he committee. At an ad- 
journment of the meeting held the next day, that 
committee reported: "That an interview had been 
held with 1 >r. Green, in which he expressed a readiness 
and desire to present the Green Library to the city, 
as the foundation of a Free Public Library. That 
subsequently the committee bad visited the .Mayor.'' 
Honorable Alexander If. Bullock, "who expressed 
much gratification at Dr. Green's liberality and cor- 
dially entered into the plans. The Inlawing pream- 
ble and resolution were then adopted: 

'"WHEREAS, Dr. John Green has indicated to a com- 
mittee of the directors of the Won ester Lyceum and 
Library Association, a desire to give 1 i i — . library to 
the city, on such liberal conditions that the directors 
believe it best the public should receive the gift: 

'"Resolved, That the Directors recommend that the 
library of the Association be also transferred to the 
city, provided suitable appropriations and arrange- 
ments are made for its reception.' " (Seventh annual 
report ofthe Worcester Lyceum and Library Associa- 
tion, signed by Edward Earle, president.) 

The action of Dr. Green and of the Hoard of 
Directors was regarded gratefully by the city govern- 
ment, and after conferences between the representa- 
tives of the city and the other parties interested. 
" On December 16th, at a special meeting of the 



Association, called for thai purpose, it was voted, on 
motion of Mr. N. Paine, that the Association accept 
and adopt the resolutions passed by the Board of 
Directors, at their meeting held November 25th, and 
that the Board of Directors have full power to carry 
out any arrangements that may be necessary under 
the resolves, including the transfer of the library." 

The proposition endorsed in this vote was accepted 
by the city government December 23, 1859, and tin- 
library of the Worcester Lyceum and Library Associa- 
tion became almost immediately the property of the 
city of Worcester and a portion of the Free Public 
Library, which was established by an ordinance bear- 
ing the same date as the resolves of the City Council 
in which the gift of the association was accepted. 

The manuscript records which contain an account 
of the organization and early meetings of the Young 
Men's Library Association are in the possession of 
the American Antiquarian Society. Other manu- 
script volumes which belonged to the association and 
its successor, the Worcester Lyceum and Library 
Association, are owned by the Free Public Library, 
which also has a bound volume containing all 
the printed reports of the two organizations and two 
catalogues — one issued in 1853 and the other in 1859. 

Free Pcblic Library. — This institution, as stated 
above, came into existence December 23, 1859. The 
library was opened to the public April 30, I860, in 
the rooms in Worcester Bank Block, which had been 
occupied by the two libraries out of which it was 
formed. Those quarters were regarded as temporary, 
however, since it had been stipulated by Dr. Green 
in the deed by which he transferred his collection of 
books to the city that the latter should put up a 
library building. This stipulation was early complied 
with, although it is understood that the vote provid- 
ing for the erection of a building failed at first to pass 
in the Board of Aldermen. The Mayor, Hon. William 
W. Rice, exerted himself, however, to secure its 
passage, and by arguments addressed to one of the 
members of the board, who had opposed the measure, 
convinced him that it would be well to favor it, 
and in this way obtained the support needed for its 

In the first annual report of the directors of the 
Free Public Library it is stated that prior to its 
foundation " the want of such an institution had for 
a long period been felt by the people of the city, and 
had repeatedly been made the subject of remark in 
the inaugural addresses of its chief magistrates. So 
great, however, would necessarily be the expenditure 
for its establishment, that no mayor of the city had 
felt authorized to treat the matter with any other 
language than that of desire and hope." 

It bad been the wish of some of the gentlemen 
who formed the Young Men's Library Association 
that the library which they were bringing together 
should be eventually merged in a free public library. 
Thus, for example, Mr. Thomas Went worth Higginson 

devoutly desired such a consummation. Mr. Gray, 
the librarian of the organization, entertained from 
the beginningof the library of the association the hope 
that such a plan would some time be carried out, and 
clung to it as a cherished wish until his death. 
The late Mr. Stephen Salisbury, in a letter written 
to the Council of the American Antiquarian Society 
January 21, 1852, a date which is earlier by a few 
months than that of the formation of the Voting 
Men's Library Association, stated that the establish- 
ment nf a Public Library was then regarded with 
much favor by the citizens of Worcester and would 
probably be accomplished with readiness and on a 
liberal and useful scheme, if suitable apartments lor 
its accommodation were offered. He then went on to 
say that be would give to the society five thousand 
dollars, to be used in defraying the cost of a new 
building for its occupation, on condition that it would 
grant without rent, and under such regulations as 
might be necessary, until the 1st day of January, 
1875, for a Public Library for the citizens of Worces- 
ter, the use of the large ball. in the lower story of the 
proposed building, with suitable finish and shelves 
for books and a room on the same floor sufficient for 
the office of the librarian. Mr. Salisbury's gift was 
accepted by the Antiquarian Society with the condi- 
tions imposed, but nothing further appears to have 
been done regarding so much of the subject-matter ot 
his communication as related to the use of rooms in 
the lower story of Antiquarian Hall for the purposes 
of a public library. It is an interesting fact, stated 
by Mr. Barton in a report as librarian of the Anti- 
quarian Society, in which Mr. Salisbury's letter may 
be found, that the latter gentleman and Doctor Green, 
when the communication was addressed to the coun- 
cil of the society, were both of them members of that 
body, and a rational curiosity would be gratified 
could it be found out whether Mr. Salisbury had 
Doctor Green's library in mind when he made the 
proposition just mentioned and reserved to himself, 
as he did, the right to designate the Public Library 
that should have the contemplated accommodation. 

Whatever the fact respecting this matter may have 
been, however, the library of the Young Men's Li- 
brary Association was formed a few months later, 
Dr. Green's library was soon after placed in its rooms, 
and both libraries were before long given to the city 
and formed the nucleus of the present Free Public 
Library, for the accommodation of which an especial 
building was put up. 

On the 27th day of December, A.l>. 1869, Dr. John 
Green gave to the city id' Worcester, by a deed of gift 
bearing date of that day, a library of about seven 
thousand volumes "in trust for the free use of the citi- 
zens and the public forever, as a library of consultation 
and reference, but to be used only in the library build- 
ing." This library had been collected from time to 
time, during a long professional career, at a cost of 
not less than ten thousand dollars, with the purpose 



of some time devoting it to public uses. Amoug 
the terms and conditions of the gift were the follow- 

"First: The management of the Library, the custody of the books, and 
the regulations under which they may he used shall he vested in a 
Board of Directors, who shall be citizens of Worcester, to be chosen by 
the City Council in a convention of the two branches thereof, two of 
whom shall, after the first election, be chosen annually and shall hold 
their offices six years each. 


" Third : The City of Won ester shall forever pay the salary of a com- 
petent Librarian, to be chosen by the Directors, and shall furnish a suit- 
able Library building for the books to be secure against fire, and I" be 
constructed with reference to the future increase of the Library, and 
this building shall be kept warmed and lighted at the expense uf the city 
and shall be provided with suitable accommodations for the convenience 
of those using the books ami shall be kept ..pen at all proper hours, ac- 
. ording t.. the regulations <.t the Directors, far the use of the public. 

" Fourth : No plan for a Library building shall be adopted without the 
concurrence of Hie Hoard ot 1 .hectors. 

" Filth : The foregoing provisions may, during my lite, be changed by 

the joint action of myself and the Directors in any ma -r which shall 

nut impair tin- value and public uiiim "I the Librari , bet thej -ball 
not be altered alter my decease, nor shall any books, once added b. the 
departmenl established by me, ever i»- transferred to any other." 

The Worcester Lyceum and Library Association 

gave its library to the city of Worcester in December, 
1859, as has been already stated. That library con- 
sisted of about forty-five hundred volumes. 1 >r. ( I itch 
gave his books to be used as a reference library. The 
Library Association contemplated the use of most 
of its books as the nucleus of a circulating library. 

The City Council passed an ordinance, dated De- 
cember liii, 1859, of which the following is the first 
section : 

"The City of Worcester hereby accepts the donations of Dr. John Green 
in, ,1 ..t ibe Worcester Lyceum and Library association, and establish 
the Free Public Library of the City ol Vt tei 

The ordinance, as originally adopted and in its 
subsequent revisions, carries .mt, in provisions for the 
whole institution, the spirit of the conditions which 
Dr. tireen imposed in regard to the library given by 

In the first annual report ot the directors of the li- 
brary, presented to the city government in January, 
1801, it is stated that "the building is now far ad- 
vanced in the stages of erection.'' 

li will be noticed that, by the terms in the deed of 
1 >r. < irccn's gift, the spirit of which was embodied in 
the city ordinance also, the whole management of the 
library is placed in the hands of a Board of 1 >irectors, 
and not interfered with by the city government. This 
will be regarded as a wise provision, as the members 
of the board are chosen with reference to their fitness 
for the especial work to be performed. Sufficient 
supervision of the City Council is implied in the facts 
that it chooses the directors, and that it has wholly 
within its control the regulation of the amount of 
money it will appropriate yearly for the use of the 

The conditions in the deed of gift require, also, it 
will be seen, the city to put up a building secure 
against fire, to keep the rooms frequented by users 

comfortable, and to pay the salary of the librarian 
and other running expenses. In inducing the city to 
make heavy expenditures in carrying out the object 
he had in view in giving his library to the city, Dr. 
Green greatly added to the value of his gift. He may 
properly be regarded, not only as a public benefactor, 
but also what he is called in the fourth section of the 
original ordinance, by which he is made an honorary 
life director, as the "principal founder" of the library. 
The Board of Directors, as constituted by the deed 
of gift and the city ordinance, is a conservative body. 
A custom, however, was observed for several years 
(and that has since been embodied in an ordinance), 
that no person should In- eligible to fill a vacancy in 
the Board of Directors arising from the expiration of 
his term of office. The observance of this rule, while 
aiding to secure a progressive administration of the 
library, has also been useful in widening the interest 
of citizens in the institution, by introducing into its 
board of direction, representatives of various OCCUpa 

lions and tastes prevailing in the community for 
which it was established. The year 1865 is memora- 
ble iii the history of the library for the foundation of 
the reading-rooms. A fund of between $10,000 ami 
$11,000 was raised I'm their endowment bj subscrip- 
tion among the citizen- of Worcester, chiefly through 
the exertions of Hon. George P. Hoar, al thai time 

an influential member of the Hoard of Directors. 

lhe subscription papei was beaded by the late \h 
Salisbury with a gift of 14000; Mr. Eoar, Dr. Green, 
and forty othei persons contributed $100 apiece; 
twenty-five, $50 each; thirty-eight, $25 each; ami 
other given smaller sums. It is interesting to notice 
that the Worcester Lyceum and Library Association 
gave $300 t.. the I trading- room f'ti ml of its successor. 

The money raised was can-fully invested, and the in 

.■ of the fund ha- since been Bpent in furnishing 

the rooms with American ami foreign papers and 

periodicals. This income, a few gifts, and $400 taken 

annually front the city appropriation, now enable the 
library to place in its moms current numbers of 
two hundred and eighty-nine journals, magazines and 

With the foundation of the reading-room- the 

library came substantially into it- present form. The 
tireen or reference library, the departments from 
which books may be taken out for use in homes or 
elsewhere, and the reading-rooms, constitute the 
Free Public Library of the City of Worcester. 

Dr. Green died in the fall of 1865. According to 
the sixth annual report of the directors, he, from 
time to time, between lhe date ot the deed of his 
original gift and that of his death, gave to lhe library 
1968 volumes, in addition to the -even thousand con- 
tributed at the starl. lie al-o remembered the libra- 
ry generously in his will, 'lhe main provision ut 
that instrument, for the benefit of the binary, i- de- 
scribed concisely and clearly in the report to which 
reference has just been made. That report was writ- 



ten by Hon. Stephen .Salisbury, the much respected 
president of the Board of Directors, in the year 18G5. 
I make the following quotation : 

"The probata of the lust Will and Testament of Dr. Green, has made 
known bis Deques! to this City nf Thirty thousand dollars, to be paid 
within one year after his decease, te the officer of the Citj authorized 
to receive it, and to be held with its future accumulations as a separate 
fund, designated In the Bpoks of this City as the 'Green Library 
Fund;' and the Testator states that he 'aims not to gratify any per- 
sonal teeliug of his own, hut to set apart and designats the Fund in a 
manner which shall forever keep it distinct from all others,' 'ami 
which shall enable the people. ..f Worcester at all times clearly hi per- 
ceive its amount and condition.' He requires that the fund shall he 

kept, and that the income shall he collected by the authorized (.illicit ot 

the city ; and he provides that the investment anil management of 

fund shall be under the direction of a Financial C littee of three 

directors of this Library, annually to he chosen by ballot, ami that said 
Committee shall annually report to the Board of Directors, ami their 

report shall make a part of the annual Report Of (his Board to the City 

Council, it is required that three-fourths of the investments shall be 

made in Meal estate mortgage securities,' an. I otie-fotirlh in Bank 

stock ; and in taking landed secui ities, it is the 'desire and request' of 
the Testator, ' Unit in every instance tirst mortgages -hall lie taken tot 
te. hit jet loan than one-third of the value, of the security; and as to 
the use and expenditure of the income of said fund, it is directed that 
one-fourth part of said income shall he added annually to said fund, 
and that the remaining three-fourths of said income, after repairing 
auy accidental loss that may happen to the principal, shall be expended 
by said Directors in the purchase of books, to be added to that depart- 
ment of said Free Public Library which was instituted by the Testator, 
and in repairing and re-binding the books ol that department. Pro- 
vided that when lite invested fund shall reach the stun of I Hie Hundred 
Thousand Hollars, one-fourth part of the income thereof, shall continue 
to be forever annually added to the principal, ami three-fourths of the 
income of tlOt/,000, after replacing any losses of the principal, and 
neither more nor less, shall be applied to the increase and support of the 
Department of said Library instituted by the Testator ; ami the remain- 
ing part of the into I said fund, shall he applied and expended 

by Baid Directors tor the benefit of the whole of sai.l free Public 
Library, as well lor that part which is kept for circulating or lending, 

as for that part which was instituted by the testator." 

The principal of the Green Library Fund has met 
with no loss. It has been increased by the addition 
of a quarter of every year's income. Five hundred 
and fifty dollars and eighty-five cents, the proceeds of 
a trust instituted by Dr. Green during his life, has 
also been added to the fund. That amounted Decem- 
ber 1, 1888, to $43,117.91. Fifty shares of bank stock, 
now held by trustees, will eventually come into the 
possession of the city, to be applied, besides his other 
bequests, in accordance with the testator's will, for the 
benefit of the library. 

Hon. George F. Hoar, president of the P.oard of 
Directors in 1867, in writing the annual report for that 
year, after reciting provisions of Dr. Green's will, in 
regard to the library, remarks that, " Upon these pro- 
>. isitins a grave, and until within a few years what 
would have been deemed a quite doubtful question of 
law arose, growing out of the policy of the law, which 
prohibits perpetuities." He then proceeds in an able 
argument to quiet fears which might be entertained. 
He speaks of the hesitation of the executors of the 
will of Dr. Green to pass over his bequest to the city, 
and the action of the city and board of di- 
rectors of the library. He compliments the family of 
Dr. Green for just and honorable conduct in facilitat- 
ing the carrying of his wishes into effect, and states 

that the Supreme Judicial Court, upon application, 
rendered a judgment, so far establishing the validity 
of the will as to order the fund to be paid over to the 
city. Mr. Hoar then cites two recent decisions of the 
Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, and, after a 
discussion of the points at issue, announces his belief, 
" that the city may rightfully and lawfully obey the 
direction of the will, until a fund is accumulated, 
ample enough to defray all the expenses of the library, 
and so fulfil the beneficent purpose of the donor." 
It is well understood that when Mr. Hoar speaks of an 
ample provision for a library like the Free Public 
Library, he does not mean a paltry few hundred 
thousand dollars, but a much larger sum. It is wor- 
thy of remark, before leaving the consideration of Dr. 
Green's will, that he is careful to reiterate in it the 
terms and conditions contained in the original deed 
of his gift to the city, executed in 1859, 

Here, then, there is in the City of Worcester a 
reference library, founded and endowed by Dr. Green. 
It is important to inquire whether the citizens of 
Worcester use the library which has been provided 
for them. Reports of the directors show that it was 
but little used for several years. They express regret 
that this was so, and it appears from their fifth annual 
report that the establishment of the reading-room 
resulted from a movement to increase the usefulness 
of the Green Library. It was thought that a reading- 
room would add to and bring out its value. Many of 
the newspapers and periodicals taken are bound, anil 
the volumes placed on the shelves of the reference 
library. They thus add to its value. Readers of 
magazines ami papers have curiosity awakened which 
they seek to satisfy by the use of atlases, encyclopae- 
dias and other works of reference. A taste for read- 
ing and the habit of reading are promoted by a 
reading-room; a desire to study often follows. A 
reading-room in this way brings out the value of a 
reference library. At the start the Green Library 
reading-room was not properly heated; this defect 
was remedied by the introduction of a steam-heating 

A step in the right direction was made by the 
directors in procuring a large collection of the best 
dictionaries, encyclopaedias, etc. It was impossible 
for them to do all that they wished, for they could 
not get money enough, in the earlier days of (he 
library, to enable them to carry out their plans. 
They did what they could with the means at their 
disposal. Still, the reference library was not much 
used. Ill 1871 there came a sudden growth in its 
use. This use increased rapidly in succeeding years. 
It is now very large. How has this increase been 
effected? It has been brought about by the use of 
very simple means. It was thought that the reason 
why people did not use the library was that they 
needed assistance in using it. A new librarian was 
appointed, and he was allowed to render such aid as 
wits desired by frequenters of the library. Then, all 



persons in the city who had questions to ask to which 
they might hope to find answers in books were cor- 
dially invited to come to the library and propound 
them. It was made a rule that everybody should be 
received with courtesy and made to feel that he is an 
owner of the library, and that its officers are bound 
to give a reasonable amount of time to finding an- 
swers to his questions. The youngest school-chil- 
dren, the humblest citizens, were to be received cor- 
dially, and an impartial courtesy extended to all. 
The plan worked admirably. It has been a cardinal 
principle that the officers should manifest a persist- 
ent determination not to allow an inquirer to leave 
the building without getting— if a possible thing t c ■ 
find it — an answer to his question. When books 
needed in answering questions are not found in the 
library, efforts me at once made to buy them. It 
their purchase cannot be afforded, or if they cannot 
be bought in time for present uses, pains are taken 
to find out whether they do not belong to some other 
library or to some individual accessible to the ques- 
tioner, or they are borrowed by the librarian from 
some institution within the city or in some other 
place. Time is spent in doing such work as this,— 
the time, too, of persons whose service is somewhat 
costly. But this time is well spent. The personal 
relations of an accomplished librarian with users of a 

library are productive of great advantage. Few users 

of a reference library know what hooks to go to, to 
get answers to questions which they have to ask. 
Many need help in finding out and stating the exacl 
question which they wish to have answered. The 
librarian or an assistant steps forward and helps 
them to give a definite shape to their inquiries, and 
then refers them to sonic master of the subject to 
which their inquiries relate. He gives them the 
hesl I ks, and keeps them from the productions ol 

dabblers in knowledge. 

formerly, when the reading room of the reference 
library was not tilled with persons who had come to 
it for instruction, entertainment was sometimes of- 
fered to such as desired it in the form of stories and 
hound volumes of illustrated papers. That custom 
has long been discontinued, however, the legitimate 
uses of the library for study and serious reading hav- 
ing grown so large that there is no room for mere 
pleasure-seekers. That the efforts to build up a 
large use of (he reference department were success 
ful was evidenced at once by the statistics given in 
annual reports. From those it appeared that 7321, 
I'^lus, 15,672, 20,550 and 22,8315 persons, respectively, 
had hooks given them during the first live years ol 
the new order of things, or helped themselves to 
books to be used in answering their inquiries, or to 
give them enjoyment. A very large proportion ol 
these recipients of information and enjoyment re- 
ceived answers to serious inquiries. While, too, care 
has been taken to supply the wants of humble in- 
quirers, the officers of the library have been equally 

solicitous not to neglect the demands of more ad- 
vanced students. While a half-hour has been readily 
spent in finding out for a curious boy how dates can 
be plucked from the top of the tall palm-tree, what- 
ever time was needed has been cheerfully given to 
the scholar whose questions required reference to 
philosophical transactions or a Greek anthology, or 
to the public instructor in preparation for a lecture 
or review article. A reference library that is not 
used becomes very unpopular. Where such a library 
is so administered that a large constituency gets ad- 
vantage from it, all will recognize it as a public bene- 
fit, and citizens unskilled in the niceties of scholar- 
ship will, in consideration of the benefit they them- 
selves derive from the institution, he willing that 
money should lie spent in supplying the wants of 
scholars. During the last ten years 51, lot volumes 
have been used annually on the average in the ( Ireen 
Library for purposes ol' reference, study and serious 
reading; 61,424 volumes were given to users for 
lie,-, purposes in the library year just closed, namely, 
that from I lecember 1, 18S7, to November SO, 1888. 

The free Public Library has become distinguished 
for the aid which it has rendered to schools. Every 
effort has been made there to help teachers to do 
their work, and especial facilities have been afforded 

them in pursuing studies. They have 

sisted constantly in their exertions to add to [he 

pleasantness ami profitableness of study by the chil- 
dren under their charge. Many of the teachers in 
Worcester have been verj successful in awakening an 
interest in reading among their pupils and in raising 
the standard of reading among them. They have 
done this mainly by starting an interest in subjects, 

and then supplying 1 k^ from the library to satisfy 

the curiosity aroused. 

Immense numbers of hooks have been used in this 

w:i\ bj the teachers, for their own benefit and that 

ol their scholars. Space cannot be afforded here to 

describe the methods in use in the Public Library. 
They have been set forth from time to time in the 
pages of the Library Journal and in pamphlets con- 
taining papers and addresses of the present libra- 

It is enough to savin this place that the plans 
adopted in that library have led to results such as 
have approved themselves to the managers of libra- 
ries in other communities, and have been copied or 
adapted to local emergencies by a very huge rjumbei 
of institutions in the cities and larger and smaller 
town- ol the United Stales, and have attracted atten- 
tion in foreign countries, and to a certain extent 
been introduced into England. 

It will he remembered that among the " terms and 
conditions" imposed by Dr. (ireen in the deed by 
which he transferred his library to the city, i- one 
which provides that the books shall " he used only in 
the library building." This provision was extended 
in his will to the use of all hooks bought with 



money left by him and placed in the department 
which bears his name. It has sometimes been 
thought that the reference library would be more 
useful if the books in it could be taken to the 
homes of users. Now, however, the restrictive pro- 
vision is, 1 think, generally believed to be a wise 
one by persons who have thought much about the 
matter. There was more reason formerly than 
exists now for anxiety on the part of citizens to have 
the books put in circulation. In the earlier days 
of the library the additions of books made to the 
circulating department were wholly inadequate to 
supply reasonable demands of users. The directors 
knew that this was so, and bought as many books 
as they could with the money at their command. 
Now the circulating department is generously cared 
for, and it is very seldom that a citizen feels it a 
hardship not to be aide to take home books belong- 
ing to the (ireen Library. There are two weighty 
reasons why those books should not be taken away 
from the library building, — first, it is desirable that 
investigators should always find them at hand for 
consultation ; second, books which are put in cir- 
culation become dirty and mutilated. Mr. Salis- 
bury speaks forcibly on this head in the fifth an- 
nual report of the directors. He says of the meas- 
ure of allowing books in the Green Library to be 
taken to the homes of users, that it " would be like 
killing the goose that laid the golden egg. For a 
time the use of the books would be stimulated and 
increased, but when they should become defaced 
and worn out by use, it would require to keep the 
library interesting and attractive, a larger expendi- 
ture than the majority of citizens would approve, 
and the most liberal givers might hesitate to place 
valuable books in a heap of rubbish." 

The Free Public Library is mainly dependent 
for its support upon an aunual appropriation made 
by the City Council from money raised by taxation. 
This appropriation was very small at first. It con- 
tinued small for several years. The directors saw 
that it was very important that more money should 
be placed at their disposal, and persistently urged the 
claims of the library for liberal support. Their ef- 
forts gradually bore fruit. The city began to grow 
also, and a greater readiness to spend money on im- 
provements to manifest itself. With increased ex- 
penditures in other departments of the government, 
the annual appropriation of the library began to 

The sum of money given to it the first year of its 
existence was $4000. The library had, besides that 
amount, $88.26, which had been collected for fines and 
obtained in other ways. For the last ten years (1878-79, 
to 1887-88), the average annual municipal appropria- 
tion has been $11,729, and so much of the money paid 
for dog-licenses as is applicable to library purposes 
The amount received in that way has increased from 
$1931.05 in 1870, the first year in which it came to 

the library, to $4006.89 in the last library year, 1887- 
88. In that year the municipal appropriation was 
$14,500. The dog-law may be found in the public 
statutes, chapter 102. Examine especially sections 
84, 9s and lo7. Under the provisions of that law, in 
al! I ■ counties of the State, except Suffolk County, 
the money raised in towns by payments for licenses 
issued to owners of dogs, after a portion has been re- 
tained by the city for general purposes, and deduc- 
tions have been made to cover the depredations of 
dogs among sheep and other domestic animals, 
must be appropriated by the towns to the support, 
either of public libraries or of the common schools. 
With appropriations now enjoyed $6500 a year can 
be spent for books and periodicals. For the purchase 
of books the library has also available, it will be re- 
membered, the income of the Green Library fund. 
The income of the reading room fund, likewise, swells 
its resources and gives it means of buying periodicals 
and papers. A considerable sum, on the average over 
$500 a year, is received from the collection of fines, 
the of catalogues and other miscellaneous sources. 
The average yearly receipts of the library from all 
sources during the last ten years have been $17,530. 
During the library year just closed the receipts were 
$21,305.87. These were received in the following 
amounts from the several sources of income: munici- 
pal appropriations, $14,500 ; Green Library fund, 
$1772. 87 ; reading-room fund, $462.48 ; dog-licenses, 
$4006.89; fines, etc., $563.63. 

At the date of its foundation the library had 
11,500 volumes in its two departments. A third 
department, known as Intermediate, lias since been 
established. At the date of the last annual report, 
December 1, 1888, the number of books in the library 
was 73,669, divided as follows among its three divi- 
sions : Green Library, 22,255 ; Intermediate Depart- 
ment, 17,520 ; Circulating Department, 33,894. The 
average home use of the library for the last ten years 
has been 128,123 volumes. The use during the last, 
library year was 142,449 volumes. 

The average annual use of books for home purposes, 
for reference, study and serious reading in the library 
building and for use on Sunday during the last ten 
years has been 182,009. That use during the library 
year just closed was 206,290. The average daily use 
of books on secular days last year was 665. This 
number does not include, of course, the immense use 
of magazines, reviews and papers in the reading- 

During the last complete year of the existence of 
the library of the Worcester Lyceum and Library 
Association, the precurser of the Circulating Depart- 
ment of the Free Public Library, 9,742 volumes were 
given out for home use. During the eight months 
spoken of in the first annual report of the latter 
organization, 31,454 volumes, or a daily average of 
153, were delivered to users for the same purpose. 
Thus a great increase of use followed the change of 



the library from a private to a public institution in 
which privileges were made free. The increase is 
also indicated by the fact that 3,200 applicants for 
cards to be used in taking out books received them 
during the first eight months of the library's exist- 
ence. If we place side by side, however, the number 
31,454 and that representing the use of books in the 
Free Public Library last year, namely, 206,290, a great 
growth is shown in this respect in the twenty-nine 
years of the library's life. The number of books losl 
and not paid for during the last library year was Hi. 
The average annual loss for the past ten years has 
been 12. On the average, 254 volumes have been 
yearly withdrawn from the library because worn-out 
or for other reasons during the same decade. 

The library of the Free Public Library has been 
selected with careful reference to the actual wants ol 
its users. The standard of works placed in its circula- 
ting department has always been high and for many 
years has been raised gradually every year. The aim 
<,f the officers of the library has been to give toil a 
certain completeness in all branches of knowledge 
that the citizens ot Worcester take an interest in. In 
a community such as Worcester is it has proven useful 
to bring together a large collection of books relating 
to chemical and physical science and their applica- 
tions, and the library has therefore secured many valu- 
able sets of periodicals representing progress in those 

fields and of the transactions and proceedings of 
learned scientitic societies and a large number ot 
important works on mechanical and other applications 
ot science. It has also bought numerous sets of peri- 
odicals and individual publications relating to the fine 
arts and their applications to industrial pursuits. 
While then the library has aimed to supply existing 
wants, it has been led in doing this to make a specially 
of procuring works of the classes just enumerated. 

At the start the library used for its circulating 
department copies of the catalogue of the Lyceum 
and Library Association. In 18til a catalogue ol" the 
circulating department of the Free Public Library- 
was issued. A list of additions was printed in 1867. 
Another catalogue of all the books in the same depart- 
ment was issued in 1870, and a supplement to that in 
1874. In 1884 the present printed catalogue was pub 
lished. It contains all the books which readily circu- 
late that belonged to the library September I. 1883, 
and consists of one thousand three hundred and 
ninety-two pages. It is intended to print a supple- 
ment to that catalogue during the present library 
year (1S88-SI>). The library issues from time to time 
lists of additions to all departments of the library in 
sheets of four pages. 

The library has outgrown its present quarters, and 
the city has bought a lot adjoining the one which is 
occupied by the existing building, and will, it is anti- 
cipated, begin the current year to put up on it a new 
building to be used in connection with the edifice now 

In the (ireen Library room there is a fine portrait 
of the founder of the reference library, which was 
painted by direction of the city government after Dr. 
Ureen's death, by the late William II. Kumiss, of 
Boston, and a statue of Dr. Green, in plaster, by the 
late I!. II. Kinney, of Worcester. 

The librarians of the Free Public Library have 
been Zephaniah Laker (from February 17, I860, to 
January 14, 1871), and Samuel Swell Green (from 
January 15, 1871). 

The Free Public Library was the first public 
library in New England to open it- doors to vis- 
itors on Sunday. » >n that day the reading-rooms 

of the library are open from 2 to 9 P.M. No 1 kg 

are given out in the circulating department to be taken 
home. The periodicals and papers can be freely 
used. Books are procurable also for use within the 
building from either department of the library. 
I I,,-, experiment hi gan in 1*72. It appears from the 
yearly reports of the librarian that tin- number of 
persons who used the reading-rooms Sundays in the 
year 1*71' 7-. lor one Sunday less than the whole 
year, and yet lor fifty-two Sundays, is 5,706; for 
1873-74, 7,179; and for 1874 75, 10,142. The average 
annual use for the last ten years is 13,867, Hie 
librarian is present lor two hours on Sunday after- 
i n to render assistance to inquirers seeking infor- 
mation from I ks. Two attendants remain in the 

room- during the hours they are open, to gei thai 

they arc kepi comfortable, to preserve quiet and to 

aid readers. Those attendants are persons who do not 

serve the library on secular days, l.ul who c • to it 

only on Sundays. In regard to the character of the 
reading done on Sundays, it may be Btated thai ii is 
mainly of magazines and papers Some persons, how- 
ever,! Qgage in Study every Sunday. The average num- 
ber of volume- given yearly to readers on Simdaj - dui 
ing the ten years jusl passed is 2, I'll. The number 
given lo them during the last library year i- L',117, 

Since Elm Park ha- been opened and Lake Quinsiga- 

inond has become readily accessible, while the number 

, of readers ha- remained aboul the si as before, the 

proporti i serious reading has greatly increased, 

as mere pleasure-seekers have lately to a large extent 
-ought recreation at those popular resorts. 
Library oi phe Worcester District Medical 

SOCIETY.— It has been stated that books given by 

Dr. Elijah I>ix to the County Medical Society, the 
immediate predecessor of the existing medical asso- 
ciation, formed the nucleus of the library now be- 
longing to the Worcester District Medical Society. 

The statement seems to be incorrect, however. Dr. 
Dix promised to give to the earlier society books of 
the value of fifty pounds. Its thanks were voted to 
him, a librarian was chosen, a list of books was made 
out and forwarded to him, and committees visited 
him three times to confer regarding the matter, but 
no books appear to have been received by the so 
ciety. The Worcester District Medical Society was 



founded in 1804, but does not seem to have collected 
many books for a considerable number of years. Dr. 
Thomas H. Gage, in 'an address to the society deliv- 
ered in 1802, states that " the first movement of which 
any fruit now remains, which may, indeed, be con- 
sidered the beginning of the library, was the ap- 
pointment of Drs. Oliver Fiske and John Green, in 
1813, to obtain subscriptions and solicit books from 
profession and from laity to found a medical library." 
The junior member of the committee, who had been 
in practice four years when appointed to serve in 
that position, afterwards became the founder of the 
Free Public Library. Dr. Gage remarks that the 
committee met with success in its efforts. That 
could not have been great, however. Dr. Leonard 
Wheeler states that the librarian seems to have been 
" merely a personified hope of books until 1822." In 
1S22 that officer was authorized to receive from the 
Massachusetts Medical Society the quota of books 
which it was willing to lend to this district. The 
loan appears to have been practically a gift, for the 
general society never had any intention of reclaim- 
ing the books. In 1823 the District Society passed 
an order for printing its by-laws and a catalogue of 
its library. It began at that time also to have a 
committee for purchasing books. Few works could 
have been bought, however, in those early year-, tor, 
as Dr. Wheeler 'remarks, the whole amount of money 
received by the treasurer for the four years ending 
in 1828 was less than ninety dollars, and out of that 
sum refreshments had to be procured for the mem- 
bers of the society and some printing paid for. 

In 1825 Daniel Waldo is thanked for " his very 
splendid and liberal donation of books." At that 
time the library contained, perhaps, one hundred 
volumes. The first recorded enumeration of books 
does not appear until 1836, when the number of 
books in the library was stated to be one hundred 
and twenty-eight. Many of those, the librarian re- 
ports, were " very valuable works." He adds, how- 
ever, that the volumes were but little used, and Dr. 
Wheeler states that "most of them would seem to 
have remained unmolested for years excepting by 
worms." In 1843 Dr. Joseph Sargent reported that 
the library contained over two hundred volumes and 
that he found it in a room over Mr. Harris' book- 
store, where it was little used. 

A very important event in the history of the li- 
brary was now impending. In 1845 a bequest of six 
thousand dollars was made to the society by Daniel 
Waldo, the income of which was to be used in buy- 
ing books for the library. In 1851 Dr. Charles W. 
Wilder, of Leominster, left five hundred dollars, by 
will, to the society. The income of that bequest and 
of another of one thousand dollars, made by the late 
Harrison Bliss, of Worcester, in 1882, for library 
purposes, as well as that of asinallinveitment known 
as the Available Reserve Fund, is spent for the bene- 
fit of the library. The amount which the library 

committee has at its disposal annually is about four 
hundred and fifty dollars. As the society has no 
rent to pay for its rooms and the other expenses of 
the library are very small, most of that sum is used 
in buying books. 

In 1801 the library contained two thousand two 
hundred and thirty volumes. It is estimated that in 
1*7* it possessed about four thousand five hundred 
volumes, and in January, 1886, it is stated to have 
had live thousand eight hundred and twenty-six 
bound books. One hundred and eighty-two dupli- 
cate volumes were included in that number. The 
value of the library at the last-mentioned date was 
estimated as eight thousand dollars. The library is 
in rooms in the building of the Free Public Library. 
Books may be taken from it for home use by mem- 
bers of the Worcester District Medical Society and 
by other members of the Massachusetts Medical So- 
ciety resident in Worcester County. Its books may 
be used for purposes of reference within the building 
of the Free Public Library by all persons who arc 
entitled to use the reference books of that institution, 
subject to the discretion, however, of the librarian of 
the Free Public Library. The medical library is an 
excellent working collection of books published in 
the English language and has undoubtedly done 
much to raise the standard of medical practice in 
Worcester and its vicinity. It is somewhat deficient 
in periodical literature, although much has been 
done during the last ten years in supplying that de- 
ficiency. It still lacks and much needs a large col- 
lection of pamphlet literature. 

The library has been carefully rearranged within a 
few years and a card catalogue, which is kept up to 
date, has been prepared. About five hundred volumes 
are taken home by physicians annually, and the 
library is consulted for purposes of reference, it is es- 
timated, about one thousand times in a year. The 
present librarian is Dr. A. C. Getchell. The library 
is prosperous and well managed. 

Most of the information used in preparing the 
sketch ofthe District Medical Library was found in a 
manuscript address by Dr. Leonard Wheeler, deliv- 
ered in May, 1878, and now owned by the library. 
An earlier address by Dr. Thomas H. Gage, delivered, 
as stated above, in 1802, has also been consulted to 
advantage. That address, in manuscript likewise, 
belongs to the library ofthe District Medical Society. 

Library of the Worcester County Mechan- 
ic - Association. — The first public meeting which 
took into consideration the subject of the formation 
ofthe Worcester County Mechanics Association was 
held November 27, 1841. A constitution for the new 
organization was adopted December 11th ofthe same 
year, and on the 5th of February, 1842, its first board 
of officers was elected. July 2d, of the latter year, a 
committee was appointed "to confer with the trus- 
tees as to the expediency of establishing a li- 
brary, and also to report some plan to the association 



for effecting that object." That committee reported 
the 20th of the following December. The report 
was accepted, and it was voted " That the asso- 
ciation do adopt the report and circular made by the 
Committee on the Library, and that the sum of two 
hundred dollars be expended in the purchase of 
books for the commencement of a library for the 
association, and that a committee of three be chosen 
to be associated with the committee of the trustees 
on the library and to carry into effect the suggestions 
contained in the report." February 7th, in the fol- 
lowing year, a further sum of one hundred dollars 
was appropriated for the benefit of the library, and 
seven days later, the 14th of the month, a room and 
book-cases were provided for its use. April 13, 1847, 
it was reported that the library contained six hundred 
and seventy volumes. At the present time, January, 
1889, it possesses more than nine thousand volumes. 
Most of these have been bought; a few hundred, 
however, have been presented to the society for iis 

The library has been selected with the purposes of 
supplying popular needs and a variety of tastes, and 
has a large collection of scientific books and of works 
relating to the applications of science to the indus- 
trial and particularly the mechanic arts. 

A reading room was established in 18(i4. That is 
supplied with many reviews, magazines, scientific 
and other papers. 

The library and reading-room can be used only by 
members of the Mechanics Association ami their 
families. Both are extensively used. They are 
maintained by an annual appropriation by the trus- 
tees of the association. The amount of that the 
present year is Slot ii i. 

This sketch embodies information furnished from 

the records and reports Of the .Mechanics Association 
by its treasurer, William A. Smith, Esq. 


bkauy Association. — The association organized 
June 21, 1*42, under the provisions contained in 
Chapter 94 of the Massachusetts Statutes of 1842. 
For a history of the laws which have been made by 
the Commonwealth respecting law library associa- 
tions, further references may be made to the ( bneral 
Statutes of 1800, Chapter 33, and to the Public Stat- 
utes of 1882, Chapter 40. See also the Statutes for 
1882, Chapter 24(1, and those for 1S8">, Chapter 345. 

Before the establishment of the present library 
there appears to have been somewhere in Worcester 
a meagre collection of law books, which the court 
and bar were at liberty to consult. Little is known, 
however, regarding the earlier library. 

The existing collection is one of the best working 
law libraries in the country. The books in it are 
nearly all recent purchases, and they have been care- 
fully selected with reference to the actual needs of 
occupants of the bench and members of the bar. 
The library contains complete sets of all the reports 

of the United States Courts and of the courts in the 
different States and Territories of the country and in 
England and Ireland, and a very full collection of 
books which treat of English and American law in 
all its branches. It is also rich in English and Ameri- 
can periodical law literature. Additions are contin- 
ually made to the library. It has been of great 
advantage to the institution, that for thirty years it 
has been zealously cared for by Hon. Thomas L. Nel- 
son, who is now the judge of the United States Court 
for the district of Massachusetts. It is well known 
that for twenty years Judge Nelson has been almost 
alone instrumental in securing meaus for building up 
the library and in selecting books to be added to it. 

Fees paid by clerks of courts into the county treas- 
ury up to the amount of two thousand dollars are 
payable to the treasurer of the Worcester County Law 
Library Association. To this source of income must 
be added fees received by the county treasurer from 
clerks of courts, which have been collected by the 
latter, in the processes of naturalizing foreign-born 
men, and occasional special grants from the county 

c nissioners. That board is allowed by law to 

make such grants, in its discretion, to the Law Library 
Association from moneys in the treasury of the county. 
The cost of the sci \ ices of an assistant librarian and 
minor running expenses of the I i! nary amount to about 
six hundred dollars annually. The remainder of the 
income, which is a somewhat variable amount, but 
always a handsome sum of money, is available for the 
purchase of books. The library has received one 
gift which deserves mention. It consisted of eight 
hundred volumes, which were given to it by the will 
of the late Charles D. Bowman, Esquire, ol Oxford, 
in 1858. There are now more than eleven thousand 

volumes in the library. When an addition was made 

to the South Court-House, in 1878, a large room was 

provided in it for the use of the library, That room 
is now occupied by it. The library is open the secular 
days of the week between the boms of ( ,i a.m. and 1 
p.m. and from 2 to 5 p.m. Every inhabitant of the 
county is entitled to use the books of the Law 
Library, subject to such regulations as may be pre- 
scribed by the association which manages it, with the 
approval of the Supreme Court. The present libra- 
rian is T. S. Johnson, Esquire. 

Several portraits of eminent, past and present, 
members of the Worcester County bar adorn the 
library room. Of those which have been given to the 
association and accepted by it, the portraits of the 
following judges, all deceased, hang in that room : 
Pliny Merrick, Benjamin F. Thomas, Charles Allen, 
Dwight Foster, the first two and the last having occu- 
pied seats on the bench of the Supreme Judicial Court 
and the third having been chief justice of the Super- 
ior Court. Beside these portraits are others of the 
late Peter C. Bacon, and of United States Senator 
G«orge F. Hoar. Iu the library room there is also a 
photograph from a portrait of Charles Devens, one of 



the judges of the Supreme Judicial Court. Portraits 
of Levi Lincoln, Attorney-General of the United 
States under Thomas Jefferson, and of his son, Gov- 
ernor Levi Lincoln, and of Governor Emory Wash- 
hurn have been placed on the walls of the court- 
room in the stone court-house, and a portrait of Ira 
K. Barton, formerly a judge of Probate, hangs in the 
Probate Court-room, in the same building. These 
belong to the Law Library Association. 

The information contained in the foregoing sketch 
has been obtained from William T. Harlow, Esquire, 
clerk of the Worcester County Law Library Associ- 
ation, and from another officer of the society. 

Library of the Worcester County Horti- 
cultural Society. — The Horticultural Society be- 
gan to collect a library in the year 1844, four years 
after its formation and two years after it became a 
chartered organization. The library is in the build- 
ing of the society, IS Front Street, which was dedi- 
cated in the autumn of 1852, and is called Horticul- 
tural Hall. Before it was moved to that place, in 1861 
or 1862, it had for many years been kept in the office 
of Mr. Clarendon Harris. The library began in a 
humble way under the fostering care of Doctor John 
Green, the first president of the society, Frederick 
W. Paine, Isaac Davis, Samuel F. Haven, William 
Lincoln, Anthony Chase, Samuel H. Colton, Claren- 
don Harris and others, and has grown gradually to its 
present size of about two thousand bound volumes. 
It also contains six hundred pamphlets and unbound 

The works in the library treat of horticulture in all 
its branches. It also contains two hundred volumes 
relating to agriculture. While the library owns many- 
books of historical interest, its strength lies in works 
on horticulture and agriculture which have been 
published during the last forty years. It has a good 
collection of sets of English, French and American 
periodicals that belong to the department of horti- 
culture. The library has been carefully selected 
with reference to the wants of its users. Books may 
be taken to their homes by members of the society. 
About three hundred volumes are taken out yearly. 
Probably twice as many are consulted in the library 
room every year. 

Although, strictly speaking, none but members can 
use the books of the Horticultural Society, it shoul I 
be added that the library is administered in the spirit 
of general helpfulness and that information can really 
be obtained from it by all persons who need it. The 
large room which it occupies is used as a reading- 
room, and that is supplied with the current numbers 
of leading horticultural magazines and papers of 
England and America. The library is inferior to 
that of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in 
Boston, but is still one of the best collections of its 
kind in the country. An annual appropriation of 
three hundred dollars is made by the Horticultural 
Society for the maintenance and growth of the li- 

braryand for providing periodicals for the reading- 

The late Judge Francis H. Dewey recently left to 
the society a fund of one thousand dollars, the incomi 
of which is to be used for buying hooks for the library. 
The librarians of the society have been Anthony 
Chase, 1844 to 1851 ; Clarendon Harris, 1X51 to 1862; 
Edward W. Lincoln, 1862 to L871; George E. Francis, 
1X71 ; Edward W. Lincoln, 1872 to 1874; William T. 
Harlow, 1874; John C. Newton, 1X75 to 1879; Charles 
E. Brooks, 1879, present incumbent. 

The information embodied in this sketch has been 
obtained from Mr. Brooks, the librarian, and Mr, 
Edward W. Lincoln, the secretary and enthusiastic 
friend of the Horticultural Society. 

Library of the Worcester County Musical 
Association. — The association was formed in 1858, 
but did not begin to collect a library until five years 
later. Before 1863 it hired such musical works as it 
had occasion to use from publishers and others. It 
now has a very valuable musical library. It possesses 
more than sixteen thousand volumes of oratorios, can- 
tatas and other large choral works, which have been 
brought out by the association at its concerts and fes- 
tivals. It has scores and orchestra parts for about 
twenty such musical compositions. Besides the larger 
works it owns nearly five thousand copies of chorus 
selections from various authors, in sheets. The col- 
lection of. the Worcester County Musical Association 
stands in New England next to that of the Handel 
and Haydn Society of Boston in the size and value 
of its library of choral works, and probably exceeds 
greatly in those respects every other musical library 
of a similar kind in this section of the country. Mr. 
George W. Elkins is the present librarian and has 
held that position for many years. 

Library of the Worcester Choral Union. — 
The Worcester Mozart and the Worcester Beethoven 
Societies united November 16, 1866, under the name 
of the Worcester Mozart and Beethoven Choral Union, 
and the new organization was incorporated, with the 
name of the Worcester Choral Union, March 31, 1871. 
The act of incorporation was accepted in the follow- 
ing year, and officers were chosen September 9, 1872. 
The present librarian is Mr. G. Arthur Smith. The 
library consists of three thousand one hundred and 
fifty-four volumes and pieces of music. No additions 
have been made to it for several years, and at the 
present time (February, 1889) it is packed in boxes 
and stored in the basement of one of the churches of 

The facts given in the last two sketches were fur- 
nished to me respectively by Mr. A. C. Monroe, secre- 
tary of the Worcester County Musical Association, 
and Mr. G. Arthur Smith, the present librarian of the 
Worcester Choral Union. 

Library - of the Worcester Society of An- 
tiquity. — The Society of Antiquity was formed in 
1875. It began to collect a library two years later. 



That became at once available for the use of members 
of the society, but it was not opened to the public at 
stated hours, according to the plan observed to-day, 
until 1883. The library possesses six thousand one 
hundred and seventeen volumes, and seventeen thou- 
sand three hundred and forty-two pamphlets. A 
considerable portion of it consists of town histories, 
genealogies, and works treating of other subjects of 
especial interest to persons making investigations of 
the kind which members of such an organization as 
the Society of Antiquity would wish to engage in. 
The library grows almost wholly by gifts. The 
largest and most valuable of those which it has re- 
ceived is the library of the late Rev. George, Allen. 
That was bought with money raised by subscription, 
by Hon. George F. Hoar, and presented to the society. 
The largest sums of money were subscribed by the 
late Mr. David Whitcomb, and by Mr. George Sum- 
ner. Mr. Allen's library numbered twenty-three 
hundred volumes and a like number of pamphlets. 
Besides containing booksof other kinds, it "has been 
pronounced by competent authority to be one of the 
best representative collections of the New England 
theology of the olden time ever brought together" in 
this vicinity. This gift was received in the spring of 
1884. Early in the following year Mrs. Charlotte 
Downes, of Washington, D. G, presented to the 
society the library of her late husband, Mr. .lohn 
Downes. Both Mr. and Mrs. Downes had, ai an 
earlier period, been residents of Worcester. The 
"Downes collection,'' as it is 'called, comprises four 
hundred and seventy-nine volumes, fifty-eight pam- 
phlets, besides a noteworthy accumulation of six 
hundred and thirty-one almanacs, broadsides, papers. 
manuscripts, etc., which had been brought together 
by its former owner dining the passage of a long life. 
it contains copies of twelve different editions of the 
"New England Primer," among them a copy of the 
original work issued in 177!', and a number of publi- 
cations of Isaiah Thomas for children and other per- 
sons. The Society of Antiquity needs a fund, the in- 
come of which may be expended in the care and 
management of the library, and in buying books for 
it. The books now in the library are largely used. 
They are roughly classified as they appear on the 
shelves, but the library has not, as yet, either a printed 
or a manuscript catalogue. Members of the Society 
of Antiquity are provided with keys to the door 
which opens into the library rooms, and people gen- 
erally can use the books at certain hours in the week, 
which can be found out by reference to the City Direc- 

This sketch embodies information obtained from 
the printed Proceedings of the Society of Antiquity 
and from Mr. Franklin P. Rice, an influential mem- 
ber of that society. 

Libraries of Cor. i., Sch ,s, &c. — In the 

library of the College of the Holy Gross there are about 
15,°00 volumes. These, writes the librarian, are 

" arranged, for the present, in three principal rooms : 
the Theological, the Historical and the Academic ; 
with a fourth apartment for miscellanies." He adds 
that as the library " is mainly intended for the use 
of the Faculty," and is made up of works which were 
bought with regard to the needs of the college and of 
several collections of books which have been be- 
queathed to it by Catholic clergymen, " theological 
and literary works" predominate in it. The library 
possesses an interesting black-letter Bible, in Latin, 
dated 1487, works by a group of the literati of the 
period of the Renaissance, copies of early editions of 
some of the English classics and other noteworthy 
volumes. While the students in the college have 
access to the general library " by means of their pro- 
fessors," they have special libraries to use, that are 
owned by societies to which they belong. 

The library of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute 
contains 1,560 bound volumes and 1,200 pamphlets; 
that of the State Vormal School, Worcester, 7,105 vol- 
umes (2,396 reference books and 1,709 text-books); 
that of the Worcester High School, fullj 2,000 vol- 
umes, exclusive of the text-book- i longing to the 
city of Worcester; that of the Worcester Academy, 
500 carefully-selected volumes ; and that of the High- 
land Military Academy, 1,000 volumes. Other public 
and private schools also have small libraries. In the 
il the Superintendent of Public Schools there is 
an interesting and somewhat exti i ction of 

text-books and of works which treat of schools and 

Libraries ot Hospitals, &c. — In the Worcester 
Lunatic Hospital, a State institution, there is a patients' 
library of about ] ,900 volumes ; 200 or 800 volumes are 
added to it yearly. These are bought with the in- 
come of mone; left to the hospital by Miss Abigail 
Wheeler and Miss Sarah C, Lewis, rhe bequest of 

the former amounted to $4,600, that of the latter to 
si ,300. The library is divided among different classi s 
of books in about the following proportions: fiction, 
i'2 per cent.; Travel-, 7 per cent.; History, 12 per 
cent.; Biography, 11 percent.; Science, 2 per cent.; 

Poetry, I per cent.; Religious works, 2 per cent.; 
hound magazines, 20 per cent. The hospital has a 
medical library of about 300 volumes. 

Thr Worcester Insane Asylum, also a State institu- 
tion, is not provided adequately with books, having 
only about two hundred volume- in all for the use of 
physicians and patients. The trustees have no fund 
in their charge, the income of which may be spent 
in the purchase of books, but they have lately voted 
a small appropriation to be used in founding a li- 
brary for patients. The superintendent is allowed to 
buy medical books in the exercise ot his discretion, 
and the hospital is gradually acquiring a working 
library of books relating to the specialty of in- 

The City Hospital lias a medical library of about 
two hundred volumes and a collection of plates. It 



has the income of the Curtis fund, one thousand dol- 
lars, and of the Sargent fund, five hundred dollars, 
to use in making additions to this library. 

The patients' library consists of about two hun- 
dred bound volumes of miscellaneous contents, and 
has thus far relied in its accumulation upon the vol- 
untary contributions of friends. The hospital has 
the nucleus of a library for nurses. At present this 
contains only about a dozen volumes and some pam- 
phlets, but the superintendent expresses the hope 
that it may soon be increased. It is intended that 
this library shall be made up very largely of works 
which treat of nursing and the care of the sick. 

The Worcester Count// Homoeopathic Medical So- 
ciety has a library of about one thousand volumes. 

Other Libraries. — The Worcester Natural His- 
tory Society has a little library of three hundred and 
ninety bound volumes and about a hundred unbound 
volumes and pamphlets. The library which it uses 
at the camp in summer is additional to the one in its 
rooms, and consists at present of one hundred and 
fifteen volumes. A reading-room, supplied with 
magazines, is open to members of the society. 

The library of the Chamberlain, District Farmers' 
Club is usually included in a list of Worcester libra- 
ries. It consists only, however, of about fifty vol- 
umes of agricultural reports, reports from agricul- 
tural colleges and experiment stations, and United 
States consular reports. 

There are a few libraries in Worcester, intended 
for grown-up persons, which are connected with 
Protestant religious societies in the place. The most 
important of these, perhaps, is the Bangs Library 
of the old Second Parish. This library was founded 
by Edward D. Bangs, who will be remembered as 
having been for several years Secretary of State in 
this Commonwealth. Mr. Bangs was a member of 
the Second Parish, and at his death left to the society 
the "sum of four hundred dollars, as a perpetual 
fund for a parish library, the income of which is to 
be applied to the purchase of useful books, particu- 
larly such as may be adapted to the religious and 
moral improvement of the young." The late Stephen 
Salisbury, also a member of the society, left to the 
Second Parish the sum of fifteen hundred dollars, 
the income of which is used in buying books for the 
Bangs Library. The library consists at present of 
1020 volumes. 

The Library of the Jail and House of Correction 
contains five hundred volumes. It is made up of 
stories, histories, biographies, religious works and a 
selection of books made with especial reference to 
the wants of Roman Catholic prisoners. 

There is a collection of books in the rooms of the 
city clerk at the City Hall, which, as well as other 
libraries in different offices in that building, is val- 
uable for municipal purposes. It is unnecessary to 
state that there are Sunday-school libraries belong- 
ing to different churches in Worcester. Mr. Jonas G. 

Clark has given a somewhat large collection of books 
to the university which he has founded in Wor- 
cester. Very little is known, as yet, regarding the 
library, which still remains in Mr. Clark's possession. 
It is certain, however, that it contains many val- 
uable works and numerous specimens of choice 

This chapter is devoted to giving a history and 
description of public libraries. It may not be im- 
proper to state here, however, that in the library 
of the late John B. Gough, the temperance orator, 
now in the possession of his widow, there is, perhaps, 
the best collection of the illustrations of the late 
George Cruikshank to be found in the world. Mr. 
Gough always hailed from Worcester when travel- 
ing and had his letters directed to him here, although 
his late residence, now occupied by his widow, is in 
the adjoining town of Boylston. 

Among the libraries belonging to Catholic in- 
stitutions there are, besides the library of the Col- 
lege of the Holy Cross, which has been described 
already, the "Sodality Library" in the Catholic In- 
stitute which belongs to St. John's Parish and con- 
sists of twelve hundred volumes, miscellaneous in 
character, which are used principally by members of 
the Sodality and of St. John's Guild, but which 
others who wish to do so may read ; the library in the 
school-house on Vernon Street, which is called the 
Sunday-school library, and which is also owned by St. 
John's Parish. This consists of two thousand vol- 
umes on various subjects, but selected with reference 
to drawing out and developing moral qualities in the 
young, and is used mainly by attendants at Sunday- 
school, although free to other who may wish to use 
it ; a library of one hundred and fifty reference and 
other books in the rooms occupied by the school of 
the highest grade in the same school-house ; the 
Sodality library in the Convent of Mercy, on High 
Street, which consists of nine hundred and fifty vol- 
umes of histories, biographies, devotional works, 
tales, etc., for the use chiefly of grownup persons; 
the library of St. Anne's Church, which contains five 
hundred volumes of a miscellaneous character and 
that of the Young Ladies' Society connected with the 
Church of the Sacred Heart, which consists at pres- 
ent of three hundred volumes. 


WORCESTER— (Con tin itcd.) 




It appears from the ancient records of Worcester 
that an ineffectual effort " to provide a wri'iug master 



to instruct the youth "was made at a town-meeting 
held in December, 1725. Worcester was then, as it 
might be said, hut just established; for though some 
lands had been granted in this vicinity as early as 
1657, various accidents, including the two wars of 
" King Philip '' and Queen Anne, had prevented any 
permanent settlement until 1713. 

The persous who had failed to obtain the writing- 
master in 1725 were not dispirited thereby ; for a 
few months later, at a town-meeting, it was voted 
that the selectmen provide a sufficient school. Never- 
theless, the end was not yet accomplished. In De- 
cember, 172G, the question being raised again at a 
town-meeting, it was decided not to have a school. 
The great question would not, however, settle itself 
in so easy a manner. It arose once more in May, 
1727, and a committee was named to provide aschool- 
master for one year. This would seem a substantial 
settling of the matter; and in January, 1728, as we 
find it recorded, the town granted sixteen pounds, 

ten shillings to pay the Bel lmaster, but it also then 

authorized the assessment of other moneys to meet a 
penalty. The committee of May, 1727, had not 
attended to its duty, and no school had been set 
up ; but the men of Worcester, hard-headed and 
positive, after the fashion both of Puritan and Saxon, 
were not thus to be trilled with. Certain citizens 
made complaint, and the town was " presented " bj 

the Grand Jury for not providing a school. In < 

sequence, the inhabitants of Worcester had to pay 
the charges of the legal process, viz, two pounds, 

eight shillings, six | e. flu- dra-tic remedy for 

neglect seems to have worked a cure ; for thereafter 
the record-, by direct or indirect mention, show that 
a school or schools were habitually maintained. 

By the year 1731, there being then one hundred 
householders, as it is believed, it would <eem that the 
needs of the town in respect to schools had much in- 
creased. Not only a schoolmaster was provided, but 

it was voted thai a number of ■' school dames, not ex- 
ceeding live," should be employed for the benefit oi 
the small children in the remote parts of the town. 
This was the beginning of a custom, not then noi 
for many years afterward legalized, of employing 
women as teachers. It was supposed that a school- 
master could be a man only, and that the term, as 
found in the laws, had no inclusive meaning as r< - 
gards the feminine side of humanity. But common 
sense and the general convenience at last wrought a 
change in the interpretation of the law. The earlj 
schools of course were migratory, going here or there 
as circumstances might permit, having no fixed place 
and no exclusive building. The town seems to have 
thought itself rich enough in 17:'." to build a school- 
house, and provision was made for a very modest 
structure, " twenty-four feet long, sixteen feet wide," 
to be placed near the centre. The committee in 
charge of this matter moved with such slowness, that 
full five years passed before the building was raised ; 

and, meanwhile, the formerly effective remedy of pre- 
sentment by the grand jury was again tried, but for a 
somewhat different reason. In 1736 the town was 
presented for not maintaining a grammar school, and 
in 1738 the prosecution was still continuing. We do 
not learn how many pounds, shillings and pence the 
neglect cost the town ibis time, but apparently the 
h'onest tax-payers were much stirred up, for they 
voted May loth of the last-named year that a school- 
house be erected " as soon as may be," at a place in- 
dicated on John Chandler's land. This little democ- 
racy had, however, like all democracies the world 
over, the custom of often changing its mind; accord- 
ingly, a month later, it was voted that the school- 
house be built at another spot, viz. : between the 
court-house and the bridge below the fulling-mill. 

Here, at last, at a point east of tl Id court-house, 

in what is now Main Street, the much-desired school- 
house was erected. 

With the advance of the town in material prosper- 
ity, the desire to improve the schools went along 

apace. The sums appropriated seem of course petty 

lo us, who are aeeiistomed to the lavish expenditure 
of these days. In 1 74 "> the sum allowed seems to have 

been one hundred ami ten pounds, which, in purchas- 
ing power of tin- necessaries of life — for the luxuries 
had not yet reached the colonics — might be said to 

equal five times that sum at the present day. In a c 

munity of one hundred and fifty households such 
a sum, i. i. 6650, or $2750 would not now be thought 
a mean appropriation lor public education. In this 
year also a somewhat completi scheme of opi 
for all the Bchools was reported by a committee, con- 
sisting of Jonas Bice, Daniel Heywood, Benjamin 
tnd Ephraim Curtis, whose plan was of such 
public-spirited sort a- to warrant the giving here of 
their name-. Their proposition was that the families 
living in the outskirts should have the use of their 
- paid o\ i Item, ami that the fam- 
ilies in the centre should make up, by subscription or 

other way, a sum which, with their sh 
the tax. should he sufficient to maintain a grammar 
school i what we now call a High School] in the cen- 
tre. It was proposed also that the families remote 

from the centre might send any of their children to 
ainai si Bool without paying therefor, and the 
outlying families were divided into rows, quarters or 
skirts, as they were indifferently called. No action 
in the way of approval was taken upon this 
It was doubtless too liberal in its scope to meet the 
favor of men who, in order to live at all. must live 
with a degree of economy that closely approaches 
penury. Yet it had an effect, for we find the town 
two years later voting to allow the quarters that shall 
keep schools their proportionate share of the tax, 
and two year- later yet, in 1749, a committee, rai-ed 
for the purpose, reported several localities in the out- 
skirts where school-houses might be suitably buillt. 
Thus things went on in the new settlement with 



slow but manifest improvement. We may imagine 
the situation, it' we will. In a valley not far from a 
mile wide, and on a ridge of land lying parallel 
therewith, was scattered the new and straggling town. 
It was as nearly as may be a homogeneous cominun- 
ii v, there being little intermixture of other strains 
with the original English type. As early, indeed, as 
1718, some families of Scotch-Irish Presbyterians had 
come to settle in the new town — a class of people 
whose characteristics were not unlike those of the 
previous settlers, though their traditions and point 
of view were distinctly different. It would seem that 
these two sets of people should have readily assimi- 
lated; and indeed, after a few of the more strenuous 
Presbyterian families had moved away to New 
Hampshire, being provoked thereto by the destruc- 
tion, under cover of night, of their partly-built meet- 
ing-house, the remainder grew together with the rest 
of the settlers, and were among the most useful of 
the citizens. With the exception of this admixture, 
the town of Worcester was as purely English as any 
in old England, and so continued well into the pres- 
ent century. That it was a community deeply relig- 
ious is true ; it but it was a religion not of the Puritan 
tvpe, however harsh was its exterior. To be indus- 
trious, orderly, decently religious, with education 
enough, seems to have been their notion of a good 
life, as different from our modern freedom as from the 
too close-fitting habits of the Puritan days. The forest 
that topped the hills was primitive, the intervales 
were virgin to the plough, the world was far away, 
whether of fashion or governmental authority. Labor 
and thoughts of peace made up the daily round, ex- 
cept as occasionally some straying Indian, begging 
for a bit of food, led to a recital of the dangerous 
times of old. So the village throve, its peaceful an- 
nals unbroken by any greater disturbance than the 
petty differences of the town-meeting. 

When the summer of 1755 came on, the minister, 
the Eev. Thaddeus Maccarty, bethought him, as usual 
no doubt, to go to the Commencement at Harvard 
College. This annual pilgrimage, as to a Mecca, 
every good minister, especially if a son of Harvard, 
made as a matter of course. Beside his errand of 
pious reverence to the shrine of culture, the reverend 
minister had another commission of particular mo- 
ment. The grammar school at Worcester needed a 
teacher, and Mr. Maccarty was given authority to 
find a suitable person. Among the graduates of that 
summer was one, who seems to have attracted the ap- 
proving notice of the Worcester clergyman, for he 
forthwith engaged him for the post. This youth of 
twenty was no other than John Adams, afterward 
President of the United States, and the first of a fam- 
ily distinguished for essential greatness. What .Mr. 
Maccarty thought of the young man whom he had 
employed, and whom he had frequent opportunities 
afterward to observe, would be interesting to know ; 
what voung John Adams thought of the Reverend Mac- 

carty, as well as of several of his chief parishioners, 
may be read at length in tin- diary and letters that 
form part of the second volume of his works, edited 
by his grandson, Charles Francis Adams. It is nol 
amiss to delay in the course of our sketch, in order t" 
speak briefly of these things. Mr. Adams says of 
himself that he was "somewhat remarked as a re- 
spondent " at the Commencement, and that he was 
not twenty years of age when he set out for Worces- 
ter to be a Latin master. He was sent by the select- 
men to board with Major Nathaniel Greene, in whose 
house he found a book on moral philosophy. He 
soon learned that the principles of deism had made 
some progress in this vicinity, and was gratified 
thereat, for he himself had grown in a liberal soil. 
However dull the town may have been, he seems to 
have found men to his taste among the inhabitants. 
Major Greene told him — in a prosy way — that the 
matters of the divinity and resurrection of .lesus 
Christ are very mysterious. Doubtless, Adams was 
too polite to do more than yield assent to his elder, 
but he entered in his diary that "mystery is a (over 
for absurdity." At Major Chandler's they talked of 
religious things also, and seemed to be agreed that 
liberal thoughts and good men are the world's need. 
When he took tea with the eminent lawyer, Attor- 
ney-General James Putnam, the talk turned again on 
such things, and Mr. Putnam remarked that the early 
Christians seemed to him enthusiasts, — an opinion 
upon which the diarist makes no comment. The oc- 
cupation of teacher, no doubt, drew upon the spirits 
of the future great man. Writing to his friend 
Cranch in Boston, he speaks of the dreadful solem- 
nity of the pedagogue on his throne, of the cringing 
multitude before him, and declares himself glad when 
he can escape from the scene to smoke his pipe in 
quiet. The trade was not to his mind, and it is no 
surprise to find that he shortly began the study of the 
law with Mr. Putnam. It appears that he continued 
to be the schoolmaster for three years, when, having 
been admitted to the practice of the law, he removed 
from Worcester to Boston. 

During several years following the mastership of 
John Adams things pertaining to schools in Worces- 
ter went on, as we may suppose, in a somewhat hum- 
drum fashion. There was a committee for the 
Centre, and another for the quarters, and what was 
necessary got itself done in some way. In Novem- 
ber, 1750, the inhabitants of Baggachoage (Packa- 
choag) petitioned for the privilege of hiring a school- 
master, to be approved by the selectmen, so that 
they might have schooj kept all the year. It docs 
not appear whether the petitioners proposed to tax 
themselves an additional sum for this purpose. If 
they did, so reasonable a request could hardly be 
negatived. It is, however, not unlikely that the 
town was fearful of allowing what might be a pre- 
cedent for all the other quarters, and preferred to 
snub the over-topping Baggachoage people. At all 



events the proposition did not meet favor. The time 
was approaching, however, when private enterprise 
was to come to the assistance of the public in matters 
of education. Such a period is inevitable as a com- 
munity grows prosperous. Certain of the more con- 
spicuous citizens, men of cultivation, according to 
the standard of the day, desiring, no doubt, better 
advantages for their families, as well as the common 
good, asked and received, in the year 1763, permission 
to erect a school-house on the town land where the 
selectmen might approve. Among the petitioners 
were James Putnam, referred to above, and the dis- 
tinguished Judge John Chandler. A building was 
accordingly set up on a part of the laud held for min- 
isterial uses, eastward from Main Street, and no! 
far southerly from what is now Foster Street. It was 
a modest building, having but two rooms in its single 
story. It is difficult to think that, as a specimen of 
educational architecture, it was any great improve- 
ment on the little school-house between the court- 
house and the bridge. Such as it was, it was, doubt- 
less, sufficient, and by the judicious control which its 
proprietors exercised, the confidence of the towns- 
people was gained. We find the evidence of thai in 
the following record : 

1769, March 17th. A. Com. on Schools report: That they have pro- 
posed in the proprietors of the Grammar school thai the town a] 
proprietors E16 thecurrent year, said proprietors engaging that the 
saidGrammar school shall be free fur all persons in said town desirous 
of learning the languages (who ihall) be admitted by said proprietors to 

have tin- same privileges ami upon the Bami terms mi said scl I, as the 

children of said proprietors, \vlii. li proposals the said proprietors have 
accepted and youi committee an >i . ,| >■ i . n i ■■ that tin/ method 

English scl I in saiil town isl Id bo) each part of tin- town draw the 

money they pay toward tin- whole sum raised the current year, ami 

each iiavr thru proportion "i the interest ney belongin 

school — tu If kept in the several parrs of the town in such season of the 

year as shall he a^r 1 on h\ the niajer pint uf said quarter. I 

inittee bavedivided tie- town into eight part- ; 

i vjiti b et the town. 

Talne I, 

Smith's Quarter. 

Stone's Quarter, 

Oapt, I !ui tis' Quai tei 
Capt Flaggs 1 Quai tei 

'Ibis report was favorably received, and the division 
into parts or quarters was thereafter followed as pro- 
posed. The system thus inaugurated was the same, 
substantially, as was urged twenty-four years before, 
by the committee of Jonas Rice and others. From 
the terms used, we may infer that a Grammar School 
meant then the same as we now understand by High 
School. The " grammar " was that of Latin and 
Greek, referred to as " the languages," and the Eng- 
lish, or non-language-teaching schools, were distinct- 
ly set off from the Grammar, School. This was, of 
course, the popular and ordinary use of the terms. 
The words " high school " were probably not then 
used, except in a pleasant derision ; and they are not 
found in the laws of the Commonwealth, in their 
present meaning, until a very recent time. Common 
usage has given them a special and accepted signific- 
ance; and the term "grammar school" has been 

degraded to its present use, and made to mean the 
same as English school in the records just quoted. 

The troublous times of the War of the Revolu- 
tion being now not far distant, the signs of coming 
disturbance were only too apparent to reflective 

Life, however, went on with that calmness, which 
is so marked a characteristic of English-speaking 
communities. The farmer ploughed, the artisan 
wrought, the trailer continued his trailing. Town- 
meetings, often of a peppery sort, were held as 
usual, and in none of them was the care of the 
schools slighted. Moneys were appropriated, com- 
mittees named ; the Grammar School and the rest 
were matters of concern, while all men talked of 
war and feared the worst. The customary annual 
appropriation for schools was, as it had been for a 
generation, about £100. 

The student of the laded books of Town Records 
remarks, however, that in 177* the -urn of £200 was 
Set apart for this purpose. 

Before be has found himself a reason tor this sud- 
den doubling of the amount, he is surprised to ob- 
serve that, in the next year £600 are appropriated. 
In L780 the amount increases, without comment, to 
£3000, and in 17-1 the munificent sum of £4000 is 
appropriated. This extreme lavishness in a country 
village is inexplicable, until we remember thai these 
sums were payable in the swiftly depreciating 
linental money. The appropriation, thus expanded 

forty times in volume with the year- of war-time, 
suddenly becomes again, in 1 7.S2. n plain £100. 

Peace was al hand; the Continental money, instead 
of appreciating, had become entirely worthless, and 
presumably the £100 were made up of hard money 
that had l» en hidden away in stockings and corners 
by the thrifty villagers. 

It i- probable, nevertheless, that no little disor- 
ganization crept into the schools during these years 
of uncertainty and the critical times that followed. 
The town was presented once more by the grand 
jury, in 1785, lor not maintaining a dammar School. 
The semi-public Grammar School, erected on town 
land in 1763, was doubtless in operation; but some 
unreasonable tax-payers would insist on the town 
giving them Latin and Greek in it- own schools. 

To meet the wishes of these complainants, or, 
more strictly speaking, to save the town further 
trouble, it was decided that the committee should 
agree with the proprietors of the Grammar - 
now keeping; bargain with them, in hut, to instruct 
all who might come at the town's charge. No men- 
tion of further presentment of the town occurs ; and 
we may infer that, henceforth. Worcester had always 
a public school at which any aspiring youth might 
fit himself for Harvard College, according to the 
requirements then made. These may be found in 
"The Laws, Liberties and Orders of Harvard Col- 
lege" as follows : 



" When any scholar is able to read Tully, or such 
like Latin author, extempore, and make and speak 
true Latin in verse or prose, suo, ut aiunt, Matte, and 
decline perfectly the paradigms of nouns and verbs 
in the Greek tongue, then he may be admitted into 
the College; nor shall he claim admission before such 

The constant desire for proper means of education 
led to the building, some years before the close of the 
last century, of another and more pretentious school- 
house. That before referred to as owned by an asso- 
ciation of proprietors was of too small capacity, and, 
indeed, had now been put to other uses than it whs 
meant for. A new undertaking was engaged in, not 
unlike the former. Elijah Dix, Joseph Allen, Levi 
Lincoln, John Green, Palmer Goulding and othi r 
citizens, having formed a stock company, erected a 
building, which contemporary writers describe with 
much appearance of pride. It stood on the west side 
of Main Street, at a point some two hundred feet 
north of what is now the head of Central Street, and 
on the spot covered by the Chadwick Building. 
The structure had two large rooms below, one for a 
grammar and the other for an English school ; while 
above was one large hall, intended for occasions of 
display and exhibition. In the great hall there was 
a fire-place at each end, and on the roof was placed 
a cupola and bell. This building, smaller than thirty 
that Worcester has to-day, became the boasted "cen- 
tre school-house." In 1801 the proprietors sold it to 
the inhabitants of the Centre District, by whom it was 
used for more than forty years. 

During the first quarter of our century the affairs 
of the schools went on somewhat listlessly, yet with 
apparent increase of usefulness. The moneys appro- 
priated grew from thirteen hundred dollars in 1803 to 
twenty-five hundred dollars in 1824, but there was 
evidently need of the intelligent control of a special 
or expert committee. Such committees as were from 
time to time raised were in earnest, but their sphere 
was limited and their advice held cheap. Thus the 
committees frequently advised that the grammar- 
school should be no longer a " moving" school, but 
fixed; but so practical a suggestion was long disre- 
garded, and the peripatetic policy seems to have been 
followed until 1810 or later. In fact, the administra- 
tion of the schools was a part only of the general 
management of town affairs. The selectmen, or such 
special committee as might be named, directed all 
things. Under this system the schools were likely to 
and did receive the same attention as any other town 
matter required by the general laws. Some thought- 
ful persons must have seen the need of expert control 
of the schools, and must have often reflected that the 
democracy of the town-meeting were not likely to 
permit any interference with the domain of their se- 
lectmen. If A, B, C or X could order the matters of 
the town roads, the town pound, or the town pump, 
whv could he not also direct the schools? To this 

question silence was the easiest answer. A commu- 
nity usually escapes from a period of mediocrity by 
some seeming accident that puts the right persons in 
authority. So it happened in Worcester, and the oc- 
casion which led directly to a most important advance, 
arose at a school-meeting of the Centre District, held 
in L823. A committee was constituted to report in 
general what the schools required-. The membership 
of this committee was of an order much beyond the 
common. There were Samuel M. Burnside, a lawyer 
of distinction ; Kev. Aaron Bancroft, a learned minis- 
ter, father of the historian ; Levi Lincoln, also a lawyer 
and a man marked for greatness ; Otis Corbet and 
Samuel Jennison. These gentlemen were able to 
agree on a report of important character and to secure 
its adoption by the people of the district. The is- 
sence of their report lay in the third recommendation 
as follows: 

In the third place, Your Committee recommend, that a board of 
twelve overseers be chosen annually by ballot, whose duty it shall tie, 
in conjuni tion with the Selectmen, u> determine upon the qualifications 
of instructors and to contract with them for their services; to deter- 
mine upon the attainments of scholars to he admitted into said schools 
respectively; to prescribe the course of instruction therein, and all 
■ rules and regulations for the government thereof ; to detei 
mine upon all complaints of instructors, of parents or of scholars, 
which may arise in relation to said schools, or either of them ; to vimi 
and examine said schools respectively. ;it slated periods during the year ; 
age, in every suitable manner, both instructors and scholars in 
Tie- pel formaoce of their relative duties , and to make a report in writ- 
ing annually to the District, of the condition of said Schools during tin- 
period of their office. 

The recommendations of this committee, being once 
put into effect, made the schools and their manage- 
ment by overseers almost a co-ordinate branch of the 
government with all the other affairs of the town as 
ordered by the selectmen. Samuel M. Burnside, 
chairman of this committee, being sent a few years 
later to the General Court, laid before that body a 
scheme for the control of schools similar to this, em- 
bodying it in a general law. The Legislature passed 
the bill, and thus was established that imperium in 
imperio, which the school system of the Common- 
wealth is to-day. 

The limits set for this sketch will not permit any 
detailed statement of the operations of the schools. 
The eminent men who constituted the committee 
of 1823 became forthwith, with one exception, mem- 
bers of the Board of Overseers. That abounding 
interest in the public weal which had inspired their 
recommendations equally animated them in the 
application of the system. From year to year their 
names appear in connection with school affairs, but 
more particularly those of Aaron Bancroft and Samuel 
M. Burnside. In 1825 the good minister, desirous no 
doubt of a little innocent pageantry, which should at 
once arouse the youth and please the eye of the elders, 
proposed that there should be an annual address be- 
fore the assembled schools, each with its teacher at 
its head. It was to occur at the end of the scholastic 
year, was to be in some church, was to be on the im- 
portance of education, and should be followed by 



prayer. The proposition was acceptable to the over- 
seers, and the first of a long aeries of addresses was 
made by Mr. Bancroft himself. The address in the 
following year was by Mr. Burnside. This agreeable 
mode of ending the year's work continued for some 
ten years, during which time several of the most 
eminent citizens of Worcester did duty as orators of 
the day. In the number were the Rev. Alonzu Hill, 
Isaac Davis, Alfred D. Foster, John S. C. Abbott, 
Stephen Salisbury, Ira M. Barton and William Lin- 
coln. A custom so innocent and profitable might 
well have been continued indefinitely, but it is prob- 
able that the increasing number of pupils made it 
inconvenient to assemble them in one place. At all 
events, the annual address seems to have been last 
given in 1836, at which time there were said to be 
twelve hundred pupils in the schools. The sum ex- 
pended for school uses in that year was about five 
thousand dollars, and the number of teachers was 

The Centre School-house, in due time, was found too 
small for the uses required of it. It was decided, 
therefore, to erect a separate building forthe grammar 
or Latin department. Accordingly a brick school- 
house, the first one in town, was built in 1832 on 
Thomas Street, at the corner of Summer Street. This 
was, specifically, the " Latin school for boys," the 
girls yet receiving their higher tuition, which did ool 
in general include the languages, in the Centre School- 

The pupils of the Latin school who yet remain 
have very tender recollections of Charles Thurber, 
who was the principal during several years ending in 
1810. He was a true teacher of the type of fifty years 
ago, severe, exacting, learned, yet withal lovable. 
Elbridge Smith, a later principal, was also a revered 
teacher, and remained with the Latin school until, 
and after, it was merged with the coming Sigh School, 
It was a very important step in the history of the 
Worcester schools when, in 1844, it was decided :il a 
town-meeting to establish a " High School," in the 
modern sense, sufficient for the needs of one hundred 
and seventy-five pupils, and intended tor the use of 
the whole town. Many persons had doubted the 
expediency of affording to girls the same advantages 
of a classical education as were given to boys. That 
doubt was laid aside by this time, and a building was 
projected on a liberal scale, to be styled the "Classical 
and English High School," and used for both sexes. 
Twelve thousand dollars were appropriated for the 
purpose, and a suitable structure was raised at the 
west corner of Walnut and Maple Streets. It was a 
brick building, with a basement for general uses, and 
two stories above, with three large rooms on each 
floor. Those on the first floor served for the English 
High School, those above for the classical department 
This school met the wants of the growing city for 
almost a generation; but in the years of unusual 
prosperity that followed the War of the Rebellion it 

was foun.d too small. The building was, therefore, 
moved, as it stood, across Walnut Street to the north 
side, where it yet remains in use as a grammar school. 
Many of the most cherished recollections of the men 
and women now of ripe age in the city are tied up 
with this old building. Elbridge Smith, coming from 
the Thomas Street Latin School, was the first prin- 
cipal. Of those who served as principals or assistants, 
mention may lie made of several who afterward 
became distinguished. Such are Nelson Wheeler, 
later a professor of Greek in Brown University ; 
George P. Fisher, now professor in Yale University; 
James M. Whiton, eminent as a Creek scholar, and 
Daniel H. Chamberlain, Governor of South Carolina 
in the troublous times of reconstruction. 

In 1848 the town of Worcester, leaving its village 
life, became a chartered city. There were then fifty- 
two teachers, something less than three thousand 
scholars, and the annual expenditure was about fif- 
teen thousand dollars. All the powers and duties of 
the several school districts and their overseers now 
passed into the control of a School Committee, of 
which the mayor is, ex-offido, the head. 

The present High School building was dedicated to 
public use in the year L871. The need of greater ac- 

i imodation ha\ ing long been apparent, it had been 

suggested that the old building be taken for other 
Uses and a suitable structure erected. Alter some 

j ears ofdelaj the matter was approved by the School 
Committee, an. I their report, accompanied by a peti- 
tion signed bj more than a thousand citizens, was 
laid b< ion- the City Council. This body, by its com- 
mittee on education, forthwith entered on the duty 

of erecting a building which, it was hoped, would 

answer the public needs for many years. The old 
building, a- has been said, was removed, and t lie 
new one put on the same lot, but a tew feet farther 
west. The city was then passing through an era of 
great prosperity, and the view- of the committee in 

of the work were of a liberal order. It is 
not to be doubted that the comprehensive mind of 
the then mayor, .lames I'.. Blake, largely shaped the 
plans that were adopted. By a happy fortune the 

preparing <•( a design was entrusted to Mr. 11. II. 

Richardson, who, though then but little known, was 

soon to achieve tame as America's great architect. 
He was the junior of Gambrill A: Richardson, archi- 
tects, of New York. In this early work the breadth 
of treatment and leaning toward the classic, so char- 
acteristic of Richardson's later productions, are 
easily observable, To relieve the expansive front 
he proposed a square clock-tower, which, rising to 
nearly twice the height of the main building, sh u!d 
end in a very graceful and slow-tapering spire. Four 
smaller spires, set on the corners of the chief struct- 
ure, gave correspondence to the whole work. The 
material being brick, various colors were introduced, 
and to some extent a whitish sandstone, that har- 
monized well with the rest. This striking design 



was accepted, and the work committed to builders, 
the Norcross Brothers, who have since carried to 
completion many of the most remarkable works of 
this gifted man. The designer and the builder, the 
mind and the head, thus fitly came together. The 
building has three floors, on the upper of which is a 
large hall used for assembling, for general purposes, 
all the pupils. There are, beside this, nineteen lofty 
and well-lighted recitation or lecture-rooms, with 
proper accommodation for five hundred scholars. 
At the present writing the number in attendance is 
much beyond that, and it is plain that before many 
months other arrangements will need to be made. 
The original division into a classical and an English 
department is observed, and the course of study is 
such that a graduate is quite competent to make un- 
limited advance thereafter in the way of self-culture 
without recourse to any college. The modern lan- 
guages receive special attention both as literatures 
and colloquially, and the instruction in physics, the 
general sciences and mathematics, is justly regarded 
as very good. From the classical department the 
pupils go with honor to a dozen different colleges. 
The present principal, Alfred S. Roe, an alumnus of 
Wesleyan University, has had charge of the school 
during eight years, and has the aid of an able corps 
of teachers. They are twenty-two in number, — nine 
men and thirteen women, — sixteen being graduates of 
college, and all of some collegiate training. 

The interest of the people in the High School is 
well indicated by the many gifts which liberal citi- 
zens have made from time to time for the purpose of 
adding to its efficiency or beauty. At the opening of 
the old High School building, in 1844, Stephen Salis- 
bury purchased, for the use of the pupils, a set of 
philosophical apparatus that was very complete for 
the time. In 1859 Alexander H. Bullock, afterward 
Governor of the Commonwealth, established a fund 
for the purpose of giving medals annually to profi- 
cient students. This fund was later, by consent of 
the donor, changed to a fund for the benefit of the 
library and the purchase of apparatus. When the 
present building was dedicated other free-minded citi- 
zens gave a clock for the tower, a bell, bronze foun- 
tains and works of art. Of late years, too, the cus- 
tom has become established for retiring classes to put 
on the walls, or in the lobbies of the building, some 
portrait or bust of famous men, of the ancient or 
modern days. 

Many other noble gifts have been added, and a 
fine memorial tablet placed on the walls, testifying 
to the service of the High School boys in the armies 
of our country. 

The present situation of the schools may be briefly 
described. The city owns over forty buildings, used 
exclusively for school-keeping, ranging from the 
elaborate High School to the humblest suburban 
school-house. These are valued, stating it roundly, 
at one million dollars. More than three hundred 

teachers are employed, and the total enrollment of 
pupils is over fourteen thousand. The expenditure 
for school purposes last year was two hundred and 
forty thousand dollars, being about one-fifth of all 
the taxes paid in the city. These figures are drawn 
from the annual report of 1887. 

The care of the schools is vested, as before said, in 
the mayor and a committee of twenty-four persons. 
Each ward of the city lias three members in the com- 
mittee, the term of office being three years. One 
member is chosen by ballot at the annual election, in 
each ward, and thus no more than a third of the 
committee are new to the work at any one time. 

Certain standing sub-committees are named by the 
mayor in January of each year. These consist of 
tive or six persons each, and have certain special 
matters left to them. Thus, there are at present five 
standing committees,— i.e., on school-houses, on 
books and apparatus, on teachers, on appointments 
and on finance. 

There are also minor committees of visitation, 
named by the committee on appointments, whose 
duties are specially to visit and oversee the doings of 
the school to which they are assigned. Thus, in 
theory, at least, every school has frequent visits by 
its special committeeman, and is also open to the 
calls of any and all members of the committee. 
Both the minor and the standing committees report 
their doings and recommendations to the full com- 
mittee, at a stated monthly meeting. 

It would appear readily, from the foregoing, that 
the citizens chosen to these honorable and responsi- 
ble duties are in daily close touch with the schools. 
But it is a truism that in these busy and material 
days few citizens are found able, even if willing, to 
give their time freely to the public concerns, it is 
therefore fortunate that the Commonwealth has pro- 
vided a medium between the School Committees and 
the pupils, in the person and office of a superinten- 
dent of schools. The appointment of such an agent, 
being first authorized by law in 1854, has become 
habitual in all the larger towns of the State. Three 
men, before the present incumbent, have held that 
office in Worcester, viz.: Rev. George Bushnell, in 
1858 ; Rev. J. D. E. Jones, during seven years up to 
1865; and Col. B. P. Chenoweth, during two and a 
half years following the late war. 

The present superintendent, Albert P. Marble, 
Ph.D., entered upon duty in October, 1868. He is 
a graduate of Colby University, and is, at present, 
president of the National Educational Association. 
During the twenty years of his service the cares of 
the office have more than doubled with the increase 
of the school population. 

There was a time, fresh in our memory, when the 
duty of a committeeman, after the teacher had been 
engaged and sent to his work, was to attend at inter- 
vals, look important and ask a few hard questions. 
Everything else took care of itself. 



To-day the superintendent of schools in Worces- 
ter is the chief of a great bureau of administration. 
He is a director of hundreds and thousands who 
unite in work as he orders. 

Far from being able frequently to visit one teacher 
after another, and supervise his or her particular 
mode of teaching, he must sit in the centre, and see 
that the great business goes on in all its departments. 
The danger is, that a " machine" will be created, and 
individuality of teacher and pupil be everywhere im- 
paired. Such a result is especially to be feared 
where, as here, the schools being of necessity graded, 
the pupils go from one to another by stated examina- 
tions. A distinct etfort to avoid this evil, and to pro 
mote originality rather than system, has been a char- 
acteristic of the present superintendence of the Wor- 
cester schools. Among the means to this end have 
been the frequent assembling of teachers in confer- 
ence, the urging upon them of private culture and 
the finding tor pupils subjects of study or readiDg 
supplementary to the usual books, and desi 
enliven their mental frame. In the matter of ex- 
amination for promotion, while there is a formal ex- 
ercise of that nature in the schools, both teacher and 
pupil are aware that the final test is the judgment of 
the teacher, based on daily notice of the pupil during 
the term past. Thus the much- complained -oi 
strain of examination day, and the weeks before, is 
to a large degree avoided. Thus, too, the schools 
become a Held of training for the many, and the av- 
erage scholar, apt to be slow, is not made to suffer 
that the few brightest may shine forth. 

A most useful adjunct to the public schools is found 
in the State Normal School. This is one ol 
schools established in different parts of the Common- 
wealth, in order to teach the teachers the art of teach- 
ing. It is doubtless true in this art, as in that of 
poetry, that the greatest is born, not made. Never- 
theless, as it is possible to teach the elements of the 
poetic art, so it must be to show the moderately 
well-equipped scholar what it is to teach, though na- 
ture may not have given him the grand secret for 
himself. The State Board of Education,by a resolve 
(of the General Court), which went into effect in 
June, 1871, were authorized and required to establish 
a Normal School in the city of Worcester: and the 
trustees of the Worcester Lunatic Hospital were au- 
thorized and required to convey, for this purpose, a 
tract of land of not more than five acres, to be located 
by the Governor and Council, within certain limits. 
An appropriation of sixty thousand dollars was made. 

upon condition that the city of Worcester should pay 
the Board of Education, for the purposes named in 
the resolve, the sum of fifteen thousand dollars. This 
condition was promptly complied with. The tract 
was located by the Governor and Council September 
2, 1871, and a few days later the conveyance was 
made by the trustees of the hospital to the Board of 
Education and its successors, in trust, as directed. 

The Normal School was opened to pupils in Sep- 
ber, 1874, the present principal, E. Harlow Russell, 
then assuming charge. The tract of land taken was 
a part of what had been called Hospital Grove, on a 
hill of considerable height, and with ledges of rock 
cropping out here and there. The stone for the 
building was quarried on the spot, and a massive and 
sufficiently imposing structure prepared. From any 
part of the grove one looks down on the bee-hive of 
Worcester, where, within a stone's throw, every kind 
of industry, in wood or iron, is pursued, and from the 
top of the building an extensive view may be had, 
ranging over several neighboring towns. The inner 
arrangements of the building are of a specially con- 
venient and liberal sort, being devised by the princi- 
pal, according to comfort and good sense. 

The Board of Education, in 1880, declared the 
object of the school as follows : 

gn of the Normal School te strictls professional, fhs 

of organ- 
■ [lin- and teaching the pub! 
!m this end there must be the most thorough knowledgo, first, of the 
branches of learnin 

right men 

tal training. I hi I imi urseextend throu h ips i of two 

i period ol ire, and [s divided Into 

terms ol twenty weeks each, with daily sessions oi d 
b week. 

The Stud ii 3 of the two years' course are Mich us prop - 
erl\ to lit tin- ordinary scholar for usefulness in the 
lower grades of the public Si hools, and a diploma to 
that effect is awarded. The four years' course being 
much more comprehensive, the student is required to 
take up Latin and French, with the privilege of Ger- 
man and Greek. During both courses very special 

at I en lion is given to the science of education anil the 

art of teaching, and the graduate goes forth a well- 
fitted teacher for any school whatever. The required 
age for admission, in young men, is seventeen years; 
in young women, sixteen years. If the applicant 

proposes to teach in the Massachusetts schools, his 

tuition and all textbooks are free ; otherwise there is 

an annual fee of thirty dollars. The principal is 
ass'sted by seven accomplished teachers, and the 
number of pupils in the last year was almost two 
hundred. Since the opening of the school there have 
been three hundred and forty-five graduates, \ fea- 
ture of the Normal School, which attaches it closely 
to the city public school-, is the apprenticeship system, 
so called. This is described in the annual catalogue, 
as follows : 

The student, after three terms, or a year and a half in tl 
School, is allowed to go into one of the pul the city of 

Worcester to 5--r\.- as assistant to the teacher of that Echool ; to take 

part in the instruction, management an.l genera] work of teaching un- 
der the directi f the teacher; and even to act as substitute for the 

teacher for an honr, a hall I cretion of the lattcr 

aml with tlie approval el the superintendent. One 
time is assigned to ani Ql serves in at least 

t lie course of his tenu ol -erviee. the dura- 
tion of which is six months or half a school year. After finishing his 
apprenticeship the student resumes hi- courae at tie- Normal School, 
Bpending another half year there before receiving hi- diploma. 



Regarding this system, it is not, of course, claimed 
that it is new. On the contrary, it is drawn from the 
experience of European countries. In its application 
here it has fully met expectation, and receives the 
constant approval of the School Committee. It should 
be said that the apprenticeship is voluntary — but 
those who look forward conscientiously to teaching 
are glad usually of the opportunity to see what they 
can do. 

The anniversary of the Normal School, with its 
accompanying address, is one of the most interesting 
occasions that the round year offers to Worcester resi- 
dents. Among those who have made formal addresses 
have been William T. Harris, LL.D., Rev. Thomas 
Hill, D.D., Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, President G. 
Stanley Hall, now of Clark University ; Charles Dud- 
ley Warner, Professor E. S. Morse, of Salem, and 
John Fiske, of Cambridge. Thus is the graduate, 
as he takes leave of the still home of delightful study, 
cheered on his road to culture by the persuasions of 
ripe minds and bright wits. 


College of the Holy Cross. — The inspiration 
to the founding of this institution came from the Right 
Reverend Benedict Joseph Fenwick, second bishop 
of Boston. It had long been a wish cherished by 
him to establish within his domain an institution for 
higher secular culture. The opportunity seemed to 
be at hand when, in 1842, the Rev. James Fittou, 
who had built a seminary for young men on the slope 
of Packachoag Hill, in Worcester, ' offered to give 
what he had there, with sixty acres of land, to the 
bishop. The site and the offer were altogether such 
as were desirable, and steps were at once taken 
towards the carrying out of the great project. The 
Fathers of the Society of Jesus, being asked to assume 
•charge of the enterprise, did so in the autumn of 1843. 
Rev. Thomas F. Mulledy was appointed president, and 
temporary occupation was made of the old seminary 
and other small buildings, pending the erection 
(which was at once begun) of an imposing structure 
of brick and granite. With few students, and amid 
much financial distress, the work was urged forward. 
In 1846 the founder, Bishop Fenwick, dying, his body 
was brought and laid in the small cemetery, almost 
within the shadow of the college. In 1849, a class 
being almost ready to graduate, it was thought well 
that a charter of incorporation be asked from the 
State, so that the customary degrees might be granted. 
The application was refused when laid before the 
General Court, but another expedient presented 
itself. The young men being certified as worthy of 
-a degree, in whatever department, the Georgetown 
College, in the District of Columbia, granted them 
the corresponding degrees, and so continued to do for 
many years. 

In the year 1852 the college met with a misfortune 
•which came near ending its career, the buildings 

being almost entirely destroyed by an accidental fire. 
The loss was said to be fifty thousand dollars, with 
n» insurance. Not enough remained of the buildings 
even in shelter the students, so that one hundred of 
them were billeted in various friendly houses in the 
city on the night following the fire. This calamity 
led to a temporary suspension of the college, and 
many feared a permanent abandonment of the enter- 
prise; but such was not the mind of its faithful 
friends. They came promptly to the rescue, unmey 
was contributed, new buildings begun, and in October 
of the year following Holy Cross was again ready i<> 
receive its students. During the fourteen months 
that had passed since the fire the students had scat- 
tered into many other institutions, and the number that 
returned was small. The opening was really a begin- 
ning, as if on a new foundation. The college, however, 
throve and grew, though slowly, and began to gam, as 
an institution, the favorable regard of many who 
were not Catholics. Among these was the great Gov- 
ernor, John A. Andrew. He visited the college in 
1862, and attended the annual Commencement of the 
year following. It would appear that he was much 
impressed with the value of the training given, for 
he personally suggested to the faculty the wisdom 
of again applying for a charter of incorporation. 
The Legislature of 1865, when a charter was asked 
for, was found to be of different mind from that "I 
1849, and the much-desired instrument was obtained 
without opposition. It gives the faculty power to 
confer all such degrees as are usually conferred by 
colleges in the Commonwealth, except medical 

The present situation of things at Holy Cross may 
be briefly described. One vast brick building, three 
hundred and twenty feet long, contains the lecture 
and recitation rooms, the library, chapel, dormitories 
for two hundred students, and the necessary apart- 
ments for the president and faculty. The president, 
Samuel Cahill, S.J., is assisted by a corps of twenty 
professors and instructors. The schedule of studies 
is in accord with that usually approved by the So- 
ciety of Jesus, the course being ordinarily completed 
in seven years. The student is made familiar with 
the best Latin and Greek authors, while, side by side 
with these studies, goes a course in mathematics, ex- 
tending to the highest branches. The modern lan- 
guages receive special attention, as well as history in 
its manifold relations. In the last year of a student's 
stay he is especially trained in rational philosophy 
and the natural sciences. It is obvious that the pro- 
duct of study, as here pursued, is an exact and careful 
scholar, of high general culture. As might be naturally 
supposed, a considerable share of the graduates turn 
towards the priesthood, yet far the larger part are 
found to engage in the secular professions and in the 
varied employments of the day, whereby wealth and 
station may be secured. 
• The Worcester Polytechnic Institute.— This 



institution originated in a fund of one hundred thou- 
sand dollars, given by John Boynton, of Templeton, 
in Worcester County. His purpose was to found a 
school, free to all residents of the county, wherein 
young men might learn, in addition to the ordinary 
subjects of study, some or all of the useful mechanic 
artB. The project commended itself to other men of 
philanthropic mind, and epecially to the Hon. Stephen 
Salisbury and the Hon. Ichabod Washburn, both of 
whom added large sums to the original gift. The 
citizens of Worcester united also in a liberal sub- 
scription, so that, at length, the endowment amounted 
to nearly a half-million dollars. The institution was 
incorporated in 1865, and the work of preparation so 
pushed on that in November, 1868, the doors were 
thrown open to students. The charter gave the name 
of the institution as " The Worcester County Free 
Institute of Industrial Science; " but this somewhat 
cumbrous title, however expressive of the founder's 
intention, was changed in 1887, by special act of the 
Legislature, to that given above. Two theories were 
entertained as to the proper scope of the school. 
Should it be chiefly a school of the manual arts, add- 
ing thereto some knowledge of the scientific side of 
industrial processes? Should it, on the other baud, 
be a school of science, adding, however, a sufficient 
manual knowledge to enable the student intelli- 
gently to direct or engage in industrial proi 
Probably most persons expected the former theory 
to be adopted, and looked forward to the produc- 
tion of a class of skilled workmen, but the second 
view prevailed with the governing body of the insti- 
tute, and remains to-day the policy of the school. 

Charles O. Thompson, a graduate of Dartmouth 
College, and a specialist in chemistry, returning from 
an examination of the best European polytechnic 
schools, was placed at the head of the faculty. He 
proposed a three years' course of study, afterward 
extended to four years, with a standard of scholar- 
ship higher than most young men who at first came 
for instruction could attain. The proportion of grad- 
uates was therefore small during several years, and 
some persons doubted if the aims of the principal 
were not unreasonable. Fortunately his views pre- 
vailed, though the future of the Institute was for 
several years a matter of grave doubt. As the grade 
of scholarship required became known, more capable 
students presented themselves, and the weaker stayed 
away ; so that at length the high ideal was met, and 
the graduates began to be everywhere allowed the 
first rank among men of scientific ability. Professor 
Thompson retired from the post of principal in order 
to assume the organization of a similar institute at 
Terre Haute, Indiana, from which post he was soon 
unhappily removed by death. He was succeeded by 
the present principal, Homer T. Fuller, Ph.D., who 
assumed duty in 1883. The institute has now fifteen 
professors and instructors, and one hundred and fifty 
students. The buildings, used exclusively for in- 

struction and practice, are four in number. Boynton 
Hall contains the offices of administration, thechapel, 
lecture, recitation and drawing-rooms. In the Wash- 
burn machine-shop, work is practically clone in wood 
and iron, certain machines of which the institute has 
the control being sold to all parts of America. The 
Salisbury Labratory, a new building, contains the 
mechanical, chemical and physical laboratories, and 
the lecture-rooms connected therewith. This build- 
ing is a gift to the institute by Stephen Salisbury. 
who has also devoted to public uses a considerable 
piece of land, the Institute Park. In a fourth build- 
ing is the magnetic observatory, with special appli- 
ances for isolation and accuracy. The established 
course of study is mainly scientific, with competent 
instruction in the modern languages. Those students 
who purpose to become mechanical engineers are 
taught practically the art of construction, being re- 
quired to devote a specified part of their time to prac- 
tice in the machine-shop. 

Schools like the Poly technic Institute are obviously 
a result of the material development of our country. 
The world is over-grown with wealth, and all the 
wealth only stimulates to tin discovery of new waye 
of adding to the accumulation. Mines must be 
opened, ores reduced by new methods, the secrets ot 
chemistry laid open, bridges built where our fathers 
would have deemed it impossible, mountains bur- 
rowed, and canals constructed that tin' navies of con- 
tinents may pass by short-cuts from one ocean to 
another. That all this may be besl done, requires 
just the kind of man thai may be found in the insti- 
tute graduates. "Studies," said my Lord BaCOD 
" serve for delight, for ornament and tor ability." At 
the institute, it may be said that they serve for ability. 
I b eless young man, whose parents want him to 

gel a taste of cultivation, Bnda this school unconge- 
nial. The ordinary levity of student life has little 
,i, and ability to do has more weight 
than all other considerations. The graduate goes 
forth a capable director in the special industry he 
has chosen lor himself, a good chemist, engineer, 
constructor, a captain of industry. 

The Clakk University. — Though favored much 
above most cities with the means of culture, Worces- 
ter is about to add to the existing institutions one of 
the greatest promise, not only for her own citizens. 
but for the country at large. Mr. Jonas G. Clark, a 
wealthy and liberal-minded man, announced two 
years ago his intention to establish a university, and 
to endow it to the extent, at least, of one million 
dollars. In response to a petition signed by him. 
and by Charles Devens, George F. Hoar, Stephen 
Salisbury, John D. Washburn, William W. line, 
Joseph Sargent, Frank P. Goulding and George 
Swan, a charter of incorporation was granted to the 
Clark University, with all the powers usually given. 
In May, 1887, the Board of Corporators was 
organized, with Jonas G. Clark, president, and John 



D. Washburn, secretary. Steps were at once taken 
toward carrying out the project, and at this writing 
two very large brick buildings are almost finished, on 
land conveniently located in the southern part of the 
city. It is expected that students will be received 
in the autumn of 1889. Professor G. Stanley Hall, 
late of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, has 
been chosen president, and is now visiting, for the 
purposes of observation, various universities in sev- 
eral countries of Europe. What final shape as 
regards its scheme of work the Clark University will 
take, has not been made known. It is, however, pre- 
sumed that the first object of the corporation will be 
to establish what the name signifies in its highest 
meaning, to wit : a school of liberal culture for men 
who have already completed the ordinary college 
course, or have otherwise acquired an equivalent 
thereto. With that accomplished, the establishing 
of under-graduate courses will be easy, if considered 

The Hon. Charles Devens, justice of the Supreme 
Judicial Court of the Commonwealth, presided on 
the occasion of the laying of the corner-stone of the 
principal building, October 22, 1887. The commu- 
nication, then read, from the founder, contained 
these words : 

Broad in ita scope, liberal in its methods and comprehensive in its 

teachings, . . . we dedicate this University to Science, Letters, Art aud 

i their best and most valuable forms. 

The Hon. George F. Hoar, in making the chief 
address, spoke, in part, as follows: 

A university ... is a place where the highest instruction is to be 
obtained, . . . where libraries are to be found, which show the existing 
boundaries of human knowledge, and workmen nod apparatus are found 
fitted and employed to extend them. These institutions have ever been 
among the most beneficent forces in American history. . . . The Uni- 
versity is the natural ornament, the bright, consummate flower of democ- 
racy. It is the greatest of all levellers. . . . It is devoted to no sect or 
creed or statement of doctrine in which human presumption has sought 
to imprison the free spirit of truth, and to bar its onward pathway. 

For the fulfillment of the purposes of founder and 
trustees, thus definitely expressed, the city waits 
with brightest hopes. 

The Worcester Academy. — This school was 
projected, two generations ago, by persons of the 
Baptist faith, who desired an educational institute 
under their own control. After much conference, it 
was thought well to leave the organization with cer- 
tain trustees, who in 1832 bought fifty-nine acres of 
land, with a building thereon, worth in all ten thou- 
sand dollars. This land lay, as then described, one- 
half mile south of the village ; as the city now is, it 
was east of Main Street, and on the high land ex- 
tending from Lagrange to Hammond Streets. In 
1834 the institution was incorporated under the 
name of the " Worcester Manual Labor High School." 
Operations were begun then in earnest, and we learn 
by the catalogue of 1836 that there were in that 
year one hundred and thirty-five pupils in all, living 
in or attending the school. Isaac Davis was the 

president of the trustees, a post which he held until 
age and infirmity forbade him. Otis Corbett was 
then secretary, and Ichabod Washburn treasurer. It 
was intended that the pupils should, by manual 
labor, pay a part of their living expenses; but no 
labor, except on the farm, was convenient, and as 
the prices for all things furnished were very low, the 
school was in continual financial straits. In L846 
the Legislature permitted the name to be changed to 
the " Worcester Academy," and the notion of manual 
labor was then abandoned. In that year there were 
one hundred aud eighteen students, who were charged 
for board $1.30 to $1.50 per week, according as they 
did not, or did, use tea and coffee. The total neces- 
sary expenses of a term of eleven weeks were from 
$23 to $29. Such were the statements of the annual 

Under the new name things went on somewhat as 
before. In 1850 the total of pupils for the year was 
one hundred and seventy-six, and preparations were 
made for a new building of brick, one hundred feet 
long and four stories high. But the work only in- 
volved the academy more deeply in debt, and a pro- 
position to change the location met with favor, more 
especially as it had a savor of financial gain. It was 
proposed to sell the lands of the academy, now ap- 
preciating in value, and buy, with the proceeds, the 
old Antiquarian Hall, it being then for sale. This 
was done in 1854, and the school was moved without 
delay to the new place, on the corner of Belmont 
and Summer Streets. The academy had thus, as 
said the catalogue of 1850, a sufficiently-equipped 
building, all paid for, and twenty-five thousand dol- 
lars beside, profitably invested. 

Under the new state of things more was doubtless 
expected than came to pass. The pupils no longer 
lived in the academy, but where it suited them, in or 
out of town, and thus, perhaps, the esprit de corps 
was, to some extent, injured. Young women were 
also then admitted to the academy, a policy which, 
in a modified degree, is pursued to the present day. 
But the affairs of the school went on with reasonable 
efficiency until the time came for a more important 
change than the last. A large building and some 
acres of land were for sale on Providence Street. 
This had been (1850-53) a medical college, but 
afterward was used, first, for a ladies' collegiate 
institute, and then, during the war, for an army 
hospital. The trustees of Worcester Academy, having 
always a prudent financier in their president, bought 
this property in 1S09 for the sum of forty thousand 

The academy was forthwith moved to that spot, 
and there remains. The institution has never lacked 
benefits from its friends, although it has had times 
of severe pecuniary stress. To-day it is on a pros- 
perous basis, the result of gifts made or pledged for 
its use, by friends in many parts of New England. 
Aside from the Hon. Isaac Davis, the most constant 

1 520 


friend and contributor to the academy's funds has 
been the Hon. Joseph H. Walker, now president of 
the trustees. The present principal, D. W. Aber- 
crombie, A.M., a Harvard graduate, has had charge 
since 1883. There are now eight teachers and one 
hundred and thirty students, most of whom live in 
the buildings. The academy has two courses of in- 
struction, — a college preparatory and a scientific, in 
both of which the various liberalizing studies of our 
inolern days are carefully pursued. 

Although the school is professedly under denomi- 
national' control, it is contended that no limited 
views prevail in the management. The teachers are 
chosen from the graduates of several colleges, and 
the young men are likewise fitted for many different 
institutions. In view of its age and usefulness, tin 
Academy is justly regarded with pride and in 
by the citizens. 

The Woecesteh Medical Institution. — This 
medical college was incorporated in 1849, ehieflj 
through the efforts of Dr. Calvin Newton, a well 
known divine and physician. In 12 -and 18trl im- 
posing buildings (now the Worcester Academy) wire 
raised on land given by John W. Pond, and a lull 
course of instruction was established. The training 
was of the eclectic, Thompsonian or botanii 
There were fourteen graduates in 1851, and the future 
was bright, but difficulties arose that need not be de- 
tailed here, ami the college ended its existence in a 
very few years. 

Laities' Collegiate Institute. — This institu 

tion received a charter from the State in 1854. It- 
early status is not clear to one who investigates at 
this distance. It was held upas a project worth} the 
notice of wealthy philanthropists in February, 1855, 
though, doubtless, then a scheme only. The Rev. 
E. A. Cummings, signing himself "financial secre- 
tary," published a pamphlet detailing what was 
proposed, but which allow." as to believe that the 
Collegiate Institute was not founded as yet. \ later 

prospectus shows that the trustees had acquired tin- 
lands of the defunct medical hospital, of which pos- 
session was taken in 1856. Here was then set up a 
fully organized women's college, with power to grant 
degrees. It was, to some extent, befriended, if not 
directed, by persons of the Baptist faith. In 1857-58 
there were in all one hundred and fifty pupils, for 
whom an elaborate course of study, linguistic and 
other, was provided. In 1860 the annual catalogue 
contained a cry lor funds, as the income did not meet 
the outgo. Notwithstanding the appeal, matters did 
not improve with the institute, and it appears to have 
been closed soon after. The property entered upon a 
period of legal complications, from which it emerged 
to be bought by the trustees of the Worcester Acad- 
emy, as before said. 

Oread Collegiate Institute. — In 1848, Eli 
Thayer, having been before a teacher in the Manual 
Labor High School, established a seminary for young 

ladies. The name, Oread, was fancifully adopted 

from Virgil's line, " Hinc atque hinc glomerantur 
Oreades" (Aen. 1, 500), and had special reference to 
the woody hill on which the building was placed. 
The institution was incorporated four years later, 
with power to grant degrees, and presently gained a 
high standing in the community. Its patronage and 
affiliations were mainly with the Baptist denomina- 
tions, but with no purposed sectarian bias. The 
studies pursued were of a liberal order, with much 
that made for true culture. The Oread flourished 
for many years, and its doings were a conspicuous 
part of the social life of the city. After a varied his- 
tory it at length fell into a Btage of less prosperity. 
and the school has been of late discontinued. The 
picturesque building — a castellated structure of the 
olden tinn — still dominates from its height a good 
part of the city ; but its lawns and groves are giving 
place to lows ot modern brick houses. 


Schools, under private management, and with vari- 
ous degrees of excellence, have existed from time to 

time, during a century past. 

The antiquary, delving into musty records, will 
learn of Thomas Payson's seminary for '.'11111- ladies, 
in 1791, and of the school that this same person 
undertook in L795, " near Dr. John Green, Jr." He 
will find, also, that in 1805 Mrs. Nugent had .01 
academj foi It appears, too, that in 

1828 Samuel M. Burnside, spoken ol before, projected 

a law school, hut with what SUCCeSS is not clear. It is 
probable that his prospectus, preserved union- tin- 
treasures of tin- American Antiquarian Society, was 
the beginning and end of his proji 

In the year 1831 Rejoice Newton, Levi Lincoln, 
Isaac Davis, Pliny Merrick, Thomas Kinnicutt and 
others — eleven in all — wishing to establish a school 
for young women, bought the old Chandler mansion 
on Main Street, nearly opposite the head of Park, 
where now a large business block stands. A school 
was opened tin- next year, under care of Mr-. Wells, 
who was succeeded by John Wright. The under- 
taking, however, came to an end in a very few years, 
and left littU trace oi its usefulness. But the details 
of any of these projects, if at hand, would not over- 
much interest us. 

There are, to-day, several private schools, but only 
one which justly calls for mention here. Caleb B. Met- 
calf, M.A., who had for several years been master of 
the Thomas Street Grammar School, left it in 1856 to 
establish, on Salisbury Street, a school that presently 
developed into the Highland Military Academy. The 
institution yet flourishes, with promise of long use- 
fulness, Mr. Metcalf having of late yielded the active 
control to Joseph AldenShaw, M.A.. head master. The 
scholars received, being usually from twelve to sixteen 
years of age, live in the buildings and arc undi c 
supervision. An established course of study prepares 



them for entrance to any college or similar institution, 
or for a general business life. The object of the mili- 
tary department is to teach habits of promptness and 
a good carriage. 

More than one thousand pupils have gone out from 
this institution, and they may be found in every State 
of the Union, exemplifying, in all lines of life, tin 
training received at the academy. 

Of the many institutions in the city not properly 
scholastic, but which aim at special culture in oik 
way or another, it is not necessary to attempt detailed 


WORCESTER— {Continued. ) 


To give a detailed history of the many societies, 
literary, social and political, which have existed in 
Worcester would necessitate the occupying much 
more space than the limits of this history will admit. 

In the period just before the War of the Revolution, 
impatience at the demands made by the British 
Government, and its infringement upon what men 
then thought were the rights of all men, caused the 
formation of a political society, which, though short- 
lived, had a marked influence upon municipal affairs 
which was far-reaching in its effects. 

Many years after, when these rights were fully 
established, societies were formed for mutual pro- 
tection against the ravages of fire, and for aiding each 
other in bringing thieves to justice. Then came so- 
cieties for the literary and educational improvement 
of the people by the distribution of books, and by 
courses of lectures upon scientific subjects illustrated 
by suitable apparatus. 

Societies and associations for philanthropic and 
benevolent purposes, as well as representative orders 
or chapters of the numerous secret socitties of the 
county, are also established here. Churches and 
schools are represented by many societies, associations 
or clubs for special purposes in their line of work. 
Book clubs, athletic clubs and those especially for 
social purposes are also numerous. 

With so large a number it is to be regretted that so 
few can be spoken of in detail, but it is the hope of 
the writer that the brief notices here presented may 
prove of some historical value. 

The American Political Society, the earliest 
not of a religious nature, formed in Worcester, of 
which any record has been handed down, was or- 
ganized December, 1773, by the leading Whigs for 
discussion and consultation upon the civil and re- 

ligious affairs of the town. Its principal purpose was 
undoubtedly to influence and, as far as possible 
control the action of the loyalist party, which consisted 
very largely of the wealthy and influential men of 
the town. At a meeting held January 3, 1774, a 
committee, appointed at the house of Asa Ward the 
27th of the previous month, reported a code of by- 
laws which was adopted. The committee, consisting 
of Nathan Baldwin, Samuel Curtis and Timothy 
Bigelow, in presenting the rules and regulations for 
the government of the society, prefaced them with 
the following preamble, setting forth the reasons for 
its formation and the objects in view : " Whereas, at 
this present time, the good people of this country in 
general (and with respect to some particular circum- 
stances, the town of Worcester in particular) labor 
under many impositions and burdens grievous to be 
borne, which we apprehend would never have been 
imposed upon us if we had united and opposed the 
machinations of some designing persons in this Prov- 
ince, who are grasping at power and the property of 
their neighbors ; for the prevention whereof, and the 
better securing our liberties and properties, and 
counteracting the designs of our enemies ; we, whose 
names are hereunto subscribed, do by these presents 
incorporate ourselves into a society by the. name of 
the American Political Society, and to meet at some 
public-house in Worcester, at least once in every month, 
to advise with each other on proper methods to be pur- 
sued by us, and each of us respecting our common 
rights and liberties, civil and religious ; and for the re- 
gular ordering and conducting our said society in their 
meetings, they shall choose some one of the members 
of said society as a chairman," etc. The by-laws 
adopted indicate that it was to a certain extent a 
secret society, the first article reading as follows: 
" That no discourse or transaction in any of our meet- 
ings shall be communicated or divulged to any person 
or persons not belonging to our said society, by any 
ways or means whatever (such only excepted as are 
allowed to be made public by the unanimous vote of 
our said society), and if any person or persons shall 
be guilty of a breach of this article, he or they be pun- 
ished with expulsion from our said society." The ninth 
and tenth articles, which are as follows, are in the same 
spirit: " Oth. That every member of our said society 
shall have full power to dismiss himself from said 
society in the following manner, viz.: by informing 
them in any one of their meetings, in writing, that he 
will inviolably keep all the secrets of said society as 
faithfully as if he still belonged to it himself, and as 
they desire, but that he desires a dismission by a vote 
of said society, and that it may be entered on the 
journal of the transactions of said society that he was 
dismissed by his own desire. 10th. That each par- 
ticular member of this our said society, reposing 
special trust and confidence in every other member of 
the society, looks upon himself as bound, and hereby 
binds himself by the ties of honor, virtue, truth, 



sincerity and every appellation that is dear to him in 
this life, faithfully and truly to keep and perform for 
himself each and every of the articles herein men- 
tioned and expressed to all intents and purposes." 

At one of the meetings in February, 1774, the ques- 
tiini as to the propriety of choosing any person to any 
office, who was not a professed friend to constitutional 
liberty, was discussed. April 4th there was an inter- 
esting meeting, over thirty members being present. 
Annum the questions discussed and acted upon was 
that of preparing instructions to the representatives 
to the General Court, to be chosen the next month. 
It was also voted at this meeting that "thissocietj 
will each one bear and pay their equal part of the fine 
and charges that may be laid upon Messrs. Joshua 
Bigelow and Timothy Bigelow, for their refusal to be 
empanneled upon the Grand Jury, at our next Superior 
Court of Assize for the county of 'Worcester, if they 
shall be chosen into that office, and that their refusal 
is founded upon the principle that they cannol con 
sistently with good conscience and order serve if Peter 
Oliver, Esq., is present on the bench as Chief Justice 
or .Indue oi said Court, before he La lawfully tried and 
acquitted from the high crimes and charges for which 
he now stands impeached by the Honorable House of 
Representatives, and the major part of the Grand 
Jurors for the whole county join them in refusing to 
serve for the reasons aforesaid." Matters of town and 
church government were often diseussed. At the 
meeting of May 2, 1774, the matter of Rev. Mr. 
Maccarty's salary was debated, as to whether an addi- 
tional sum of twenty pounds, which had been allowed 
him, should be taken oil' for the year. .Tunc 10th, by 
a unanimous vote, it was agreed " not to purchase anj 
English goods until the port and harbor of Boston 
shall be opened." At a town-meeting held on the 7th 
of March, 1771, the fourth article of the warrant was 
" for the town to consider and act and vote as they 
may think proper, upon a petition of twenty-seven 
citizens of the town, that some action be taken in 
relation to the act of Parliament giving a privilege 
to the East India Company to export teas to America, 
subject to duty, for the purpose of raising a revenue 
for bis Majesty." The request was referred to a com- 
mittee consisting of William Young, Josiah Fierce 
and Timothy Bigelow (all members of the Political 
Society), to take it into consideration and report in 
two hours. The committee promptly reported a long 
preamble with three resolutions, the substance ol 
which was, " that the inhabitants refuse to buy, sell 
or in any way to be concerned with India teas of any 
kind until the act imposing a duty be repealed, and 
also to break oil' all commercial intercourse with those 
persons, in this or any other place, who should act 
counter to these resolutions," etc., etc. This action 
of the town called forth a protest from the loyalists 
against accepting the report of the committee, which 
was rejected by the meeting. The protest was, how- 
ever, entered upon the records by Clark Chandler, the 

town clerk, who was a loyalist, and this action on his 
part occasioned much excitement. When it became 
known to the members of the Political Society that 
the obnoxious protest had really been entered on the 
town records they were very indignant, and at once 
proceeded to show that they were, and upon a petition 
of Joshua Bigelow and others, a town- meeting was 
called the 22d of August, 1774, to consider the matter. 
This meeting was adjourned to the 24th of the same 
month, at which time it was voted, " That the town 
clerk do, in the presence of the town, obliterate, erase 
or otherwise delate the said recorded protest and the 
names thereto subscribed, so that it may become 
utterly illegible and unintelligible." That this vote 
was most thoroughly carried out, an inspection of the 
town records will give ample evidence, the obliteration 
being so complete that it is "utterly illegible and 
unintelligible." In 1776 it was found that the. society 
was having too much influence in controlling the 
town-meetings, which occasioned an opposition to it, 
and it was finally dissolved in May ol' that year. Il 

had, however, been a power lor t; 1 in the community, 

and many of its members were useful and honored 
ollicers of the town, as well as doing efficient service 
in the War of the Revolution. 

WoKCESTEB FlBE SOCIETY. — This ancient society 
was organized in January, 17'jy, and is still in exist- 
ence, observing its old rules and regulations adopted 
:it tin outset although the service for which it was 
founded has long since been superseded by the appli- 
am «s of modern inventions for the protection of prop- 
erty from lire. Its founders, says the preamble to the 
li\ laws, " influenced by a sense of social duty, formed 
themselves into a society tor the more effectual assist- 
ance ot each other, and of their townsmen, in times 
of danger Iron, tire.'' Among the original members 
were Joseph Allen, John Green, Stephen Salisbury, 
Sr., Daniel Waldo, Jr., Abraham Lincoln, Edward 
Bangs and [saiah Thomas. Neither the records nor 
the newspapers of the day give the reasons for its for- 
mation. Probably the immediate cause was the 
destruction by lire on the 4th ol' January, 1793, of 
tin weaver's shop of Cornelius & Peter Stowell, situ- 
ated at the corner of what is now Park and Wash- 
ington Streets. The by-laws adopted are almost, 
word lor word, like those of a " Masoniek In So 
ciety '' instituted at " Glocester (Mass.) August 18th, 
1789," which were printed at the press of Isaiah 
Thomas & Co., at Boston, and that also may have 
suggested to Mr. Thomas the idea of forming a similar 
society in Worcester. Meetings are held quarterly at 
some hotel and at the annual meeting, in January, 
an oration and poem are usually delivered. Remi- 
niscences of the members, from its foundation to the 
election of Dr. George Chandler, in 1864, have been 
published, which give many items of local history, 
and indicate the prominence of its members in town 
affairs. From 1795 to I B31 the office of town treas- 
urer was held by a member of this society, and 



from 1790 to 1831, one or more of the Board of Select- 
men. Since then a majority of the mayors of the city 
have also been members. It has also furnished three 
Governors of the .State, United States Senators and 
Representatives, and an Attorney-General of the 
United States. 

The number of members is limited to thirty, thut- 
making it a somewhat exclusive society and this fact 
probably induced some gentlemen, who were unable 
to become members, to form other societies of a like 

The Mutual Fire Society was formed in July, 
1822, but remained in existence only a short time. 
The Social Fire Society, formed in 1840, was also 
given up after a few years. Both these societies were 
organized on the same plan as the older society, but 
they seem to have lacked the elements of success 
that characterized the first. 

The Worcester Society of Mutual Aid in 
Detecting Thieves was instituted in November, 
1795, and keeps up its organization, although the ob- 
jects for which it was formed are now much more 
effectually provided for by the city and State authori- 
ties, The first meeting was held at the tavern of Cap- 
tain Daniel Heywood, November 2, 1795, Benjamin 
Heywood being moderator, also chairman of a com- 
mittee to draw up rules and regulations. These were 
adopted at a meeting held November liith, with a 
preamble setting forth the general objects of the so- 
ciety, which was as follows: 

Whereas, the practice of stealing has become so prevalent of late 
that it has become necessary for the well-disposed to unite in the most 
effectual measures for protecting their property against those hostile in- 
vasions : We, the subscribers, do therefore associate together tor the 
purpose of more effectually recovering any property that may at an.i 
time be stolen from any member of this society, and of mutually aiding 
each other in bringing otfeuders to condign punishment, hereby engag- 
ing to comply with the following rules and regulations. 

From the records it would appear that no other 
meeting was held till January, 1801, and that at a 
meeting in February of that year the name of the so- 
ciety was fixed upon as " The Society of Mutual Aid 
against Thieves," ' and the admission fee fixed at six 
shillings. At the meeting of January 10, 1803, an 
assessment of "one shilling was made on each mem- 
ber to keep hisdollar good," the sum of nineteen dol- 
lars and forty-seven cents having been expended in 
pursuing the thief who had stolen Captain John 
Pierce's horse, etc. At this meeting the first pursu- 
ing committee was chosen, who were "to hold them- 
selves in readiness, at the shortest notice, to pursue 
any thief or thieves who may have stolen any prop- 
erty from a member of this society." The present 
treasurer and clerk is George M. Woodward ; there is 
also a board of twelve directors aud a pursuing com- 
mittee of the same number. Although the organiza- 
tion is still preserved, the meetings are not held with 
any regularity, and it seems to be of but little in- 
terest to the members, save for its antiquity. 

1 Since modified to the present name. 

The American Antiquarian Society, although 
not local in its membership, has its buildings and col- 
lections at Worcester, where it was founded in 1812. 
The first steps for its formation were taken at a meeting 
held at Sykes' tavern, in Worcester, by Isaiah Thomas, 
Nathaniel Paine, William Paine, Levi Lincoln, Aaron 
Bancroft and Edward I). Bangs. These gentlemen 
petitioned the State Legislature for an act of incor- 
poration under the name of the American Antiqua- 
rian Society, with " such privileges and immunities 
as are usually granted by acts of incorporation to 
other public societies established under the laws of 
the Commonwealth. 

As one of the inducements to the granting of these 
privileges, "they beg leave to state that one of their 
number 2 is in possession of a valuable collection of 
books, obtained with great labor and expense, the 
value of which may be fairly estimated at about five 
thousand dollars, some of them more ancient than are 
to be found in any other part of our country, and all 
of which he intends to transfer to the proposed so- 
ciety, should their project receive the sanction and 
encouragement of the Legislature." The prayer of 
the petitioners was granted, and the act of incorpora- 
tion was approved by Governor Caleb Strong, October 
24, 1812. The preamble to the act of incorporation 
was as follows : 

Whereas, The collection and preservation of the antiquities of our 
country, and of curious and valuable productions in Art and Nature, 
have a tendency to enlarge the sphere of human knowledge, aid the 
progress of science, to perpetuate the history of mora] and political events 
and to improve and interest posterity : Therefore be it enacted, etc. 

The persons named iu the act were gentlemen emi- 
nent for their learning and ability, who stood high in 
the confidence of the public ; there were, besides, the 
petitioners already mentioned, Levi Lincoln, Jr., 
Samuel M. Burnside, Francis Blake, Isaiah Thomas, 
Jr., of Worcester, aud Harrison G. Otis, Timothy 
Bigelow, John T. Kirkland, Josiah Quiney, Thaddeus 
M. Harris and others of Boston and vicinity. 

The first meeting of the corporators, called by an 
advertisement in the Massachusetts Spy, addressed to 
the "American Society of Antiquaries," was held at 
the Exchange Coffee-house, iu Boston, November 19, 
1812, ten gentlemen being present. At this meeting 
an organization was made by the choice of Isaiah 
Thomas as president ; William D. Peck, vice-presi- 
dent ; Thaddeus M. Harris and William Jenks, cor- 
responding secretaries ; and Samuel M. Burnside, re- 
cording secretary. Another meeting was held in 
February, 1813, at which by-laws were adopted, ami 
Dr. William Paine was chosen second vice-president; 
Levi Lincoln, Jr., treasurer ; and Timothy Bigelow 
of Medford, Aaron Bancroft and Edward Bangs pf 
Worcester, George Gibbs of Boston, William Bent- 
ley of Salem, Redford Webster and Benjamin Rus- 
sell of Boston, councilors. At this meeting the 
president, in accordance with a previous intimation, 

" Isaac Thomas. 



presented to the society his collection of books, " esti- 
mated at four thousand dollars, after making the 
usual deduction of twenty per cent, from the ap- 
praised value.'' 

The first anniversary of the founding of the society, 
being also the anniversary of the discovery of America 
by Columbus, took place at the Exchange Coffee- 
house in Boston, October 23, 1813. On this occasion 
an oration was delivered at the " Stone Chapel " by 
Rev. Professor William .Jinks, of Bath, Maine.' 

In 1817 active measures were taken to procure 
funds to defray the expense of erecting a building 
for the library and cabinet by appointing committees 
to solicit subscriptions. Some difficulty was experi- 
enced in the attempt to raise the necessary money to 
carry out the plana for building and it was not till 
early in 1819 that the society were relieved from their 
anxiety in the matter. At that time Mr. Thomas, 

ally at the Exchange Coffee-house, but occasionally 
at the Marlboro' Hotel, Tremont House and Concert 
Hall. At one of the early meetings it was voted 
"that as the capital of the commonwealth generally 
offers the best means of ascertaining the real charac- 
ter and standing of such persons as may be proposed 
for membership in this society, and as the society are 
desirous that the utmost circumspection should be 
used in the admission of members," etc. . . "that action 
on the nomination for membership should only take 
place at a meeting in the town of Boston." This 
vote was soon after repealed, and thereafter nomina- 
tions were made through the Council and acted upon 
at any regular meeting. 

In February, 1819, a ( imittee, appointed to pre- 

pare an address t" the members, setting forth the 
society's objects and conditions, declared the institu- 
tion to be, in all its concerns, national, although it 

OLD AM l'.'l Mil US 801 II. I J H M.l . 

the founder and president of the society, offered to 
build at his own expense a suitable edifice for the 
reception of its valuable collections. This offer was 
gratefully accepted and in August of that year a 
committee was appointed at the request of Mr. 
Thomas to superintend its erection. The building 
was, erected on Summer Street, in Worcester, was of 
brick, thoroughly built, and at the time, was con- 
sidered well adapted to the purposes for which it 
was intended. An address at the dedication was 
made by Isaac Goodwin, August 2-t, 1820, in the 
Second Parish Church (Rev. Dr. Bancroft's). Till 
1832 the annual meetings were held in Boston, usu- 

> At the fiftieth anniversary observed at Worcester in October, 1S63, Dr. 
.lenks, then of Boston, delivered an address on the "Duties of the 
American Antiquary," at which time only four of the original members 
of the society were living. 

derived its charter and its national appellation from 
the Legislature of Massachusetts. They say " This 
local authority was resorted to from doubts having 
been expressed whether Congress had the power to 
grant a charter without the District of Columbia. Its 
members are selected from all parts of the Onion. Its 
respectability is inferred from its numbers and from 
its comprising men of the first standing and intelli- 
gence in the nation, and some of the first distinction 
in other countries. The objects of this institution are 
commensurate with the lapse of time, and its benefits 
will be more aud more accumulating in the progres- 
sion of ages. . . . The chief objects of the inquiries 
and researches of this society, which cannot too soon 
arrest its attention, will be American Antiquities — na- 
tural, artificial and literary." 
The building on Summer Street having been found 



to be too small and too damp for the proper preserva- 
tion of the rapidly accumulating collections, the 
present hall on Main Street was built in 1853. It is 
favorably situated in a locality free from dampness and 
is believed to be substantially safe from tire, besides 
being much better adapted than the first to the purposes 
of the society, Owing, however, to the rapid increase 
of the library — particularly of the department de- 
voted to newspapers — it was found insufficient in size, 
and more space was soon required. The Hon. Stephen 
Salisbury, then the president, had anticipated this 
need, and presented a lot of land on Highland Street, 
in the rear of the building, and also provided funds 
for the erection of the addition, which was completed 
in January, 1878. 

affairs of the society (and which also usually treat 
upon some special topic of antiquarian study and re- 
search), papers from other members and discussions 
ot subjects of interest are always in order. 

The Hliiarv of the society, which now numbers over 
eighty thousand volumes, representing most depart- 
ments of literature, being especially rich in early 
American publications, is fully noticed in the chapter 
on libraries. The collection of manuscripts is large 
and of great value and interest, including some of a 
very early date. They are conveniently arranged for 
reference and partially catalogued so that they can 
now be consulted with comparatively little trouble. 
It is not practicable, in the brief limits of this notice, 
to describe with particularity any special department. 


Dr. Thomas, while president, had defrayed a large 
portion of the society's expenditures and begun the 
foundation of a permanent fund for its future support. 
At his death, in 1831, he bequeathed to the society 
the rest of his books, engravings, coins, etc., as well 
as money to constitute the Librarian's and the Collec- 
tion and Research Funds. These funds have gradu- 
ally increased and others have been founded for the 
support of various departments of the society's work. 
There are now twelve different funds, amounting in 
the aggregate to over one hundred thousand dollars, 
of which twenty thousand dollars was a bequest from 
Hon. Stephen Salisbury. 

Regular meetings of the society are held twice a 
year, the annual meeting for the choice of officers 
being held in October, in their hall, at Worcester, 
and the semi-annual meeting at Boston, in April, at 
the rooms of the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences. At these meetings, besides the regular re- 
ports of the council and librarian, upon the general 

Suffice it to say the society have reason to regard the 
manuscripts in their possession as not by any means 
the least valuable of their collections. There is a 
cabinet of Indian and archaeological specimens of 
great interest to the antiquary, especially those from 
Yucatan and Central America. 

The collection of engraved portraits, political broad- 
sides and caricatures is of interest and value, as is the 
cabinet of coins and medals. The walls of the society's 
halls are adorned with portraits of former officers and 
eminent men of the past. The society have published 
six volumes of transactions under the name of " Ar- 
chsologia Americana," which are devoted to archaeo- 
logical and historical subjects — volumes five and six 
being a reprint of Thomas' "History of Printing in 
America," from the edition of 1810, also containing a 
list of books printed in what is now the United States 
previous to 1776. Since 1849 the proceedings of the 
society at its annual and semi-annual meetings have 
been regularly printed, and include, besides the ordi- 



nary reports of the officers, valuable antiquarian and 
historical papers. The president of the society 
elected in October, 1888, is Stephen Salisbury, (Jr.); 
Vice-Presidents, George Bancroft, LL.D., George F. 
Hoar, LL.D.; Secretary of Foreign Correspondence, 
J. Hammond Trumbull, LL.D.; Secretary of Domes- 
tic Correspondence, Charles Deane, LL.D.; Record- 
ing Secretary, John D. Washburn ; Treasurer, Na- 
thaniel Paine; Librarian, Edmund M. Barton. By 
the provisions of the by-laws adopted in October, 1831, 
the number of American members of the society can 
at no time exceed o«e hundred and forty, but there 
is no limit to the number of foreign members. 

The Washington Benevolent Society of the 
County or Worcester. — One of the earliest tem- 
perance organizations in the county was instituted 
in Worcester,March 18, 1812, William Stedman being 
president, and Daniel Waldo, secretary. The cer- 
tificate of membership, signed by the president and 
secretary was inserted in a small 12mo volume 
entitled, " Washington's Farewell Address to the 
People of the United States. Published for the 
Worcester Washington Benevolent Society. Boston. 
Printed by Jos. T. Buckingham, Winter Street, 1812." 
The volume was embellished with a portrait of Wash- 
ington. This society, while of a charitable nature, 
was more especially interested in the cause of tem- 
perance, and in December, 1818, issued a circular 
signed by Nathaniel I'. Denny, Joseph Goffe, Daniel 
Waldo, Isaac Goodwin and Bezaleel Taft. The ob- 
ject of the circular was to set forth the evils arising 
from the distillation of grain in the State, and to sug- 
gest the propriety of petitioning Congress " to levy 
a tax on domestic spirits, so heavy as to afford a 
rational prospect of diminishing the consumption." 

The annual meeting of the society was held on the 
anniversary of the first inauguration of Washington 
as President of the United States, at which time an 
oration was delivered. Among the members who 
delivered orations were S. M. Burnside and John 
Davis. The organization was kept up till August, 
1830, when it was dissolved, and a committee recom- 
mended that the funds be transferred to the <: Wor- 
cester Agricultural Society ; " the record of its trans- 
actions was also presented to the same society. 

The Worcester Agricultural Society was in- 
corporated in February, 1818, and organized at a 
meeting held March 11th, by the choice of Levi 
Lincoln, Sr., president; Daniel Waldo and Thomas 
W. Ward, vice-presidents ; Theophilus Wheeler, 
treasurer; Levi Lincoln, Jr., corresponding secre- 
tary, and Abraham Lincoln, recording secretary. 

The first Cattle Show and exhibition of manufac- 
turers was held October 7, 1819, which appears from 
the records of the society to have been very success- 
ful ; the secretary's estimate, however, that " about 
two thousand attended the services in the meeting- 
house," must be taken with some grains of allowance. 
The pens for cattle, sheep and swine to number of 

sixty or more were erected on the northerly side of 
the Common, and the " household and the domestic 
manufactures were exhibited in a building kindly 
granted by Hon. Nathaniel Paine, and the specimens 
were numerous and excellent." The address (which is 
one of the features of the Cattle Show, retained to the 
present day) was delivered at the Old South Church 
by Levi Lincoln, Jr., who for so many years after was 
identified with the society. After the exercises in the 
church the society marched to Eager's Hotel, where a 
dinner was served to the members and invited guests. 
Another feature, which was inaugurated soon after, 
and which was in vogue for many years, was a grand 
ball in some public hall. In closing the records of the 
proceedings of their first exhibition, Edward D. Bangs, 
the secretary, says, " Thus passed a proud day for the 
County of Worcester. May many more such days be 
continued by the present and future generations. 
In 1852 the society purchased the land now occupied 
by them opposite Elm Park, and in September, ISA;',, 
held the first exibition there, when, for the first time 
in the history of the society, an admission fee was 
charged for non-members. The present building was 
erected and first occupied by the society for exhibi- 
tions in September, 1854. Of late years the annual lair 
or Cattle Shows have been often held at the society's 
grounds in connection with that of the New England 
Agricultural Society. The officers of the society for 
1888 were: J. L. Ellsworth, president; Calvin 1.. 
Hartshorn and Ledyard Hill, vice-presidents ; and L. 
F. Herrick, secretary and treasurer. 

The Fraternity of Odd-Fellows, a literary, 
not a secret society, was organized about the >car 
1820, as appears from a record of their proceedings 
at a meeting held in October, 1824, "it then being 
the fourth year of their oddity." At this meeting 
rules and regulations were adopted, which would 
seem to apply only to the use of a library. Among 
the members who were the most active and influen- 
tial men of the town may be mentioned the mimes 
of Emory Washburn, John Davis, Thomas Kinni- 
cutt, Isaac Davis, Isaac Goodwin, Stephen Salisbury, 
C. C. Baldwin, Henry and Gardiner Paine, .lames 
Green and William Lincoln. The fifth anniversary 
of the formation of the society was celebrated 1 >e- 
cember 8, 1824, at which time an oration and poem 
were delivered by members of the fraternity. In 
1827 the society celebrated the 4th of July with an 
oration by Thomas Kinnicutt and a poem by Richard 
H. Vose.' The society ceased to exist many years 
ago ; but there is no record of the date. 

The Worcester Lyceum ok Natural History. 
— From the manuscript records of this society, now 
in the possession of the Worcester Natural History 
Society, it appears that the first session was held 
January 1, 1825, William Lincoln, the early histo- 

1 In the chapter o 
notice of Ibis society. 

ill be found a more extended 



rian of Worcester, and Christopher C. Baldwin, libra- 
rian of the American Antiquarian Society, presented 
a form of constitution for consideration, which was 
adopted. The following paragraph from the pream- 
ble sets forth the objects of the society : "That scien- 
tific knowledge and human happiness are closely and 
intimately connected is a principle established by 
all experience. P'or the continued improvements in 
the arts we are indebted to the constant advances in 
sciences, medicine, manufactures, and the numerous 
processes of industry have derived their present per- 
fection from the investigations of the laws of nature. 
Botany and mineralogy have furnished to the physi- 
cian his most efficient arms and his most powerful 
antidotes to resist the attacks of disease ; they have 
given to the agriculturist and the artist the meaDs of 
conducting their operations with success," etc. 

After a page or two more of the preamble, follows 
the constitution itself, consisting of twelve sections 
and twenty-two articles. The first officers were Dr. 
John Green, president ; Dr. B. F. Heywood, vice- 
president ; Frederick William Paine, treasurer; Wil- 
liam Lincoln, recording secretary; C. C. Baldwin, 
corresponding secretary, and Charles Wheeler, libra- 
rian and cabinet-keeper. Among the members elected 
at the first meeting were John M. Earle, Clarendon 
Harris, George Allen and Samuel Jennison, the first 
named being soon after appointed curator of botany. 
The society appears to have held meetings from time 
to time till November 28, 1829, at which time the 
record stops. As no mention is made of this society 
in the "History of Worcester" by its accomplished 
secretary, we are led to suppose that the organization 
was not long kept up. 

The Worcester Lyceum. — In 1827 Mr. Josiah 
Holbrook (to whom the Massachusetts Spy gave the 
credit of establishing lvceums in this country) issued 
a seven-page pamphlet, entitled, " American Lyceum 
of Science and the Arts, composed of Associations for 
Mutual Instruction, and Designed for the General 
Diffusion of Useful and Practical Knowledge." It 
was printed in Worcester by Samuel H. Colton & 
Co., and contained articles for the government of 
societies or lyceums, to be formed in different towns 
as branches of an American Lyceum. These lvceums 
were designed to diffuse knowledge in all departments 
of science, to " procure books, apparatus for illus- 
trating the sciences, and collections of minerals or 
other articles of natural or artificial production." 
There were also " considerations " advanced to show 
the usefulness and advantages of such associations. 
It was probably at about this time that the Worcester 
County Lyceum was established, although the exact 
date cannot be ascertained. In October of 1829, how- 
ever, a meeting of this society was convened at Wor- 
cester to hear an address from Emory Washburn 
upon educational matters. At this meeting, presided 
over by John Davis, with Ira M. Barton as secretary, 
discussion was had upon our common-school system, 

also in relation to making maps and plans of tin 
towns in Worcester County. Mr. Holbrook was 
present and exhibited several maps, and stated his 
intention to present one to each Lyceum in the 
county. This meeting was attended by prominent 
citizens from various towns in the county, who dis- 
cussed, besides the matters above referred to, the ex- 
pediency of adopting measures to establish a public- 
library for the county, and a committee was appointed 
to devise a plan for such a library. This committee 
reported at an adjourned meeting, held at Thomas' 
Coflee-House, December 10, 1829, but it does not ap- 
pear that any decided action was taken. This may 
have been for the reason that in November of the 
same year the Worcester Lyceum was duly organized, 
on which occasion an introductory address was de- 
livered by Hon. John Davis, and some forty or fifty 
persons signed the constitution. It seems likely that 
the new society was made up very largely from the 
Worcester members of the Worcester County Branch 
of the American Lyceum, and it was represented in 
the meetings of the last named by delegates. Of the 
forty or fifty gentlemen who constituted the Worces- 
ter Lyceum in 1829-30, but six are now (1888) known 
to be living, viz., William S. Lincoln, Henry H. 
Chamberlin, George M. Rice, Henry W. Miller and 
Joseph Pratt, of Worcester, and Dr. John S. Butler, 
of Hartford. The first officers of the Lyceum were 
Rev. Jonathan Going, president; Anthony Chase, 
secretary, and an executive committee, consisting of 
Frederick W. Paine, Moses L. Morse, William Lin- 
coln, Ichabod Washburn and Thomas Chamberlin. 

The principal object of the Lyceum was to provide 
a course of lectures each year ; a circulating library 
for the use of purchasers of season tickets to the lec- 
tures was also established. During the earlier years 
of the Lyceum from eighteen to twenty lectures were 
given in each course, which extended from October to 
April ; later, six or eight only. The original price 
of tickets for the course was one dollar for persons 
over twenty-one years of age, seventy-five cents lor 
those between eighteen and twenty-one years, and 
fifty cents for those between the ages of twelve and 
eighteen. In the course for 1S39-40 there were 
twenty-two lectures given, of which fourteen were 
by citizens of Worcester, it being understood that the 
latter gentlemen were to receive no compensation for 
their services. A debating society was also formed, 
classes organized for study in various branches, ami 
chemical apparatus purchased. In 1855 the Lyceum 
transferred their library to the Young Men's Library 
Association, but still continued its course of lectures 
till, by an act of the Legislature, approved March 15, 
1850, it was fully merged into that association. 

Worcester County Historical Society. — This 
society was incorporated February 19, 1831, John 
Davis, Samuel Jennison, Isaac Goodwin, William 
Lincoln and Joseph Allen being the persons named 
in the act. In a circular issued by the society, the 



purpose of its formation was stated to be " collecting 
and preserving materials for a complete and minute 
history of the County of Worcester, . . . to ascertain 
those facts that will tend to develop the origin, ad- 
vancement and present state of our public institu- 
tions and social relations, the geographical limits and 
appearance of our territory," etc. 

This circular was sent to residents in the county, 
and called for such facts as might be in their posses- 
sion relative to the subjects of inquiry. John Davis 
was the first president and held the office for many 
years. In October, 1831, the centennial anniversary 
of the establishment of Worcester County was cele- 
brated by the Historical Society, an address being de- 
livered by John Davis. The society ceased to exist 
many years ago, but the exact date of its dissolution 
cannot now be ascertained. 

The Worcester County Athenaeum was estab- 
lished as a stock company in 1830, the shares being 
twenty-five dollars each ; and rules and regulations 
for its government were adopted December 16th of 
that year. The first board of officers consisted of 
Rev. (Jeorge Allen, president ; Rev. John Nelson, 
vice-president; Fred. W. Paine, treasurer, and Wil- 
liam Lincoln, secretary. The object of the society, 
as indicated by a subscription paper prepared for sig 
nature by those who were to become members, was to 
form a public library in the town of Worcester, to 
consist principally of such rare works in science and 
literature as were not usually found in private libra- 
ries. The Athenaeum bad a room in the second Btory 
of Dr. John Green's block on Main Street, opposite 
Central Street. In March, 1830, the library of the 
Worcester County Lyceum of Natural History was 
transferred to the Athena-uiu, and the same month 
the society was incorporated, and in April elected 
officers under the charter. After a few years the 
Athenaeum deposited its library in the hall of tin- 
American Antiquarian Society, and ceased to be an 
active corporation. 1 

Phrenological Society. 2 — Founded in May, 
1834. Dr. S. B. Woodward, of the State Lunatic 
Asylum, was elected president; Stephen Salisbury, 
vice-president; Isaiah Thomas, secretary; Dr. Wm. 
Paine, treasurer; and Dr. John Green, Dr. O. H. 
Blood and Christopher C. Baldwin, directors. Meet- 
ings were to be held monthly, and the object of the 
society was to investigate the science of phrenology 
and ascertain its nature and the foundation there 
may be for it in truth. One of the directors, in 
writing of the society, says of the first meeting for 
organization : " Like all new converts, we are full of 
fury and enthusiasm, and we may think ourselves 
fortunate if we escape being rank lunatics." The so- 
ciety probably existed but a short time, and but lit- 

l For notice of the library of the Athenfeum see chapter on libraries. 
-The information in regard to this society was obtained from the 
MS diary of C. U. Baldwin. 

tie can be found of its history. The immediate cause 
of its formation was probably the arrival in the United 
States of Spurzheim, the eminent Prussian phrenolo- 
gist, whose lectures in Boston and other cities attracted 
the attention of educated men to the science he so ably 

The Worcester County Horticultural So- 
ciety. — The first steps taken for its formation were 
in the fall of 1840, and on the 19th of September of 
the same year it was organized by the choice of Dr. 
John Green as president; Dr. S. B. Woodward and 
Stephen Salisbury, vice-presidents ; Benjamin Hey- 
wood, L. Lincoln Newton and J. C. B. Davis, record- 
ing secretaries; and William Lincoln and Dr. 
Joseph Sargent, corresponding secretaries. In May, 
1841, a constitution and by-laws, reported by William 
Lincoln, Stephen Salisbury and William N. Green, 
were adopted, and in March, 1842, the society was 
incorporated, and became one of the permanent in- 
stitutions of Worcester. In 18">0 the society pur- 
chased the lot of land < > ri Front Street now occupied 
by them, and began the erection of their hall, which 
was completed in time to hold an exhibition there in 
the fall of 1851. The first exhibition of fruits, 
flowers and vegetables was in 1840, at the time of the 
annua] Cattle Show, and was in the hall of the So- 
ciety of Friends, on Main Street, opposite the Waldo 
mansion. The exhibition was considered a great 
success, and for many years alter was given at the 
same time as that of the Agricultural Society. Of 
late years exhibitions have been given weekly, except 
during the winter months. 

The present officers of the society are : President, 
Henry L. Parker; Vice-Presidents, Stephen Salis- 
bury, George E. Francis and H. F. A. Lange; Secre- 
tary, Edward Winslow Lincoln; Treasurer and Libra- 
rian, Charles E. Brooks. There is a good library of 
some two thousand volumes, a notice of which will 
be found elsewhere. 

Worcester County Mechanics' Association. 
— The first meeting to consider the question of form- 
ing a society in the interests of the mechanics of 
Worcester was held at the town hall November 27, 
1841. This meeting was presided over by Ichabod 
Washburn (who afterwards became the benefactor of 
the association), and Albert Tolman was the secre- 
tary. The objects of the association were stated to 
be "the moral, intellectual and social improvement 
of its members, the perfection of the Mechanic Arts 
and the pecuniary assistance of the needy." A 
committee of fifteen, of which Anthony Chase was 
chairman, was appointed to prepare and report a 
plan for organization, and they reported at a subse- 
quent meeting, but were not fully agreed as to the 
qualifications of members. A constitution was, how- 
ever, adopted, which limited active membership to 
those engaged in some mechanical pursuits. An or- 
ganization was effected February 5, 1842, by the 
election of William A. Wheeler, president ; Ichabod 



Washburn, vice-president; Albert Tolman, secre- 
tary ; and E. G. Partridge, treasurer. The formation 
of a library for the use of members was early begun, 
and courses of lectures established ; for an account 
of the success of the first-named, reference is made 
to the chapter on libraries. The first lecture was 
given in February, 1842, by Elihu Burritt "the 
learned blacksmith," and in the same year a course 
of lectures on geology, by Dr. Charles T. Jackson, of 
Boston. Courses of lectures have since been given 
during the winter months with few exceptions, and 
for the last few years, owing to the great increase in 
the membership of the association, two courses are 
given each winter. In 1848 the first exhibition or 
fair was held, and there have been others held from 
time to time since. The association was incorporated 
in 1850, and authorized to hold $75,000 of real es- 
tate (afterwards increased to $200,000), and personal 
estate to the value of $25,000, since increased to 

The need of a building for the use of the associa- 
tion early became manifest, and in May, 1854, the 
offer of Ichabod Washburn to give $10,000 towards 
the purchase of land and the erection of a suitable 
building made it possible. By the aid of other sub- 
scriptions the association were enabled to purchase 
the lot of land on Main Street, formerly owned by 
Daniel Waldo, and to begin the erection of a build- 
ing, which was completed and dedicated with ap- 
propriate ceremonies in March, 1857. There are two 
halls in the building— the smaller one being called 
Washburn Hall, in honor of the first benefactor. 

Mechanics' Hall, then and now the largest in the 
city, has a seating capacity of about 2000, and 
has proved to be none too large for the public 
demands. In 1804 over 200 liberal-minded citizens 
subscribed about $0000 for the purchase of an organ, 
to be placed in Mechanics' Hall, and in the fall of 
that year the fine instrument now in the hall, made 
by Messrs. Hook, of Boston, was completed and ap- 
propriately dedicated. It has proved a most valuable 
addition, and has been largely instrumental in mak- 
ing successful the Musical Conventions yearly held 
in Worcester. 

In 1804 an Apprentices' Drawing School was 
formed, for instruction in mechanical and architec- 
tural drawing, which is said to be the first school of 
a like nature established in the country. 

A summer school for boys, under the auspices of 
the association, was opened at the Polytechnic Insti- 
tute, July 12, 1887, and has fully proved its useful- 
ness. A similar school had been conducted in the 
association building for some years previous. The 
officers for 1888-89 are Robert H. Chamberlain, 
president; Ellery B. Crane, vice-president; William 
A. Smith, clerk and treasurer. 

Very Reverend Father Mathew Mutual 
Benevolent Total Abstinence Society was or- 
ganized November 4, 1849, with Rev. M. W. Gibson 

as president, and incorporated in 1863, for the pur- 
pose of promoting the cause of temperance in Wor- 
cester. The immediate cause of its formation was 
the visit of Father Mathew to Worcester in October, 
1849, on invitation of the mayor and other prominent 
citizens. The officers of the society in 1888 were: 
Richard O'Flynn, president; William Brown, vice- 
president ; Timothy Murphy, treasurer; and John A. 
(iaivcy, secretary. 

Other temperance organizations are the St. John's 
Catholic Young Men's Temperance Guild, organized 
in 1883 ; Worcester Reform Club, organized in 1876; 
Woman's Christian Temperance Union (two societies), 
organized 1S74-7S; Worcester Temperance Club, or- 
ganized in 1878 ; Sons of Temperance (two divisions), 
organized 1865-82 ; Worcester Temple of Honor ; 
Slow But Sure Lodge of Good Templars; Helping- 
Hand Lodge; Worcester District Temple, No. 3, or- 
ganized in 1885; Stjeruan Lodge, No. 21, 0. ofT., or- 
ganized in 1SX4; Klippan Lodge, No. 43,0. of T., 
organized in 1885; Worcester Central Temperance 
League, organized in 1887 ; Daughters of the North, 
organized in 1880 ; and Sons and Daughters of Tem- 
perance Mutual Relief Association of Worcester 
County, organized in 1887. 

Worcester Natural History Society. — In 
August, 1852, a call was published in the Worcester 
Spy for "the young men connected with Unitarian, 
Second Advent, Universalist, Friends' and Free 
Churches and all interested, to meet at Waldo Hall, 
to consider the propriety of organizing a Young 
Men's Christian Association worthy of the name." 
This meeting was called to order by Rev. Edward E. 
Hale, then pastor of the Church of the Unity, and 
organized by the choice of George F. Hoar as chair- 
man and William Mecorney as secretary. It was re- 
solved at this meeting that the secretary take the 
names of those persons present who were favorably 
disposed to the formation of an organization for the 
benefit of the young men of Worcester, in which all 
the members should have equal rights and privileges. 
About fifty names were handed in to the secretary in 
response to this resolution. A committee was also 
appointed to confer with the Young Men's Christian 
Association, previously formed in the city, to ascer- 
tain if any change could be made to render possible 
a union of the associations. This committee after- 
wards reported, that in their opinion a union could 
be formed between the two associations upon some 
liberal principles, but that the committee of the 
Christian Association had not power to act in the 
matter, and they recommended that no further action 
be taken in regard to a union, but that a meeting of 
citizens generally be called to take measures to form 
a society. Pursuant to such a call, a meeting was 
held at Waldo Hall; William R. Hooper presiding 
and Henry Chapin acting as secretary, at which time 
a constitution and by-laws were adopted. The first 
clause of the constitution was as follows: "The name 



of the association shall be the Young Men's Library 
Association, and its object the improvement of the 
young men of the city of Worcester, by affording 
them intellectual and social advantages, by the main- 
tenance of a library, reading-room and such courses 
of lectures and classes as may conduce to that end." 
An arrangement was made by which the new associa- 
tion assumed the lease and took the rooms, which had 
been handsomely fitted op and occupied by the 
Young Men's Christian Association. In December, 
1852, the first election of officers took place, and 
Francis H. Dewey was chosen president; George W. 
Hently, vice-president; George F. Hoar, correspond- 
ing secretary ; Nathaniel Paine, recording secretary ; 
and Henry Woodward, treasurer. Fourteen directors 
were also elected. 

At a meeting held the 1st day of January, 1853, 
action was taken, which resulted in obtaining an ad 
of incorporation from the Legislature then in session, 
which was accepted by the association April 16, L858. 
Another election of officers was held, resulting in the 
choice of the same gentlemen elected in Decembei 
previous, and William Cross, Esq., as second vice- 
president. A subscription was started during the 
following year for the purpose of obtaining means to 
found a library ; subscriptions being received both in 

cash and books. Over thirteen hundred dollars in 
cash was contributed and eight hundred and sixty- 
seven volumes given by public-spirited citizens. 

The library was opened to the public June 18, L853, 
upon the payment of one dollar per year. A reading 
room was early established in connection with the 

library, and although quite | ly supplied with 

newspapers and periodicals when compared with the 

one now open to our citizens, was ,piite respect 

able, and freely consulted by the members. In 
1855 an agreement was made with the Young Men's 
Rhetorical Society, by which that society was merged 
into this; their library was placed in the rooms and 
they had the use of the hall for rhetorical exercises. 
By the conditions of this union either society could 

discontinue the arrangement, and the Rhetorical 

Society withdraw their books, provided it was done 
before January, 1856. In 1858, by mutual consent. 
the rhetorical department of the association was dis- 
continued, and the members thereof formed a new 
society. In 1856, by a special act of the Legislature, 
the Worcester Lyceum, established in 1829, was 
united to the library association, and by the same act 
the name was changed to 

Tue Worcester Lyceum axi> Library Asso- 
ciation. — In 1854-55 a Natural History Department 
was formed for the study of the natural sciences. 
which has now become the main work of the associa- 
tion. This was done at the annual meeting of the 
association, in April, 1854, at which a committee was 
appointed, who were authorized to make the neces- 
sary arrangements for the organization of such a de- 
partment. Prof. Louis Agassiz was invited by the 

committee to visit Worcester, and consult with them 
as to the best plan of operations, which invitation 
was accepted, and the 28th of April, 1854, he, with 
the committee, inspected the collection of specimens 
formerly owned by the Worcester Lyceum of Natural 
History. This collection was in the possession of 
the American Antiquarian Society, and they kindly 
gave it to the new department as the nucleus of a 

The organization of the department was effected 
by the election of Rev. E. E. Hale as chairman, W. 
E. Starr secretary, and James B. Blake treasurer. 
Mr. Blake held the office but a few weeks, when 
Henry A. Marsh was elected in his stead ; eight 
curators of departments were also elected. In the 
early part of the year 1856 another important and 
interesting event in the history of the association 
occurred: that of the generous proposition of Dr. 
John Green (then one of our oldest and most es- 
teemed physicians) to place bis valuable miscella- 
neous library in the charge of the association. 

Hon. George 1\ Hoar, then president of the asso- 
ciation, says in his annual report, " A contract has 
been entered into between Dr. Green and the ass.. 

ciation, by the terms of which, the books he has 
placed lone, with such additions a- he may see lit to 
make, are to remain in the Library, open to the free 
use of members, for at least live years, and longer if 
the arrangement shall he desired by both parties." 

In November, 1859, the sudden death of Mr. Gray, 
the librarian of the association, caused the calling a 

meeting of the directors to make arrangi mentis to fill 
the vacancy. I>r. Green's large interest in the ques- 
tion was acknowledged and appreciated, and a com- 
mittee was appointed to consult with him as to the 
besl course to pursue. At a meeting held the 26th 
of November the committee of consultation, con- 
sisting ol Dr. George Chandler, Alberl Tolman and 
T. W. Higginson, reported that Dr. Green bad ex- 
pressed a desire to present hi- library to the city of 

Worcester as a foundation of a lice public library, 
and they recommended that the library of the asso- 
ciation 1m- also transferred to the city, provided suita- 
ble appropriations and arrangements were made lor 
its reception. 

The gifts of Dr. Green and the association were ac- 
cepted by the City Council in December, L859, thus 
establishing an institution which has proved so ad- 
vantageous to our citizens. This final disposition of 
the library had long been hoped for by the more ac- 
tive members of the association, and its consumma- 
tion was the cause of great satisfaction. 1 The Nat- 
ural History Department and the winter course of 
lectures were now all that was left for the attention 
of members. The latter, however, was given up alter 
a few years. 

In the winter of 1806 the name of the society was 

1 For H lull notice of the library, s<-« the cbapter on llbreriaa 



again changed to the Worcester Lyceum and Natural 
History Association ; since which time the principal 
object of the association has been the study of nat- 
ural history and the collection of specimens for its 
cabinet. In 1880 the plan of giving instruction by 
means of free classes for the study of natural history- 
was inaugurated, and has been continued since with 
great success. During the winter season classes are 
formed, free to members of the association, in such 
branches of natural science ;is seem, from time to 
time, must important and attractive, meeting weekly 
as a rule, and instructed by thoroughly competent 
teachers. The courses include from ten to twenty 
lessons each, and are designed to exemplify the best 
methods of modern scientific study. In 1881 the 
plan of a three years' subscription for the "purpose 
of continuing and rendering more useful the work of 
the society, to provide a competent Custodian, to fur- 
nish lectures and gratuitous instruction for classes in 
Natural Science, and to promote the study of Nat- 
ural History," was carried into effect, and still con- 
tinues in successful operation, most of the original 
subscribers renewing and increasing their subscrip- 
tions when they have expired. 

Since 1882 the museum has been open daily, from 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m., free to all, — books, specimens and 
the help of the custodian are at the service of all in- 
quirers and students. A system of loans has been 
devised, by which the specimens can be loaned to 
teachers and schools and special students, in much 
the same way in which books are given out at the 
Public Library. By an act of the Legislature, ap- 
proved March (!, 1884. the name was changed to the 
present one, " The Worcester Natural History So- 

In the same year a tract of land of between thirty 
and forty acres was secured on the west shore of 
Lake Quinsigamond, and was called Natural History 
Park. In the summer of 1885 the first "Summer 
Camp for Hoys" was established there. The object 
of the Natural History Society in establishing this 
camp is to afford a pleasant and profitable place for 
boys to spend a part or the whole of their summer 
vacation. January 22, 1887, Mr. Thomas H. Dodge 
gave one thousand dollars for the purchase of tents 
and the building of a permanent structure, known as 
the " Dodge Pavilion," at the Park. Mr. and Mis. 
Dodge afterwards added some five hundred dollars 
more toward the building and painting of the pa- 

In 1888 Mr. Joseph H. Walker gave five thousand 
dollars to enable the society to secure a perfect title to 
the land. In the same year, through the efforts of 
Mr. H. H. Bigelow, a workshop, well stocked with 
tools, was built. The lumber and tools were con- 
tributed by the lumber dealers and the hardware 
merchants of the city. The summer school has 
proved a success, and may now be considered one of 
the established institutions of our city. Dr. W. H. 

Kaymenton has been the efficient president of the 
society since 1880, and to his untiring and enthusi- 
astic efforts is largely due its recent rapid develop- 
ment ami present flourishing condition. 

The Yodnq Mux's Christian Association was 
originally organized March 0, 18~>2, the first steps for 
its formation being taken at a meeting held at the 
Old South Church, February 20th of the same year. 
Thomas Tucker (landlord of the American Temper- 
ance House) was the Bret president, with Nelson 
Wheeler (principal of the High School), P. 1.. Moen 
and S. A. Daniels, vice-presidents; A. G. Ward, sec- 
retary, and C. M. Miles, treasurer. The association 
occupied a finely-furnished room in the Worcester 
Bank Block on Foster Street, where a reading-room 
was established. The formation of the Young Men's 
Library Association the same year, with similar ob- 
jects in view, seems to have been the cause of the 
Christian Association giving up their active organi- 
zation soon after, and their room was taken by the 
Library Association. In June, 1804, the Christian 
Association was revived, or a new association formed, 
at a meeting held at the Lincoln House, and it was 
duly organized July 12th of the same year. The first 
president of this new association was Fred. A. Clapp. 
All the officers were selected from the evangelical 
churches of the city, and it has since continued one 
of the most active institutions of Worcester. In 
June, 1868, the association was incorporated by a 
special act of the Legislature, and soon after steps 
were taken looking to the erection of a building. It 
was not till nearly twenty years after, however, that 
much was accomplished in this direction. In October 
1885, a determined effort was made to raise the neces- 
sary funds for the purchase of land and erection of a 
building, which resulted in obtaining subscriptions 
from citizens of all the Protestant denominations to 
the amount of over ninety thousand dollars, making, 
with a fund previously given, about ninety-six thou- 
sand dollars. Early in 1886 a building committee, of 
which Albert Curtis was chairman, purchased a lot of 
land, between Elm and Pearl Streets, and the erection 
of the building was begun. The corner-stone was 
laid with appropriate ceremonies August 27, 1886, 
the principal address on that occasion being given by 
I >. L. Moody. The building was completed in 1887, 
and dedicated in October of that year, the dedicatory 
address being given by the Rev. A. J. Gordon, of Bos- 
ton. The cost of the land, building, furniture and 
equipment has been about one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars. 

The object of the association is the spiritual, intel- 
lectual, social and physical welfare of young men, to 
be accomplished by religious meetings, classes in 
German, book-keeping and other branches of educa- 
tion, lectures, and the use of a finely-equipped gym- 
nasium, and rooms tor social gatherings. 

The association has a membership of from thirteen 
to fourteen hundred, and after nearly a quarter of a 



century of active work has proved itself one of the 
most valuable and successful institutions of our city. 
The present officers are: W. A. Denholm, president ; 
C. F. Rugg and William Woodward, vice-presidents; 
George F. Brooks, recording secretary, and Arthur E. 
Dennis, treasurer. 

Worcester Society of Antiquity. — The pre- 
liminary meeting for the formation of this society 
was held at the residence of Samuel E. Staples in 
January, 1875. A constitution was adopted and the 
society organized February 13th, at a meeting held 
at the printing office of Tyler .V Seagrave. The first 
board of officers, elected at the meeting, were .Samuel 

E. Staples, president; Henry D. Barber, vice-presi- 
dent; Daniel Seagrave, secretary; Henry F. Sted- 
man, treasurer; and John <i. Smith, librarian. The 
object of the society, as stated in its constitution, 
was "to foster in its members a love and admiration 
for antiquarian research and archaeological science, 
and to rescue from oblivion such historical matter as 
would otherwise be lost." Meetings are held month- 
ly, except in the month of August, at which valuable 
and interesting historical or antiquarian papers are 
presented. The society was incorporated in Febru- 
ary, 1877, and has become one of the prominent in- 
stitutions of the city. It has a valuable miscella- 
neous library, which is spoken of elsewhere. Since 
its formation seven volumes of proceedings have 
been published, containing many valuable historical 
papers. Among the publications of special local in- 
terest contained in these volumes maybe mentioned: 
"The Records of the Proprietors, 1667-1778;" 
" Town records from 1722 to 1783;" and the "Rec- 
ords of the Court of General Sessions of the I'eace, 
1731 to 1737," copied from the original manuscripts, 
for the preservation of which, in printed form, the 
society is deserving of high commendation. The 
officers of the society, elected in December, 1888, 
were: For President, E. B. Crane; Vice-Presidents, 
Albert Tolman and George Sumner; Secretary, W. 

F. Abbot; Treasurer, 11. F. Stedman; Librarian, 
Thomas A. Dickinson. 

The Worcester Aim Society. The first steps 
in the formation of this society were taken at a pub- 
lic meeting held at the Hoard of Trade rooms, April 
lti, 1877. The meeting was called " to consider the 
expediency of forming an association to promote the 
study of art in Worcester," and a committee, con- 
sisting of Stephen C. Earle, Burton W. Potter, 
Henry Woodward, Nathaniel Paine and Edward L. 
Davis, were appointed to consider the subject, and 
report a plan of organization. This committee re- 
ported in October of the same year, at a meeting pre- 
sided over by Lucius J. Knowles, that it was expe- 
dient to form such an association. They also pre- 
sented a draft for a constitution and by-laws, which 
were adopted November 27, 1877, at which time the 
first board of officers was chosen as follows : Presi- 
dent, George F. Hoar; Vice-Presidents, L. J. 

Knowles, Edward H. Hall and C. M. Lamson ; Sec- 
retary, Rebecca Jones ; Treasurer, Joseph E. Davis ; 
Directors, Charles O. Thomson, Stephen C. Earle, B. 
W. Potter, Mrs. P. L. Moen and Mrs. Joseph H. 
Walker. It was early determined that one of the 
best methods of effecting the objects desired was to 
have an exhibition of paintings, and in March, 1878, 
the first exhibition was opened at the Board of Trade 
rooms, in Taylor's Block, opposite the Common. 
Over seventy oil and water-color paintings were 
loaned by members and others interested in art, 
which proved to be very successful, and several other 
exhibitions of a similar nature have since been given 
including, besides paintings, etchings, photographs 
and bric-a-brac. Later, lectures were given by spe- 
cialists in different branches of the line arts and by 
members of the society. Lectures have been given 
since, during the winter months, most of which have 
been illustrated by stereopticon views, and have 
proved of value to those who were present. Advan- 
tage has also l.een taken from time to time of the 
valuable collections of photographs and other art 
illustrations at the Free Public Library, and interest- 
ing meetings have been held there. In December, 
1887, tin' society was incorporated under the general 
law of the State and elected the following board of 
officers: President, Nathaniel Paine; Vice-Presi- 
dents, Samuel S. Green and Charles A. Chase; 
Treasurer, Edward B. Hamilton; Clerk, John G. 
Hey wood; Directors, Philip L. Moen, Jonas G. 
Clark. Henry A. Marsh, Burton W. I 'otter and Wil- 
liam T. Harlow; Advisory Committee, Austin S. 

Garver, Charles S. Hale. Alexander II. Vinton, Ed- 
ward B. Glasgow, Mrs. Helen I'.. Merriman, Mrs. 
charlotte F. \V. Buffington, Miss Emily W. Sargent 
and Miss Mary N. Perley. 1 

The Aim Sti di ht's Cli b was organized in 1880, 
incorporated in 1887 and is composed of artists and 
art students of Worcester and vicinity, its object be- 
ing " the encouragement, promotion and practice of 
Art," and no one is eligible as an active member who 
is not a student in some branch of art. Two public 
exhibitions are held each year of the works of mem- 
bers, which have proved to he very attractive to the 
citizens of Worcester and a credit to the club. The 
improvement in the work of members is very marked 
from year to year, as shown by these public exhibi- 
tions. Monthly meetings are also held, at which 
active members are expected to furnish for inspection 
at least one original drawing or design. George E. 
Gladwin is president, Abbie J. Trask, clerk, and 
Frank E. Higgins, treasurer. 

MUSICAL Societies.— The earliest musical society 
in Worcester, of which any reliable record is to he 

1 At the annual meeting in November, 1888, the same board ..f 
officers were Chosen, with the exception that Edward B. Glasgow was 
electedas clerk in place of John G. Heywood, who m nude one or the 
advisory committee, and William K. Rice v.a» elected a director in 
place ..f II A Marsh, resigned. 



found, was the Worcester Harmonic Society. The 
exact date of its formation cannot now he ascertained, 
but it was in existence as early as 1825, at which 
time Emory Perry was president and Henry W. Mil- 
ler, secretary ; audio October, 1826, the society gave 
an oratorio at the Old South Church. This society 
also furnished the music at the Fourth of July cele- 
bration in the last-named year, on which occasion 
Hon. Charles Allen delivered an oration. The society 
continued in existence for several years, occasionally 
giving concerts, and often furnishing the music on 
public occasions. 1 

In 1845 the Worcester Sacred Musical Society was 
formed, with Kufus D. Dunbar as president, and the 
next year gave a miscellaneous concert in Brinley 
(now Grand Army) Hall, and mention is made in the 
newspapers of a concert given iu the spring of the 
following year. It is probable that this society was 
in existence only two or three years. 

In September, 1850, the Worcester Mozart Society, 
the first regularly-organized association for musical 
culture, was formed, with Putnam W. Taft as presi- 
dent and Albert L. Benchley, vice-president. This 
society continued in active existence till November, 
1866, when it was united with the Beethoven Society, 
formed in 1864, with Austin L. Rogers, president. 
The name after the union was the Worcester Mozart 
and Beethoven Choral Union, the lirsl president be- 
ing Edward Hamilton, William Sumner, vice-presi- 
dent, and Carl Zerrahn, conductor. The society was 
incorporated in 1872, by a special act of the Legisla- 
ture, as the Worcester Choral Union, and I. N. Met- 
calf was chosen president, J. A. Titus, vice-president, 
and B. D. Allen, conductor. 

The present Worcester County Musical Association 
was organized at a meeting held in Mechanics' Hal^ 
October 2, 1863, with Samuel E. Staples, president, 
and a board of directors selected from various towns 
in the county. The object of the association is stated 
in its by-laws, " the improvement of choirs in the 
performance of church music ; the formation of an 
elevated musical taste, through the study of music in 
its highest departments; and a social, genial, harmo- 
nious reunion of all lovers of music." The name 
under which it was originally known was the Wor- 
cester County Musical Convention,' and this name 
was retained till the adoption of the present one in 
1871, at which time it was also voted to call the an- 
nual gatherings Musical Festivals. Since 1865 an- 
nual sessions of the Association have been held, at 
which oratorios of Handel, Haydn and Mendelssohn, 
also the best productions of Rossini, Gounod, Verdi 

1 In 1815 there was a musical society in the county called tin' old 
Hundred Musical Society, which gave a concert at. Hopkinton, Mass., 
that year, and it is quite probable that some of the Worcester musicians 
and singers were members of it. 

- A successful convention uuder the direction of Edward Hamilton 
and B. F. Baker, in 1858, was held uuder the name of the Musical In- 

and others, have been given. The annual festivals 
of the Association have been constantly growing 
more popular, and it now has a prestige and a pros- 
perity not equaled by any similar one in the country. 
The number in attendance increases yearly, and its 
patrons are not only front Worcester County and the 
State of Massachusetts, but lovers of music from both 
the New England and Middle States. Soloists front 
all parts of Europe, as well as of our own country, are 
procured, with the best available orchestral accompa- 
niment, and a local chorus which has won well-de- 
served commendation from lite best musical critics. 
The Hoard of Government for 1888 was Edward L. 
Davis, president; William Sumner, vice-president ; 
A. C. Monroe, secretary; J. E. Benchley, treasurer; 
and eight directors — B. 1). Allen, C. M. Bent, Charles 
I. Rice, .1. 0- Adams, Daniel Downey, L. M. Lovell, 
!'.('. Stearns, of Worcester, and II. L, M. Smith, of 

If space would permit, it would be of interest to 
speak in detail of other musical societies that have 
existed in Worcester, but mention can be made only 
of the Hamilton Club, named in honor of Edward 
Hamilton, for many years the leading singer of Wor- 
cester; the Schumann Club, organized in 1877; the 
singing society Frohsinn, organized in 1858, with 
G. A. Patz, musical director, and Benjamin Xaeder, 
secretary, — William Lichtenfels is now the president 
and Heiorich Bayerle, secretary ; the (Jounod Club, 
organized in 1886 ; the president is Henry F. Harris ; 
Secretary, Josiah A. Rice ; and Musical Director, E. 
N. Anderson. 

High School Societies. — The High School As- 
sociation was established in May, 1886, its object 
being "to renew and maintain school friendships, 
and to contribute in all practicable ways to the good 
of the school." A meeting of about thirty old mem- 
bers of the school had been held the previous month, 
at which a committee, with A. S. Roe, the principal 
of the school, as chairman, was appointed to prepare 
a plan of organization, and they reported May 24, 
1886, a code of by-laws, which was adopted. Samuel 
S. Green was chosen the first president, and the first 
meeting of the association after its organization took 
place at the High School building, the occasion being 
the graduation exercises of the Senior class for that 
year. The members consist of the pupils and teachers 
in the school previous to September, 1865, and all 
graduates and teachers since that date. The privi- 
lege was also extended to all pupils and teachers of 
the Boys' Latin School and the Girls' High School — 
two schools merged into the present High School. 
The association now numbers nearly eight hundred 
members; the president is Edward L. Davis; A. S. 
Roe, secretary, and J. S. Brown, treasurer. 

Other High School societies, which are literary in 
their character, are the Eucleia Debating Society, 
founded in 1858, and composed of young gentlemen ; 
the Aletheia Club, founded in 1881, and composed of 



young ladies ; the Sumner Club, founded in 1883, and 
the Assembly, founded in 1885, the two last named 
having male members only. There is also an Ath- 
letic Association, made up of members of the school 
who are interested in athletic games and amuse- 

The Congregational Club was organized in 
January, 1875, its purpose being "to encourage 
among the members of the Congregational Churches 
and societies of Worcester County a more intimate 
acquaintance; to more concert of action, and to pro- 
mole the general interests of Congregationalism.' 1 
Meetings are held six times a year, at which papers 
are read upon some special topic and discussions fol- 
low. Occasionally the meetings are of a distinctivi 
social nature, and are participated in by both ladies 
and gentlemen. Rev. A. II. Coolidge, of Leicester, is 

The Brigade Cn b, originally composed of the offi- 
cers of Third Brigade (Ma^s.) Volunteer Militia, and 
officers who had served in the army or militia, was ui 
ganized in December, 187H. Gen.Josiah Pickett was 
chosen president, and still holds thai office. ' len. R. M. 
Chamberlain was chosen vice-president, and ('apt 
Charles S. Chapin secretary and treasurer. Th< 
membership of the club has changed Bomewhat in 

the past few years and is not confined to militan 

The Commonwealth Club, organized in L880 
and incorporated in 1881, comprises man} of the 

active business and professional men of the city, and 
is social in its objects. The elnli have commodious 
and pleasant rooms on 1'osler Street, with a reading 
room, billiard-room and other conveniences for the 
use of members, and it has proved successful in pro- 
viding a pleasant place of resort tor man;, ol our citi- 
zens. William J. Hogg is president, H. A. Curriei 
secretary, and 1,. Delavan Thayer treasurer. 

The Worcester Club, incorporated in I 
strictly a social club, with a membership limited to 
one hundred and fifty. It has purchased and fitted 
up in an elegant manner a fine house on Elm Street 
formerly the residence of the late Hon. Isaac Davis, 
and oilers many attractions to its members. Excel- 
lent meals, well-served, are furnished to members and 

friends; there is also a dining-room for ladies which 
has proved very popular. A reading-room, library, 
billiard and pool-room, and other conveniences, arc 
provided for its members, who consist of prominent 
professional and mercantile gentlemen of Worcesti 
and vicinity. Hon. Ceorge F. Hoar is the president : 
Charles F. Aldrich, secretary; and James P. Hamil- 
ton, treasurer. 

Boat clubs, and clubs composed of lovers of othei 
athletic sports, are numerous, but want of space will 
prevent detailed notices of them. 

The first regularly-organized boat club in Worces- 
ter of which any record has been found is the Ata- 
i.axta Cluis, established in 1859, and commenced 

boating at Curtis' Pond, near Webster Square, soon 
after moving to Lake Quinsigamond, where they were 
the pioneers of systematic boating. The members of 
the club also had an active part in the arrangements 
for the first college regatta at the lake, in the summer 
of 1859. This club gave up active boating in 1865, 
but kept up their organization for several years alter. 
The present Qi lnsig lmond BoatClub was organ- 
ized as the Phantom Club in I860, but soon after 
adopted their present name. It is still an active 
organization, having tine grounds on the west side of 
the lake, where they have erected a handsome club- 
house and a commodious boat-house, in which they 
have a number of racing and pleasure boats, 

The Lakeside Boai Cli b also occupy a fine club 
and boat-house on the west side of the lake. 

There are other organizations for athletic sports, 
connected with the Worcester Academy, the Polytech- 
nic Institute, and College of the Holy ( 'ross. Brief 

mention may be made of the Book Clubs now so 

numerous in the city. 

rhese clubs are formed for the circulation of books 

ami periodicals among their members, and usually 

consist of fr twenty to thirty ladies and gentlemen. 

The first organization of this kind in Worcester, and 
the third in the State, is the Worn esteb Book Club, 
established in 1839, and still nourishing. The next 
was the Review Club, formed in 1847, followed soon 

after by the WORCESTER READING t'l.Mi. and later 

h\ several others, among which are Book Cli bNo. i, 
Waverly, Rialto and Websteb Sqi are Clubs. 
Masonic Societies. The institution of Free 

Masonry was established iii Worcester in the year 

L793, the first lodge chartered being I he Morning 

Star." in the spring of that year Isaiah Thomas 
("The 1 'a trio i Printer of the Revolution "), Nathaniel 
Paine, Nathaniel Chandler, John Stanton, Ephraim 
Mower, Clark Chandler. Samuel Chandler, Charles 

Chandler. Benjamin Andrews, Joseph Toney, John 
White. Samuel Blazer. John StOWers and Samuel 
Flagg petitioned the Grand Lodge for a (barter, 
which was granted under the above name April 19, 

1793, and the first board of officers was installed in 
June of the same year. They were: Isaiah Thomas, 
W. M.; Xathanial Paine. S. W. ; and Samuel Chan- 
dler, J. W. On the occasion of the installation Rev. 
Aaron Bancroft, pastor of the Second Parish (Uni- 
tarian i in Worcester, delivered an oration, which was 
printed by Isaiah Thomas. The year before Thomas 
had printed "The Constitution of the Ancient and 
Honorable Fraternity of Free and Accepted .Masons. 
&C. To which arc added, The history of Masonry in 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Ac. . . . To- 
gether with a large collection of songs, epilogues, &c" 
The volume is dedicated " To our illustrious Brother, 
George Washington, the friend of Masonry, of his 
country, and of man." It is a well printed volume 
of two hundred and eighty-eight pages quarto, with a 
copper-plate frontispiece. The early meetings of the 


lodge were held :it Mower's Tavern, which was at the 
corner of Main and Mechanic Streets, afterwards the 
site of the United States Hotel, and now that of the 
Walker Building. Later the meetings were held at 
the United States Arms (where the Exchange Hotel 
now is), the landlord being Colonel Reuben Sikes. 
Meetings of the Morning Star Lodge were held with 
regularity, and il was in a flourishing condition till 
the time of the anti-Masonic excitement in L829-30 
when it became dormant for several years, as did tin 
Masonic organizations generally. It was reorganized 
in March, 1842, with the following officers: Korac* 
Chenery, W. M.; Henry Earl, S. W. ; Asa Walker. 
J. M. ; and Pliny Holbrook, secretary. Meeting? 
were then held in a small hall in the upper story ol 
Dr. John Green's block, on Main Street, now owned 
by the Merchants' and Farmers' Mutual Fire Insu- 
rance Company. The lodge, which is now in a pros- 
perous condition and numbering over three hundred 
members, has its meetings in Masonic Hall on Pear; 

Montacute Lodge was chartered June 9, L859, its 
members coming largely from the older lodge. Its 
first Master was William A. Smith, followed in 1860 
by George W. Bently. Among the early members ol 
the Montacute Lodge were Henry Goddard, Seth P. 
Miller, Lyman Brooks, John Firth, H. M. Witter 
and John A. Dana, It now has a membership <>l 
three hundred and sixty-six, with Joseph H. Dunker- 
ton as Master. 

Athelestan Lodge was chartered June 13, 1866, its 
members being taken from the other two lodges. The 
first Past Master was Henry Goddard; the present 
Master is F. A. Harrington. This lodge has a mem- 
bership of about three hundred. Among the origi- 
nal charter members were Samuel T. Bigelow, James 
L. Burbank, David Scott, A. Y. Thompson, E. P. 
Woodward, L. B. Nichols, John D. Washburn and 
Geo. W. Bently. 

Quinsigamond Lodge, chartered September 13,1871, 
has a membership of about one hundred. The pres- 
ent Master is Edward B. Dolliver. 

Worcester Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, oiganized 
in June and chartered in October, 1823, had among 
its original members Isaiah Thomas, James Wilson, 
Jonathan Going, Otis Corbett, Ephraim Mower and 
Benjamin Chapin, the last-named being the first 
High Priest, serving four years. During the anti- 
Masonic excitement this chapter, like other organi- 
zations of the order, remained in a quiescent state, 
but in 1846 became again active and is now in a pros- 
perous condition, having a membership of two hun- 
dred and thirty-four. The present presiding officer is 
.lames H. Harrison. 

Eureka Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, was instituted 

in 1870 and has a membership of over three hundred. 

The first High Priest was Rev. T. E. St. John ; the 

present one is Forest E. Barker. 

Hiram Council, R. & S. M., was chartered in Sut- 

ton December 13, 1S20, and it was removed to Wor- 
cester in 1858. The lirst presiding officer after the 
removal to Worcester was Geo. W. Bentley ; the pres 
eni presiding officer is S. L.Shaffer. This council, 
(he largest subordinate one in the United States, has 
now a membership of over live hundred. 

Worcester County Commandery of Knights Templar 
was organized in Holden, Mass., and chartered in 
June, 1825. The first Commander was .lames F.sta- 
brook, the present one being George B. Buckingham. 
In the year 1845 the headquarters of the commandery 
were removed to Worcester, where it has since 
remained and is now one of the most prosperous of 
its grade in the jurisdiction of Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island, numbering over four hundred mem- 

Ancient oml Acceptable Scottish Rite. — The following 
grades of this rite are established in Worcester under 
the jurisdiction of the Supreme Council 33° Northern 
Masonic Jurisdiction of the United States, and are in 
a prosperous condition. 

Worcester Lodge of Perfection, A. and A., Scottish 
Rite 4° to the 14°, was instituted September 3d, 1863, 
and has a membership of two hundred and fifty. Its 
presiding officer at the present time is Geo. F. 

Goddard Council, Princes of .Jerusalem, A. awl A., 
Scottish Rile. 15 and 16°, was instituted June 17, 
1870, and has a membership of one hundred and 
seventy. Its presiding officer at the present time is 
( !eo. M. Kice, 2d. 

Lawrence Chapter of /lose Croix, A. and A., Scottish 
Rite, 17° to the 18°, was instituted June 17, 1870, and 
has a membership of one hundred and seventy. Its 
presiding officers have been, Rev. Thomas E. St. John, 
Henry C. Wilson, Francis Brick, M.D., and George 
B. Buckingham, now in office. 

The Masonic Board of Directors was organized in 
January, 1867; has in charge the lease of Masonic 
Hall, and the custody of its appointments and prop- 

The Masonic Mutual Relief Association of Central 
Massachusetts was organized in 1873. It has a mem- 
bership of more than twenty-three hundred. Josiah 
Picket is president and Win, A. Smith, secretary. Its 
membership is confined to the Masonic fraternity, 
and are mostly residents of the New England States. 
Stella Chapter, No. 3, Order of the Eastern Star, was 
organized in 1871. Its members, numbering about 
three hundred, are composed of Masons and their 
wives, mothers, sisters and daughters. 

The Grand Chapter of the Order, organized in 1876, 
has twenty subordinates in its jurisdiction. N. W. 
Farrer, Easthampton, is Grand Patron; Mrs. J. A. 
Crane, Millbury, Grand Matron ; and Daniel Sea- 
grave, Worcester, Grand Secretary. For the fads in 
this noticeof the Masonic societies, the writer acknowl- 
edges his indebtedness to Daniel Seagrave, of Wor- 



Order or Odd Fellows. 1 — In the early part of the 
year 1844, Joseph W. Coburn, of Boston, who was the 
contractor for building the stone courthouse in 
Worcester, had among his employes four men who 
were " Odd Fellows," and finding no lodge in the 
town, they took steps toward the formation of one. 
Samuel S. Leonard and George C. Taft, of Worcester, 
became members of Siloam Lodge, No. 2, of Boston, 
and they, with the four men before spoken of, peti- 
tioned the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts for a char- 
ter, and May 1, 1844, (Juinsigamond Lodge, No. 43, 
was instituted, and held its first meetings in the old 
Masonic Hall, over what is now the Five Cent Savings 
Bank. The elective officers of Quinsigamond Lodge 
for its first term were, James Murray, Noble Grand ; 
John F. Locke, Vice-Grand; George C. Taft, Secre- 
tary; Samuel S. Leonard, Treasurer. Freeman II 
Pelton is the present Noble Grand and Herbert Wes- 
ley, Vice-Grand. Present number of members, fiv< 
hundred and seventy. 

Worcester Lodge, No. 56, was instituted December 
20, 1844. The elective officers for its first term wen 
Samuel S. Leonard, Noble Grand; George 11. Good- 
now, Vice-Grand; Geo. C. Taft, Secretary; William 
Greenleaf, Treasurer; (ieo. Hamilton, Per. Secretary 
James H.Richardson is now the Noble Grand and 
Wm. B. Louney, Vice-Grand. Whole number oJ 
members, four hundred and twenty-five. 

Central Lodge, No. 168, was instituted September 17. 
1874. Its first presiding officer was, Nathan Taylor. 
Noble Grand. Its present Noble Grand is John E 
Lloyd. Present number of members, three hundred 
and ten. 

Ridgelg Lodge, No. 112, was instituted September 
19, 1882. Its first presiding officer was L. A. Wil- 
liams; the present one is F. A. Quimby, and it has a 
membership of two hundred and twelve. 

Anchoria Lodge, No. 112, was instituted March 31, 
1887. Its first Noble Grand was Charles A. McFar 
land. Its present presiding officer is John F. Brierly, 
and it has a membership of eighty. 

Naomi Lodge, No. 18, Daughter* <;/' Rebekah, was 
instituted June 27, 1872. Officers for the first term, 
Horace A. Richardson, N'oble Grand ; Hannah S. 
Rice, Vice-Grand; Sarah F. Church, Rec. Secretary ; 
Julia A. Taylor, Per. Secretary, and Cynthia A. Had 
ley, Treasurer. Present Noble Grand, Emma < '. .Mar 
den. Present number of members, four hundred and 

Queen. Esther Lodge, No. 33, Daughters of Rebekah, 
was instituted March 24, 1881. Its first presiding 
officer was Lewis C. Stone. Augusta J. Hubbard is 
the present Noble Grand, and it has two hundred and 
ten members. 

Wachuset Encampment , No. 10, was instituted .May 
16, 1845, with Albert Case as Chief Patriarch ; B. H. 
Davis, High Priest; Samuel S. Leonard, Senior War- 

i Prepared by Munder A. Uaynard. 

den, and I). C. Thurston, Junior Warden. It surren- 
dered its charter January 23, 1851, and was re-insti- 
tuted October 20, 1869. Theo. H. Day is now Chief 
Patriarch and ('. H. Hutchinson, High Priest. It has 
a membership of two hundred and ninety-five. 

Mount Vernon Encampment, No. 53, instituted Sep- 
tember 27, 1877, with Asa L. Burbank, Chief Patri- 
arch. Daniel A. Harrington is now Chief Patriarch, 
and the number of members is two hundred and forty- 

Odd Fellowt' Mutual Benefit Association of Worcester 
County was organized October 13, 1871; incorpor- 
ated October 15, 1877. S. V. Stone was the first 
president, and Nathan Taylor now holds the office. 
Present number of members, thirteen hundred, with 
a fund of fourteen thousand dollars. 
Other secret societies are: 

The I). 0. 11. Einigkeit Lodge (Germans), instituted 

Knights of Pythias, instituted 1*71-78 (various 

Catholic Order of Foresters (various divisions), 

Sons of St. i leorge, l><72. 

Patrons of Husbandry, 1873. 

Knights of Honor (two lodges), 1885 

Royal Arcanum (two councils), 1877. 

Knights oi Labor, I 878 

Knights of Father Matthew, 1879. 

Improved Order of Red Men, 1880. 

I ' n i ted Order of the Golden Cross, 1880 

Independent Order of Mystic Brothers, 1881. 

t »rder <>r United Friends, 1881. 

Daughters of St. George, 1882. 

1 nited Order of Independent Daughters of Sama- 
ria, L887. 

Ancient Order of United Workmen. 1885. 

Iron Hall, Branch No. 396, 1886. 

Iron Mall Sisterhood, No. 601, 1887. 

Ancient Order of Foresters. 

Hay State Lodge, Knights of Honor. 

U. O. of Independent Odd Ladies (three lodges), 


Independent Order of Good Templars. 

Supreme Council of Knights of the American Eagle. 

Daughters of Pocahontas, Minnehaha < touncil. 

Order of United Friends, 1881. 

American Legion of Honor, Hope ( ouncil. 

( Infer oi Pythian Sisterhood, ( trder of the Star ami 

There are many other societies and associations 
which undoubtedly deserve special mention, whose 
names do not appear in the foregoing account, and 
the writer regrets the necessity that compels their 

The following list of societies not before mentioned 

(including several that have ceased to exist ), with the 

1 dates of their organization, so far as they could be 

1 ascertained, is given as being of historical interest. 



The names of some county societies which, though not 
strictly local, have their headquarters in Worcester, 
are included in the list. 

Names marked with a * indicate that the society 
has ceased to exist as an active organization. 

Allen Associates, organized 1874. 

Ancient Order of Foresters (two courts). 

Ancient Order of Hibernians (three divisions), 

Ancient Order of United Workmen (three lodges) 

Arlington Club, 1883. 

Armenian Club, 1888. 

Assembly Debating Society, 1885. 

Bankers' Athletic Association, 1886. 

Bay State Fanciers' Association, 1888. 

Barbers' Union. 

British American Society of Worcester, 1883. 

Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, 1886. 

Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, 1868. 

Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen, 1877. 

*Business Men's Exchange, 1874. 

Carroilton Associates. 

Catholic Order of Foresters. 

Catholic Young Men's Lyceum, 1885. 

Central Massachusetts Poultry Club, 1882. 

Chamberlain District Farmers' Club, 1873. 

Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle (three 

Children's Friend Society, 1848. 

Eagle Associates. 

Empire State Society, 1885. 

Fairmount Associates, 1885. 

*Female Samaritan Society, 1827. 

First Swedish Building Association, 1886. 

Franklin Social Club. 

*Fraternal Amphisbetoneau Society, 1841. 

Fraternal Aid Association, 1881. 

Freight Handlers' Union of Worcester, 1888. 

Oesang Verein Frohsinn, 1858. 

Grand Army of the Republic, 1867. 

Highland Associates. 

Irish Catholic Benevolent Society, 1863. 

*Jews' Society, 1724. 

Kennel Club, 1888. 

Langlade Snow-Shoe Club, 1885. 

Legomathenian Society (Worcester Academy), 1834 

L' Association Montcalm, 1877. 

*Lincoln Cricket Club, 1856. 

L'Union Saint Joseph, 1885. 

Massachusetts Cremation Society, 1886. 

Master Plumbers' Association, 1884. 

Mechanics' Exchange, 1886. 

^Military Library Society of Worcester, 1811. 

Mt. Vernon Social Club. 

Natives of Maine, 1882. 

Nordstjermen, 1880. 

Patrons of Husbandry, Worcester Grange, No. 22, 


*I'hilomathic Society, 1849. 

Physiological Society, 1839. 

Progressive Co-operative Association. 

*People's Club, 1871. 

Sacred Heart Benevolent Society, 1881. 

St. Andrew's Benevolent Society. 

St. John's Mutual Relief Society, 1848. 

Shaffher Literary Society. 

Society of Architects. 

Society of Mechanic Arts, 1884. 

Society for Pathological Study, 1888. 

Societe St. Jean Baptiste, 1868. 

Society of Stationary Engineers, 1882. 

Socialer Turn Verein, 1859. 

Sons and Daughters of New Hampshire, 1880. 

Sons and Daughters of Vermont, 1878. 

Sons of Scotia. 

Sons of Veterans, 1883. 

Sovereigns of Industry Mutual Benefit Associa- 
tion, 1877. 

Stationary Engineers, 1882. 

Victoria Associates, 1887. 

Volunteers of 1882, 1882. 

Wachusett Boat Club. 

Washington Social Club, 1882. 

*Washington Temperance Society, 1841. 

*Worcester Art Association, 1864. 

*Worcester Association for the Protection of Fruit, 

Worcester Association for Medical Improvement, 

* Worcester Board of Trade, 1875. 

Worcester Board of Underwriters, 1883. 

Worcester Bicycle Club, 1879. 

Worcester Boat Club, 1888. 

Worcester Benignus Conventus, No. 1, 1888. 

Worcester Branch and Emergency and Hygiene 

Worcester Camera Club, 1885. 

Worcester City Cricket and Football Club. 

Worcester City Missionary Society, 1873. 

Worcester Children's Friend Society, 1848. 

Worcester Citizens' Law and Order League, 1883. 

Worcester Clearing House Association, 1863. 

Worcester County Bible Society (now Bible So- 
ciety of Worcester), 1815. 

Worcester County Homccopathic Medical Society. 

Worcester County Law Library Association, 1842. 

Worcester County Retail Grocers' Association, 

Worcester County (South) Anti-Slavery Society, 

Worcester County Stenographers' Association, 

Worcester County Society of Engineers, 1886. 

Worcester District Medical Society, 1804. 

Worcester Employment Society, 1875. 

Worcester Evangelical City Missionary Society, 



Worcester Firemen's Relief Association, 1874. 
Worcester Fur Company (sportsmen), 1888. 
Worcester Hatters' and Furnishers' Association, 
Worcester Homoeopathic Dispensary Association. 
Worcester Indian Association, 1885. 
Worcester Liberal Union. 
Worcester Medical Association, 1886. 
Worcester Pharmaceutical Society. 
Worcester Prohibition Association, 1885. 
Worcester Police Relief Association, 1887. 
Worcester Rifle Association, 1885. 
Worcester Sportmen's Club, 1874. 
Worcester Suffrage League, 1886. 
Worcester Toboggan Club, 1886. 
Worcester Typographical Union, 1873. 
Worcester Working Men's Association, 1845. 
Worcester Women's Club, 1880. 
Worcester Veteran Firemen's Association. 
Young Catholic Friend Society, L849. 
*Young Men's Rhetorical Society, 1849. 
Young Women's Christian Association, 1885. 


WORCESTER— (.Continual. ) 



Is the history of American journalism Worcester 
has been conspicuous from the beginning. Of the 
large number of newspapers which have been pub- 
lished here at different times, many have perished 
because they have either outlived their usefulness, or 
because they were never of much use at all. Most 
of them have been conducted by gentlemen, and many 
of them by ripe scholars, so that their tone, except in 
a few cases, 1 has been elevated. 

On May 3, 1775, between the battles of Lexington 
and of Bunker Hill, the Massachusetts Spy, which the 
sturdy patriot, Isaiah Thomas, had started in Boston 
on July 17, 1770, made its first appearance in Wor- 
cester, where it has been published to the presenl 
time. There are probably but three newspapers in 
the United States which can claim to be older than 
the Spy. The life of Mr. Thomas— patriot, printer, 
publisher and antiquarian — was one of exceeding 
interest, and constituted an important part of the 
history of Worcester. He arrived here on the day 
following the battle of Lexington, in which he had 

i William Lincoln, in his history, thus alludes to a paper of the baser 
sort : " A paper borrowing its descriptive appellation from the worst of 
reptiles, The Scorpion, came out July 26, 1809. without the name of 
printer or publisher, resembling those abusive periodicals serving as 
safety valves to convey away the fermenting malignity of base hearts." 

taken part, and with the type and press, which had 
been secretly forwarded from Boston, resumed the 
publication of his paper. It was the organ of the 
Provincial Congress, and printed the documents 
required by that body until presses were established 
at Cambridge and Concord. The paper was published, 
under a lease, by Daniel Bigelow and William Stearns 
from June, 1776, to August, 1777, and by Anthony 
Haswell to June, 177*. when .Mr. Thomas resumed 
the reins. Isaiah Thomas, Jr., became a partner with 
his lather in 1799, and was sole owner from 1806 to 
1814. Succeeding publishers were: William Man- 
ning to 1819; William Manning and George A. 
Trumbull to 1823 ; John Milton Earle and Anthony 
Chase to 1826; Earle A: Chase and Samuel H. Colton 
lo ls:;,'i; Jiibn Milton Earle alone until 1850, and with 
Thomas Drew until 1858. Since July 22, 1845, the 
Massachusetts Spyhaa been made up from the columns 
of its offspring, the Worcester Daily 6^>y. 

Party spirit never ran more high in this country 
than at the beginning of the presenl century, The 
Spy held the views of the Federalists, and on the 
election of Thomas Jefferson as President many 
prominent gentlemen of Worcester and Boston sub- 
scribed a fund with which to start the National Main 
as the organ of the "Republicans" — soon to be 
called Democrats — of that time. The Hon. Francis 
Blake, a most able and gifted lawyer, was leader of 
the movement, and first editor of the paper, which 
appeared December 2, 1S01. Able writers sent in 
frequent spirited communications to its columns, but 

its list of regular editors has been a must brilliant 
one. Following Francis Blake, the great chieftain, 
came Edward Hangs, Levi Lincoln, Samuel Brazer, 
William Charles White, Enoch Lincoln, Edward D. 
Bangs, Plinj Merrick, William Lincoln, Christopher 
<'. Baldwin and William \. Green. All of these 
gentlemen were members of the bar, but found rec- 
reation and gratification in preparing the labored 
and thoughtful essay which served as the editorial for 
a weekly paper in the first half of this century. It 
suffered absorption into the Massachusetts Yeoman in 
1833, but on January 24, 1838, the National JEgis 
again appeared, published by Henry Rogers, who 
had been the publisher for twenty-one years in the 
early days of the paper, and with William Lincoln 
again as editor. Mr. Lincoln was succeeded by 
Samuel F. Haven, and later by Alexander H. Bul- 
lock. Edward Winslow Lincoln was editor from 
1846 to 1849, rounding up the very brilliant galaxy 
of writers for the Mgi* while it was exclusively a 
weekly paper. As the Mgis and Gazette it is still 
printed as the weekly edition of the daily Evening 

The Massachusetts Yeoman, started September 3, 
1823, was the organ of the Anti-Masonic party. It 
was founded by Austin Denny, who was its editor 
until his death, in 1830. Emory Washburu aided Mr. 
Denny in 1829. 



As the National JEg is was originally started as an 
organ of the Jeffersonian party, so the accession ef 
General Jackson called forth the Worcester County 
Republican to support his views. Jubal Harrington 
was the editor, and was in due time appointed post- 
master by General Jackson. The paper was merged 
in the Palladium in L839, Major Ben: Perley Poore, 
who afterwards acquired a national reputation, was 
an apprentice in the Republican office. 

The Worcester Palladium was established as a "Na- 
tional Republican" or Whig paper, January 1, 1834, 
by John 8. C. Knowlton. In 1838 it espoused the 
cause of the Democratic party, but in 1856 it sustained 
the nomination of Fremont for the Presidency, and 
for the remaining twenty years of its existence it was 
conservatively Republican. Mr. Knowlton was a 
man of noble character — a forcible and able writer. 
He died in July, 1.871. The paper was continued for 
four years by his daughters, when they sold it to 
Charles Hamilton, who bad printed it for many years. 
Mr.. Hamilton sold it to J. D. Baldwin & Co. in Feb- 
ruary, 1876, and it was merged in the Massachusetts 


Jesse W. Goodrich, an able but somewhat eccentric 
lawyer, started the Worcester Water/all and Washing- 
Ionian Delegate, February 26, 1842, and for more than 
ten years did excellent service in advocating the 
principles of " moral suasion" for both dealers and 
drinkers of ardent spirits. A difference with his 
publishers led him to establish the Worcester County 
Cataract and Massachusetts Washingtonian, March 22, 
1843. The old paper was merged in the new in Jan- 
uary, 1844, and the paper was published under a 
variety of names until 1854. 

Elihu Burritt, known afterwards, all over the 
world, as " the learned blacksmith," came to Worces- 
ter in 1838, and on January 1, 1844, began the publi- 
cation of the Christian Citizen, which was continued 
for about seven years. As the advocate of universal 
peace it attained a large circulation. Mr. Burritt 
was assisted by Thomas Drew, who was proud to be 
called the blacksmith's "striker," and also by James 
B. Synie, a brilliant Scotchman. 

The foregoing notices include the most prominent 
of the numerous papers which were published here 
previous to the last decade. The subject has been 
treated in an exhaustive manner by William Lincoln 
in his " History of Worcester," and by Caleb A. Wall 
in his "Reminiscences of Worcester" (1877). To the 
pages of these works the reader is referred for further 
information on the subject and a more complete list 
of newspapers and magazines. 

On June 23, 1845, when the population of Wor- 
cester was something over 10,000, the first daily news- 
paper appeared, the Daily Transcript. It was pub- 
lished and edited by Julius L. Clarke, who was 
afterwards State Auditor and later the Insurance 
Commissioner. May 1, 1847, the subscription list 
was sold to the publishers of the Spy, who retained 

the name of Transcript for about a year, and then 
changed it to Daily Spy. 

In April, 1851, the publication of the Worcester 
Morning Transcript was resumed by J. Burrill & 
Co., with Mr. Clarke in the editorial chair. Silas 
Dinsmore, Fiske & Reynolds, William K. Hooper 
and Caleb A. Wall were subsequent publishers. 
Messrs. S. B. Bartholomew & Co. (Charles A. Chase) 
bought the paper January 1, L866, enlarged its size 
and changed the name to Worcester Evening Gazette. 
May ■;, 1869, Charles H. Doe and Charles II. Wood- 
well, graduates of the Boston Daily Advertiser, pur- 
chased the paper, and since the death of Mr. Wood- 
well, January 30, 1871, it has been published by 
Charles H. Doe & Co., with Mr. Doe as editor and 
manager. The Transcript and the Gazette, like the 
weekly edition, the old National .Egis and the JEgis 
and Gazette, have had a succession of brilliant writers, 
including such men as Charles E. Stevens, Edwin 
Bynner, John B. D. Coggswell, Z. K. Pangborn and 
William R. Hooper. It is Republican in politics, but 
is independent of dictation from any quarter. 

The Worcester Daily Spy first appeared, from the 
office of the Massachusetts Spy, July 22, 1845. In 
December, 1858, both papers were purchased of 
Messrs. Earle & Drew by Moses Farnum, of Black- 
stone, and S. S. Foss, of Woonsocket, R. I. The 
business was not congenial to Mr. Farnum, who had 
been trained as a banker, and as Mr. Foss became 
homesick, they sold out in March, 1859, to John 1). 
Baldwin, who afterwards took his two sons, John S. 
and Charles C, into partnership. Mr. Baldwin bail 
previously conducted a free-soil paper in Hartford, 
Conn., and for five years before coming to Worcester 
had published the Daily Commonwealth in Boston. 
He represented this district in Congress from 1863 
to 1869, and died in 1883. Delano A. Goddard, 
afterwards editor of the Boston Advertiser, was for 
several years associate editor with Mr. Baldwin. 
His place was taken by J. Evarts Greene, who is now 
the principal writer for the editorial columns. On 
July 16, 1888, the Spy adopted the quarto form, and 
gave an illustrated history of its career, with por- 
traits of Isaiah Thomas, John Milton Earle and 
John D. Baldwin. A Sunday edition of the Spy was 
inaugurated with the beginning of the following 

The Worcester Daily Times was started in 1879 by 
James H. Mellen as a Democratic evening paper. 
It is also the organ of the labor organizations, and is 
a spicy sheet. Its editor has been for several years a 
conspicuous member of the Legislature, and is also 
prominent in the Common < louncil. 

The first Sunday newspaper in Worcester, the Sun- 
day Telegram, appeared in November, 1884. Its 
publisher was understood to be Austin P. Cristy, 
who had been known as assistant clerk of the Dis- 
trict Court and as an active politician. A daily edi- 
tion followed in 1886, called the Worcester Telegram. 



Both papers are published by the Worcester Telegram 
Company. In politics they are close-communion 

The New England Home Journal, a quarto weekly, 
is in its seventh year. Its numbers have contained 
several papers of historic value. W. F. Lockwood 
is the present publisher and E. P. Kimball is editor. 
Since the Civil War of 1861-65 there has been a 
large migration hither of French Canadians, who 
now constitute a considerable percentage of the pop- 
ulation. As early as 1869 Vldte Nouvelle, a news- 
paper printed half in English and half in French, 
appeared, with Mederic Lanctot editor and pub- 
lisher. It continued but three months. In October 
of the same year Ferdinand Gagnon brought out 
L'Etendard National, which was published here for 
a year and then removed to Montreal, but was dated 
at Worcester. In October, 1874, Mr. Gagnon estab- 
lished Le Travailkur, which has been very successful 
and influential. Since bis death, some two years 
ago, it has been published by Charles Lalime, with 
Emile II. Tardivel as editor. It appears semi 
weekly and is Democratic in politics. 

Le Courrier de Worcester, now in its fifth year, is 
published by Belanger Freres. It advocated Repub- 
lican principles until about a year ago, when it em- 
braced the Democratic faith. 

Two numbers of Le Bepublicain appeared in the 
autumn of 1888. 

The Swedes, who now number some thousands, 
have two weekly journals in their own language. 
Scandinavia, published by the Swedish Publishing 
Company, is now in its fourth year. J. Forsstedt and 
Helge Sandberg are editors. Some of the ultra tem- 
perance men among the Swedes have recently started 
the Foslerlandet, published by the Northern Publish- 
ing Company, with Frank L. Malmstedt as editor. 

The Messenger, an organ of the Catholic popula- 
tion, printed weekly, is now in its third year. James 
J. Doyle is publisher. 

The Amateir Press. — It seems proper here to 
give some notice of the juvenile newspapers which 
have been printed in Worcester. Of these the first 
was probably The Evergreen, Thomas Chase, editor. 
Its four pages were about two and a half by three 
inches, and it was printed by Albert Tyler, then an 
apprentice in the Spy office. Vol. I., No. 1 (the only 
one printed, we believe), was dated January 8 [1840], 
and contained a notice of the three lectures which 
George Combe had just given, by invitation of Al- 
fred D. Foster and Anthony Chase, on Education 
and Mental Philosophy. It also recorded the recent 
arrival of Daniel Webster and family from Europe. 
after a tedious passage of thirty days. 

A friend has exhumed from oblivion a copy of 
The Joker, printed by Charles A. Chase in 1845; 
type form about three by five inches, of which but 
one number was issued, for the amusement of his 

In April, 1845, appeared The Minute Gun, Vol. I, 
No. 1, a two-column paper about eight inches in 
length, edited by Samuel Foster Haven, Jr. Young 
Haven's gifted father, for many years librarian of the 
American Antiquarian Society, was then editor of the 
National Mgis, and the little paper was probably put 
in type and printed by some of the compositors on the 
JEgis. The first number of that series was apparently 
the last, Rut on September 11, 1845, young Haven, 
having secured from the Mgis office a font of old type 
and a condemned card press, began the regular pub- 
lication of The Minute Gun, with another Vol. I, No. 1, 
doing all the work with his own hands. It was a 
four-page paper, with single columns, two and a half 
inches wide and three and a half inches long, with the 
motto: " Tandem Jit Surculus arbor. The shoot in 
time becomes a tree." The whole number of the 
series was twenty-nine, and in the last five the vig- 
nette of a field-gun supplanted the peaceful motto. 
The paper was printed once a fortnight at first and 
afterwards weekly, the last number, of which o;ily 
the outside was printed, appearing July '_'. L846. 
Young Haven was graduated at Harvard College, in 
the class of 1852, and, having studied medicine, began 
practice in Worcester. August 8, 1861, he left the city 
with the Fifteenth Regiment of Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers as assistant surgeon. He afterwards became 
full surgeon, and at the battle of Fredericksburg laid 
down his noble life. 

The writer of this sketch, paying a visit to the 
printing-office of The Minute '.'»//. in a corner of the Antiquarian Hall, was urged by bis senior friend 
to embark in an enterprise of the sane nature, and 
on January 1, 1846, The Bumble-Bee firsl saw the light. 
It was of about the same size as its contemporary. 
The imprint announced that " The Humble-Bee i- pub- 
lished every Thursday at No. 182 Main Street, Wor- 
cester, Mass. Terms: 3 cents lor t numbers, payable 
in advance. Charles A. Chase, Editor, Publisher, 
Proprietor and Printer." In July the name of flu- 
shed was changed to Tin !'•■■. [n place of the former 
motto, " mullum in parvo," now appeared the vignette 
of a bee-hive and the motto: " hinc dulcia mella 
premes." Of Tfu Humble- Bee, under both names, 
thirty six numbers were printed. The work was done 
by the youthful printer, not then in his teens, with old 
type and an old press, in the office of the Spy, of which 
an uncle was the proprietor. 77"' Minute Gun and 
The Humble-Bet met with much favor, and contained 
many brilliant contributions from the friends of the 
young publishers. 

Pliny Earle (2d), the son of John Milton Earle, 
printed from the Spy office, in January, 1862, the first 
number of The Carrier Pigeon, a two-column paper of 
four pages, about seven and a half inches in length. 
The paper was issued monthly at twenty-five cents 
per annum. The May number bore the imprint of 
Earle & Brown as publishers, J. Stewart Brown being 
the junior partner. The paper was prepared for the 



press by the two partners, but the September number 
and those following were printed by " Howland & 
Alexander," two apprentices on the Spy. The Decem- 
ber number contained the valedictory. 

The publisher of The Carrier Pigeon brought out, in 
January, 1855, The Heart of the Commonwealth, a semi- 
monthly paper, about half as large again as its prede- 
cessor. Both papers were full of jokes, with a few 
advertisements. Mr. J. B. Syme, a writer on the Spy, 
wrote most of Master Earle's " heavy editorials," and 
some of his friends sent in communications of some 

Journalism at the High School began forty years 
ago. The compositions or theses in the classical de- 
partments were handed to one of the boys and one of 
the girls, who, as editors, selected such as suited their 
fancy and copied upon foolscap paper and read to the 
school. The journal thus formed was called The 
Excelsior. Four volumes are preserved in the High 
School Library. 

The first printed newspaper issued from the High 
School was the Thesaurus. Thirty-two numbers ap- 
peared between November 1, 1856, and May 3, 1866. 

Four numbers of the High School Exporter appeared 
between April 15 and June 15, 1879. John H. Martel 
was publisher and sponsor. 

Two numbers of the Worcester Student appeared in 
September and October, 1879. This was the organ of 
the schools generally, but contained a High School 
department, conducted by J. H. McNamara. 

The High School Argus appeared April 1, 1885, and 
eighteen numbers were issued between that time and 
June 20, 1886. Frank R. Batchelder, the editor, 
printed the paper with his own hands. 

The Academe, the present organ of the school, 
started January 1, 1886. It was issued monthly dur- 
ing the first year, and was then changed to a semi- 

Frank R. Batchelder's For get- Me- Not, for March 
and April, 1886, had a High School department. 

The Senior Critic, established by the class of 1886, 
appeared January 25th of that year. Twelve num- 
bers were printed. It had occasional illustrations, 
and was a spicy sheet. 

The High School publications have been very 
creditable to the editors and contributors. 

The Lilliputian ' was issued March 6, 1856, by Geo. 
E. Boyden and James Green, Jr. (afterwards Green & 
Oliver), a semi-monthly of eight pages. It was pub- 
lished four months, and was followed, July 24, 1854, by 
the Pathfinder , a four-page semi-monthly, printed by 
Master Green, the organ of the "Boys' Rocky Moun- 
tain Fremont Club." Four months later Charles F. 
Blood became the owner, and published it until 
March 28, 1857. Young Blood had printed four 
numbers of a second Humhle-Bee in the summer of 

1 The remaining portion of this chapter is compi ed from information 
kindly furnished by ''harles A Hoppin, Jr., a veteran "amateur." 

The Young People's Mutual Improvement Society 
issued the East Mount Monthly, Stephen C. Earle, edi- 
tor, through the year 1858. 

The Young American appeared on December 18, 
1858, edited by Edward Gray, but printed by E. R. 
Fiske, a professional printer. It was published semi- 
monthly for something more than a year. 

From 1859 to 1872 we find no trace of juvenile 
papers except that about the latter year a few num- 
bers of the Boys' Stamp Gazette and a second Young 
American appeared. In October, 1872, John I. 
Souther started the Starry Flag, which waved about 
six months. 

Some twenty years ago special outfits for young prin- 
ters were put upon the market. In December, 1875, 
Philip M. Washburn issued the first number of the 
Philippic, which was continued for six months. 

June 11, 1877, John H. Starkie issued the first 
number of the Amateur Press, and is styled the father 
of the fraternity called "amateurdom," as far as 
Worcester is concerned. With the fifth number 
Arthur A. Wyman was admitted as associate editor, 
remaining two months. 

Other amateur papers and their editors were : 

The Boys' Favorite, John H. Martel, in August, 

The Yankee, W. E. Smythe, in October, 1877. 

The Amateur Gazette, J. G. Oliver and Charles A. 
White, November, 1877. A. A. Wyman took White's 
place in the following year, and G. E. Davis was ad- 
mitted as a partner. 

The Tyro, Smith & Ellis, February, 1878. 

The Avalanche, Charles S. Knight, Jr., April, 1878. 

The Amateur Tribune, A. A. Wyman and Charles 
D. Wheeler, May, 1878. 

Ours, J. H. Martell and Henry Lemay, August, 

The Boys of Worcester, C. S. Ellis, January, 1879. 

The Daily News, J. H. Martell and George S. Dick- 
inson, March, 1879. 

The Stamp Collector, E. A. Welch, April, 1879. 

The Weekly Star, E. P. Sumner, April, 1879. 

The Bay State Gem, J. G. Oliver, September, 1879. 

The Go Ahead, Frank R. Batchelder, August, 1882 ; 
name afterwards changed to For get- Me- Not. 

The Bay State Pearl (afterwards called the Planet), 
Frank S. C. Wicks, July, 1883. He published two 
numbers of the Cadueeus in the autumn of 1888. 

In 1883 and following years appeared the Union, 
L. E. Ware and Arthur C. Smith ; Mayflower, Walter 
L. Brown ; Scrap-Book, Alfred D. Flinn ; Golden Star, 
H. and W. Holmes and Frank Cutter ; Euby, Harry 
A. Plympton ; Avalanche, Frederick Cowell ; Worces- 
ter Amateur, Miss Edith May Dowe. 

In 1885 Joseph Melanefy and Frank S. Mawhinney 
issued the Headlight, to which Austin Rice was the 
principal contributor. 

In September, 1885, Charles A. Hoppin, Jr., issued 
The Breeze, devoted wholly to amateur affairs. He is 



a very enthusiastic newspaper man, has had some ex- 
perience on the Evening Gazette, and is now in charge 
of the advertising department of Messrs. Denholm, 
McKay & Co. 

Among the recent amateur publishers are: Harry 
Chamberlin and Joseph Sargent (3d). Several ama- 
teur organizations have been formed — local, sectional 
and national — in which some of the amateurs of this 
city have taken a prominent part: notably, Frank 
R. Batchelder, Frank S. C. Wicks, Alfred D. Flinn, 
Charles A. Hoppin, Jr., and Edith May Dowe. 
Complete files of most of the the Worcester papers 
are to be found at the library of the American Anti- 
quarian Society. There is a marked contrast between 
the earlier and the later issues. The former catered 
to the general public, while many of the more recent 
seem to have looked for readers chiefly in the ranks 
of " 'dom," as the fraternity is styled. But the friendly 
rivalry among the members, scattered throughout the 
country, served to bring out their best efforts, and cul- 
tivated their diction and stimulated their thought. 

CH AI'TKK d.\ \ XVI. 
WORCESTER -{Continued.) 

1 in. in: ama in WORCESTER. 

The early history of the drama in Worcester is 
involved in much obscurity, from the fac( thai till 
within Hie last twenty or thirty yours the newspapers 
paid but little attention to the strolling companies 
that occasionally performed here, and that notices ol 
such entertainments were not usually promulgated by 
means of newspaper advertisements, but, by posters or 
small bills distributed about the streets, which very 
soon became lost or destroyed. There was also a very 
strong sentiment in the community against theatrical 
exhibitions of any kind, so that, previous to 1S4S or 
'50, the printed records are very meagre, and would 
seem to indicate that our people took but little inter- 
est, or did not have the time to patronize entertain- 
ments of that kind. Besides this, an act passed in 
April, 17.">o, against dramatic exhibitions was in force 
up to 1794 or '95. This act was "for preventing 
and avoiding the many and great mischiefs which 
arise from publick stage-plays, interludes and other 
theatrical entertainments, which not only occasion 
great and unneccessary expenses, and discourage 
industry and frugality, but likewise tend generally to 
increase immorality, impiety and a contempt of reli- 
gion." The act provided that if "any person or per- 
sons shall be present as an actor in, or a spectator of, 
any stage-play, etc. — in any house, room or place 
where a greater number of persons than twenty shall 

be assembled together, every such person shall forfeit 
and pay, for every time he or they shall be present as 
aforesaid, five pounds." 

The first record of anything like a dramatic exhibi- 
tion in Worcester is probably in William Lincoln's 
" History of Worcester," where it is stated that in 1787 
Master Brown, a school-teacher, produced Addison's 
" Cato," with great success, at a quarterly examination 
of his school. The parts were probably taken by the 
pupils, and not in costume. It is said that similar 
exhibitions were continued for two or three years. 
Ten years later, in June, 1797, a Mr. Hogg, who 
advertises himself in the Spy as " late from the Boston 
Theatre," " informs the ladies and gentlemen of Wor- 
cester that the hall over the school-room l is fitted up 
for the purpose of representing some select and most 
admired dramatic pieces, a musical entertainment — 
' The Waterman ' — a Dramatic Romance in one act 
called 'The Oracle, or Daphne and Aniintor,' the 
whole to conclude with pat-de-deux. Doors open 
at 6£, performance begins at 71. Front seats 3»., back- 
seats 2s. 8c/.'' The Massachusetts Spy evidently did not 
have a reporter at this performance, or elBe did not 
think it worth reporting, for nothing appears in its 
columns in regard to it. The company were in town 
several days, presenting, a week later, a piece entitled, 
"Like Master like .Man," and the "Shipwrecked 
Mariner, with singing by Mr. Hogg." About the 
same time, Mons. Boullay "from the old Theatre, 
Boston," opened a school "in the polite accomplish- 
ment of dancing and music.'' Possibly he may have 
participated in thepas-de-deux &\ Mr. Hogg's dramatic 

By a programme now in the possession of the 
American Antiquarian Society it appears that in 
July, 1 s 1 7 , Mr. West's t'in us exhibited for one 
week on a lot between Front and Mechanic Streets, 
opposite Baton's tavern, the entrance being on Me- 
chanic Street. Again, in 1818, as appears from the 
same soune, a grand tight-rope performance, with 
feats in posturing, leaping and tumbling, was given 
at " Hathaway's Hall;" " tickets, 50 cts., for sale at 
j Hathaway's bar." This hall was in a hotel located 
on the present site of the Bay State House. 

After the performance of Mr. Hoggs company 
there does not appear to have been a regular dra- 
matic exhibition in Worcester for some forty or fifty 
years. The only entertainments offered to the public, 
besides concerts, were moving dioramas ami monstrosi- 
ties (like the Siamese Twins, who were exhibited in 
the hall of the Central Hotel in 1888), and an occa- 
sional equestrian exhibition. Cater came the annual 
visits of " Blind Dexter," with his traveling van of 
"colored statuary," generally exhibiting on Main 
Street, near the Town Hall. In his advertising he 
says: "The above exhibition has not the advantage 

iol-house waa owned by a stuck company, but later became 
.. ar ,A ... QU yg the "Centre School." 

tbe property of ttie town and wa 



of wealth of an incorporated association, basking in 
sunshine and affluence, but depends entirely upon 
the exertions of an humble individual, who was de- 
prived of both eyes and one arm while engaged in 
blasting a rock." 

For many years the selectmen would not license a 
circus to give an exhibition here, but it appears that 
in some unguarded moment they did, in May, 1832, 
license a company, much to the indignation of many 
good people of the town. The Massachusetts Spy 
thus comments on the action of the selectmen : 

The Selectmen have licensed a company of strolling actors, calling 
themselveB Circus Riders, to exhibit their fooleries here. We presume 
that iu giving their consent the Selectmen had no idea of encouraging 
vice or dissipation, or of acting in opposition to the well-known wishes 
of a majority of their constituents. Who does not know that no one 
gets any good by attending such exhibitions? That by going, he en- 
courages idleness, cruelty and vice ! It is to be hoped that this is the 
last time we shall be troubled with such unwelcome visitors, and that 
our Selectmen will iu future be careful not to lend their aid in encour- 
aging them to come among us. 

This protest seems to have had its effect, for no 
licenses were given to equestrian performances for 
the next twelve or fifteen years ; those who desired 
to witness such exhibitions having to go to the ad- 
joining towns of Millbury and Holden to do so. 
About the latter part of the year 1845, or the begin- 
ning of 184G, the selectmen ventured to give a 
license for a dramatic performance to one Dr. Robin- 
son. The play produced was called " The Reformed 
Drunkard,'' and was claimed to be in the interest of 
temperance. This entertainment seems to have been 
condemned by many of the citizens, and when Dr. 
Robinson again applied for a license (the profits of 
the exhibition to go to some local society) the select- 
men declined to grant it, and spread upon the town 
records their reasons for so doing. Their report, 
dated March 2, 184C, covers nearly two pages of the 
record-book, from which we make the following ex- 
tracts, as indicating to some extent the feeling of the 
community towards theatrical exhibitions at that 
time. The selectmen say : 

Much complaint has been made because the Selectmen have refused 
to license Dr. Robinson to exhibit a theatrical exhibition called " The 
Reformed Drunkard." To that man they could not grant such a li- 
cense, even if they had no objections to the character of the exhibition. 
The last time that Robinson was permitted to hold such an exhibition 
here he took advantage of the very license which had been granted 
him by the selectmen to grossly insult the town. But Robinson's im- 
proper conduct has not been the principal reason for rejecting his ap- 
plication, as a similar request has been made by those to whom there 
was no personal objection. The selectmen have believed that the ten. 
dency of such an exhibition waa demoralizing iu the extreme, that it 
was calculated rather to increase the vice there represented than to 
diminish it. . . . If any want to see the consequences of intemper- 
ance let them visit the Poor-house, let them attend the weekly religious 
services at the Jail Chapel, and there they will witness the usual conse- 
quences of intemperance iu a far better manner, etc. Do they not 
know that the French Danseuse carried large siiiiih of money from this 
country, and do they not also know that the number of the spectators 
would have boen extremely limited if it bad not been generally known 
that females would exhibit their persons in most indecent postures? 
Some months since Green, the self-styled "Reformed Gambler," deliv- 
ered a lecture in this town, and the next day there waa :t greater sale 
of playing cards than had been foi weeks and months previous; this 
aurel] waa not lor good. 

About a year later, however, the selectmen licensed 
a company from Boston, who, under the name of 
" The National Athenteum," appeared for a season of 
two or three weeks at Brinley Hall (now Grand Army 
Hall). They opened with the play of " The Hunch- 
back," under the management of G. G. Spear, in 
June, 1847. In the company were W. H. Smith, E. 
F. Keach, Mr. and Mrs. Vincent and Miss Louisa 
Gann, who appeared in several standard plays in a 
very acceptable manner, closing with " George Barn- 
well." That dramatic entertainments were still under 
a cloud in Worcester may be inferred from an article 
in the National JEgii in regard to this company, 
which says : " It has been intimated that a portion of 
our community, whose means enable them to frequent 
the opera, are indisposed to countenance this less 
imposing scene of recreation. . . . But we are 
unable to believe that an individual can have such 
an immense beam in his eye. . . ." 

In the following year Mr. W. B. English gave a 
series of performances at Brinley Hall, under the 
name of " Tableaux Vivants," this name being given 
as less distasteful to the moral sense of many than 
that of theatre. " Rosina Meadows" was the first 
play produced, Mrs. Western (afterwards Mrs. Eng- 
lish) taking the leading part. Mrs. English (who is 
still living, at the Forrest Home for Actors, at Phila- 
delphia) says : " The company drew immense houses, 
many of the ladies of the audience appearing in eve- 
ning dress." A few years later Mr. English again ' 
appeared at Brinley Hall, with his wife(Mrs. Western) 
and her daughters, Lucille and Helen Western, who 
afterwards had quite a notoriety in the theatrical 

In 1850 Mr. Charles C. D. Wilkinson, late man- 
ager of the Worcester Theatre, made his first appear- 
ance on any stage, at Brinley Hall, with a company 
under the management of Mr. George C. Howard, in 
the role of Tim in "My Wife's Second Floor." Mr. 
Wilkinson, though not a native of Worcester, re- 
sided here in his early days, and received his educa- 
tion from the schools of Worcester. In 1851 he gave 
a series of " Parlor Entertainments " in the above- 
named hall, with a company composed mainly of 
members of his own family. 

In the winter of 1850 a hall in the newly-erected 
Flagg's Block (on the site of the present block of 
that name) was occupied for a short time by the 
Howard (G. C.) and Fox (G. L.) Troupe, who gave a 
series of miscellaneous dramatic entertainments. 
The next autumn the hall was made more available 
for stage representations, and opened by a Mr. Bur- 
roughs, of Providence, under the name of the Wor- 
cester Dramatic Museum, and afterwards came under 
the management of Noah Gates, of Lowell. The 
leading ladies of the company were Mrs. Beissenherz 
(a most versatile actress, taking all parts from a 
chamber-maid to Lady Macbeth, and dancing between 
the aits), Mrs. Germon and Miss Steele. During the 



first winter under Mr. Gates' management Mrs. 
George H. Barrett appeared as a star. In the spring 
of 1853 Mr. Gates applied for a renewal of his li- 
cense. A remonstrance against its being granted was 
presented to the mayor and aldermen, which brought 
a strong petition in favor of it; so a public hearing 
on the question was given at the City Hall Monday 
evening, March 1st, which was largely attended. 
Dvvight Foster appeared as counsel for the petition- 
ers, and was supported by Dr. O. Martin and Dexter 
Parker, who spoke in behalf of the young men. Al- 
fred Dwigbt Foster, Rev. Alonzo Hill, W. R. Hooper 
and others spoke against the granting of the petition. 
One of the arguments against the license was that 
the character of the plays presented was not of the 
best ; that if the plays of Shakespeare and other 
standard dramatists were produced there would be 
less objection to it. Perhaps it was with a desire to 
influence the opposition to a more favorable view 
that " Romeo and Juliet" was brought out a night or 
two before, and the night the discussion was going on 
"Richard III." was being played at the Museum. 

The Museum closed its doors the 5th of March, but 
opened again April 8th, having received a license with 
a condition that no one under eighteen years of age 
should be admitted. It was closed for the season June 
18, 1852, with a benefit for Mr. W. M. Leman. 

The Dramatic Museum was opened in September, 
1853, by Gates & Brown, with J. B. Cartlitch as 
' Btage manager. During this season Mr. Deuman 
Thompson, now so widely known by bis impersona- 
tion of Joshun Whitcamb in the "Old HomeBtead" 
(at present a permanent attraction at the Academy 
of Music in New York), appeared at the Museum, 
" playing anything and everything, besides dancing 
hornpipes and fancy dances between the acts." 

Other members of the company at this time were 
" Yankee Locke " (George E.), J. J. Prior and Wil- 
liam Henderson (now manager of the Academy of 
Music at Jersey City). The license of the company 
expired at the close of the year, and in December 
application was made for its renewal. Again there 
was strong opposition to it, and the question was de- 
bated in the Board of Aldermen at two or three 
meetings without action. In the mean time the Mu- 
seum closed its doors during a successful run of " Un- 
cle Tom's Cabin." The matter was settled the night 
of Sunday, January 29, 1854, by the burning of 
Flagg's Block, which destroyed all the scenery and 
properties, as well as two dioramas that were being 
prepared for exhibition. 

The first building erected in Worcester for theatri- 
cal purposes was completed in 1857, having been built 
by William Piper from plans by Boyden & Ball, on 
Front Street, opposite the city hall. 1 The Daily Spy, 
in speaking of the new building, says : " It is an edi- 
fice which, for architectural beauty and complete 

' Kiuut Street Ullage. 

adaptation to the purposes for which it was designed, 
may challenge comparison with any similar edifice in 
the country, except in the largest cities." The new 
theatre was opened February 9, 1857, under the man- 
agement of Wyzeman Marshall, of Boston, an actor of 
an established reputation, with the play " Ingomar." 
An opening address, written by Mr. A. W. Thaxter, 
was recited by Miss Mary Hill (Mrs. Thaxter). In 
the cast were: Mr. Marshall as Ingomar, Miss Hill as 
Parthenia, Messrs. Beck, Stanton and Taylor as the 
Three Citizens of Massilia and Mr. Charles Wilkinson 
as Lykon. The entertainment concluded with W. W. 
Clapp's farce, " My Husband's Mirror," Mr. Wilkin- 
son taking the "leading part. The first season closed 
in May with a complimentary benefit to Mr. Mar- 
shall, tendered by several prominent citizens, among 
whom may be mentioned A. H. Bullock, Henry 
Chapin, Charles Devens, Rejoice Newton, J. D. 
Washburn, J. E. Estabrook and Ad in Thayer. 

Mr. Wilkinson became the manager the second 
season, opening August 24, 1857, with " Love's Sacri- 
fice " and " Grimshaw, Bagshaw and Bradshaw," Mrs. 
Beissenherz being the leading lady. In March, 1858, 
Mr. M. V. Lingham became the manager, and was 
succeeded in the fall of the same year by Jacob Bar- 
row, who brought out many standard plays, with a 
very efficient company, which included, beside Mrs. 
Barrow (who was a very accomplished actress), J. E. 
Owens, Charles Fisher, Miss Fanny Morant and Miss 
Charlotte Thompson. During Sir. Barrow's brief 
stay here, several of the good old comedies, like 
"The Rivals," "The Heir-at-Law " and "The Poor 
Gentleman," were produced. The theatre was re- 
opened under the name of " Pauncefort's Athena-um " 
March 28, 1858, with Mr. George l'auncefort as man- 
ager. Mr. and Mrs. Pauncefort took the leading 
parts, opening with the " Lady of Lyons," and clos- 
ing April 22d with " Still Waters Bun Deep " and 
"Black-Eyed Susan." 

During the summer the theatre was occupied occa- 
sionally by traveling companies, and October 12th it 
was again opened by Mr. l'auncefort, with "Don 
Ca-sar de Bazan " and the farce of "Sarah's Young 
Man." Mr. and Mrs. I. Biddle were the comedians 
of the company. During a brief season Mr. l'aunce- 
fort introduced to a Worcester audience such actors 
as W. E. Burton, C. W. Couldock and J. W. Wallapk. 
In November, 1859, a piece called " < tssawatomie 
Brown ; or, the Harper's Ferry Insurrection," was 
brought out, and in the same month .Mr. Wallack ap- 
peared for a few nights in the "Winter's Tale," 
" Hamlet," " The Iron Mask " and " Macbeth." The 
season closed December 20th. 

Messrs. Myers and Boniface opened the theatre in 
March, 18G0, for a short time, with Mrs. Barrow as 
leading lady, in such plays as " The Octoroon," 
" Sea of Ice " and similar pieces. 

William B. English opened the theatre in 1860 for 
a brief season, with his step-daughters, Lucille and 



Helen Western as the stars, they appearing in such 
pieces as " Jack Sheppard," " The French Spy" and 
" Three Fast Men," which were of a decidedly sensa- 
tional character. 

In October of 1860 the " Serious Family " was pro- 
duced, with an unusually strong cast, including Mr. 
and Mrs. E. L. Davenport, Mr. and Mrs. John (iil- 
bert, Mrs. Barrow and Miss Fanny Davenport. 

In January, 1861, Mr. Pauncefbrt again took the 
management with Mrs. Barrow as the leading lady. 
Mr. John Gilbert appeared in February as iSEr Anthony 
Absolute in " The Rivals," and again the next month 
in " Rob Roy." 

In the spring of 1861 the excitement caused by 
the secession of the Southern States and the prospect 
of a call for troops at the North was so intense that 
entertainments of all kinds were poorly patronized, 
and the theatre performances became almost deserted. 
An afternoon performance was given at the theatre 
the 19th of April, at which the Holden Rifles, who 
were in the city on their way to the front with the 
Third Battalion of Rifles, under Major Charles Dev- 
ens, were invited to be present. The departure of 
the troops, and the fact that the whole community 
were so much interested in the real tragedy which 
was being enacted that they had no time nor desire 
to witness any dramatic representations, caused the 
sudden closing of the theatre the next evening, with 
not a dozen persons in the audience. 

In May, 1861, Charlotte Cushman appeared for two 
nights in "(iuy Mannering" and "Romeo," and 
again for two nights in June as Lady Macbeth 
and Queen Catharine, supported by John Gilbert, 
J. B. Studley and Miss Viola Crocker. January 3, 
1862, the last night of the season, a play called "Boys 
of Worcester County; or, the Battle of Balls' Bluff," 
was brought out, but it was not a marked success. 
In April of the same year " Uncle Tom's Cabin " 
was played for one week, closing April loth with a 
benefit for John W. Stiles, a native of Worcester. 

H. C. Jarrett, of Niblo's Garden, New York, 
opened the theatre for two nights in May, 1862, with 
a strong company, which included John Gilbert, 
Charles Barron, J. E. Owens and Miss Mary Wells, 
who appeared in " School for Scandal "' and the " Poor 
Gentleman." The next mouth J.C. Meyers, of Provi- 
dence, was here for a brief time, with Henry Langdon 
and Miss Annie (Senter in the leading parts. During 
the next five years the theatre does not appear to 
have been open for regular seasons, but was occu- 
pied largely by traveling companies, a few nights at 
a time. In this way Laura Keene was here with a good 
company in June, 1863, producing "Cur American 
Cousin." In July Miss Kate Reignolds, with a com- 
pany from the Boston Museum, which included Mrs. 
J. R Vincent, Stuart Robson, Owen Marlowe and 
John Wilson, played a short engagement. 

In October, 1863, J. Wilkes Booth, the assassin of 
President Lincoln, appeared in " Richard III." and 

the " Lady of Lyons," with Mrs. Barrows as the lead- 
ing lady. 

The theatre was opened from time to time during 
the next four years for brief seasons, with companies 
good, bad and indifferent, but during this period such 
players appeared as William Warren, Miss Josie Or- 
ton, Emily Mestayer, McKean Buchanan, Edwin 
Forrest (as Richard and King Lear), John Brougham, 
Tom I'lacide, L. R. Shewell and Mark Smith. 

The last dramatic representation in the Front 
Street Theatre was November 27, 1867, with the play 
" Under the Gas Light," J. B. Booth being the man- 
ager. The theatre was soon made into offices and 
small halls, and not again used for dramatic purposes 
till the fall of 1888, when it was remodeled and im- 
proved, and is now known as the Front Street Musee, 
for variety shows and curiosities, under the manage- 
ment of George H. Batcheller. 

The present Worcester Theatre, on Exchange 
Street, built by a stock company, and first called 
Music Hall, was opened to the public the evening of 
March 9, 1869, under the management of J. B. Booth, 
of the Boston Theatre Company. The pieces pre- 
sented on the opening night were " The Lady of 
Lyons " and the farce of " My Neighbor's Wife." In 
the company were C. R. Thorne, Jr., Louis Aldrich, 
W. H. Lehman, Dan. J. Maguinnis, Mrs. J. B. Booth 
and Mrs. S. M. Leslie. The Music Hall was under 
the control of the proprietors of the Boston Theatre 
for ten or twelve years, during which period many ac- 
tors and actresses of established reputation appeared 
on the boards. Space does not permit a complete list 
of these, but a few of the most noted may be men- 

Mrs. Scott Siddons appeared in " Faint Heart 
Never Won Fair Lady " in December, 1870; Mr. and 
Mrs. Barney Williams early in 1871. In May, 1873, 
Sothern appeared in his great part of Lord Dun- 
dreary in "Our American Cousin." John 10. Owens 
in February, 1871, Wyzeman Marshall in May of the 
same year, and J. W. Wallack, in the play of " The 
Iron Mask ; " the next year Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Flor- 
ence and Frank Mayo. In January, 1873, Carlotta 
Patti, Signor Mario (the great tenor), Miss Annie 
Louise Gary and Teresa Carreno, the pianist, gave a 
concert at the theatre, and drew an immense house. 

In the fall of 1873 the theatre was newly painted 
and the auditorium fitted with new and more com- 
fortable seats, and thereafter was known as the " Wor- 
cester Theatre," instead of "Music Hall." It was 
opened by the Boston Theatre Company October 28th, 
with L. R. Shewell and Mrs. Thos. Barry in the leading 
parts. Other prominent players who appeared during 
the next few years were Lester Wallack, F. S. Chan- 
frau, McKee Rankin, Sara Bernhardt, Lotta, Charles 
Fechter, Edwin Booth. During this period the thea- 
tre was often leased to strolling variety companies, 
minstrel shows and for various other entertainments, 
many of which were of rather poor quality. 



In the summer of 1882 Mr. Charles Wilkinson took 
a lease of the theatre, and became the first resident 
manager. He opened it August 24, 1882, with a per- 
formance by the Alice Oates Opera Company. It was 
during Mr. Wilkinson's management that the first 
matinees, now so popular, were given in the theatre. 
The first experiment was not very encouraging, the 
receipts being only about twenty-five dollars, while 
the same company in the evening took over five hun- 
dred dollars. In November, 1882, the theatre was 
opened on Sunday evening for the first time, with a 
reading by J. E. Murdock, the veteran actor, and 
about five years later Rev. W. H. H. Murray lectured 
there on Sunday evening. In 1885 a large part of the 
stock of the Music Hall corporation changed hands, 
and the new owners made radical changes in the in- 
terior of the building, with special attention to the 
matter of safety against fire, and it now compares 
very favorably with the metropolitan theatres. 

Mr. Wilkinson retained the proprietorship till bis 
death, which took place March 2, 1888. During bis 
management, a period of about seven years, he 
endeavored to present to his patrons first-class enter- 
tainments, and as a rub- he succeeded in so doing, and 
Worcester theatre-goers were given an opportunity to 
hear many actors and actresses of established reputa- 
tion in their favorite rules. Such well-known repre- 
sentatives of the dramatic art as Henry Iivin- in 
"Louis XI.,'' Joe Jefferson in "Rip Van Winkle," 
Lawrence Barrett as Hamlet, Denman Thompson as 
Joshua WhUeomb, Edwin Booth, Wilson Barrett, 
Charles Wyndbam, .1. T. Raymond, Madame Mod- 
jeska, Salvini, E. A. Sotbern, Frank Mayo, Mary 
Anderson, Fanny Davenport, Margaret Mather, Fanny 
Janausebek, Rosina Yokes, Mrs. Langtry and many 
others of high rank on the stage appeared during Mr. 
Wi Ik i use hi 's management. 

Since the death of Mr. Wilkinson, bis wife, Li Hie 
Marden Wilkinson, has bad the management, and 
has continued it upon the same plan as her bu 
in giving to the public as good a class of performances 
as they would patronize. It is understood that at the 
close of the present season (1888-89) the management 
is to pass into other bands, and that extensive changes 
and improvements in the entrance and auditorium 
are contemplated. 

Mention should be made of an amateur company 
of young ladies and gentlemen, who, a lew years 
before the late war, appeared in farces and comedies 
in a small hall in the upper story of the late Dr. John 
Green's Block, on Main Street.' The young gentle- 
men of the company became, a few years later, the 
founders of the present Quinsigamond Boat Club. 

During the Civil War several amateur performances 
were given at the theatre, or in some public ball, by 
ladies and gentlemen, for the benefit of the United 
States Sanitary Commission, or for local aid to troops 

eJ by the ttferchaats' 

" Fire Insurance 1 lompan] 

passing through the city to and from the seat of war. 
Most of these performances were given under the 
patronage of Mrs. Governor John Davis. Among 
the pieces thus produced were : " Still Waters Run 
Deep," " Follies of a Night," " Ici on Parle Francais," 
and " Up at the Hills." 

Since the close of the war the local post of the 
" Grand Army of the Republic" have from time to 
time produced military plays at the theatre, for the 
benefit of their charitable fund, which have been 
most generously patronized. 

In later years the Quinsigamond Boat Club have 
given several excellent dramatic entertainments, in 
which the various parts, both male and female, were 
taken by members of the club and their friends. In 
this way they have presented the travesty of 
" Romeo and Juliet" in 1877, and again in 1879 ; the 
extravaganza of " Lord Bateman," 1878 ;" The Le- 
gend of the Rhine," 1879; and in April, 1888, "The 
Talisman, or the Maid, the Monk and The Minstrel." 
All of these were largely musical, and the club were 
ably assisted by local male vocalists. 

In December, 18S3, Mr. W. II. Bristol opened the 
" Dime Museum" in Washburn Hall, giving an ex- 
hibition of giants, dwarfs and curiosities of various 
kinds, with a variety stage performance. This is 
still continued and appears to have a generous pat- 

In 1882 and for a few years thereafter, dramatic per- 
formances were given at Bigelow's < harden and Skating 
Kink in the summer months, during which time seve- 
ral of the popular burlesque operas, like " Pinafore " 
and " Patience," were produced and drew large houses. 
In the same period entertainments were given by- 
Ira veiling theatrical combinations and minstrel shows, 
with occasional visits from Boston theatre companies. 

The foregoing notice of dramatic representations 
in Worcester is necessarily very incomplete, the 
space given to this subject permitting only a brief 
general review, and many interesting details have 
been omitted. 

WORCESTER- {Continued.) 



The National 3Sgi* of December 21, 1803, con- 
tained an editorial article, three columns in length 
setting forth in full the advantages which would 
inure to a community from the establishment of a 
bank. A number of gentlemen had met at Barker's 
tavern, 1 on the evening of the 18th, Isaiah Thomas 
presiding, and had voted that it would be ad van - 

1 Now the Exchange Hold. 



tageous to the county to have a bank established at 
Worcester; that as soon as one thousand shares 
should be subscribed for, at one hundred dollars a 
share, an application should be made to the Legisla- 
ture for an act of incorporation ; and that the sub- 
scription paper should be opened at Barker's tavern 
on the first Tuesday of January following. Benjamin 
Heywood, Francis Blake, Isaiah Thomas, William 
Paine and Daniel Waldo, Jr., were chosen a commit 
tee to secure the subscriptions and call a meeting of 
the subscribers for organization. An advertisement 
in the JEgis and the Massachusetts Spy, headed " A 
Country Bank,'' set forth that " an association of gen- 
tlemen belonging to the town of Worcester, having 
contemplated the advantages which would accrue to 
the agricultural, commercial and mechanical inter- 
ests of the county from the establishment of a bank 
in the town of Worcester,'' had appointed a commit- 
tee to invite subscriptions from the citizens of the 
county, and gave notice of the place and manner in 
which subscriptions might be made. The response 
to this call was so liberal, that it was found that one 
hundred and eighty-three subscribers had applied for 
a total of twenty-six hundred and twelve shares. These 
subscriptions were graded down to fifteen hundred by 
a committee, and application was made for a charter 
with a capital of $150,000, instead of the sum first 
proposed. The charter was granted March 7, 1804: — 
"An act to incorporate Daniel Waldo and others by 
the name and st/le of the President, Directors & Com- 
pany of the Worcester Bank." 

The corporators, besides the above-named commit- 
tee, were Daniel Waldo, Sr., Stephen Salisbury, Na- 
than Patch, William Henshaw, Nathaniel Paine and 
Elijah Burbank. The charter, which was to run for 
eight years from October 1, 1804, provided that the 
whole amount of capital should be paid in before 
March 1, 1805; that the bank might hold real estate 
for banking purposes to the amount of $20,000 ; that 
neither their circulation nor their loans should at any 
time exceed twice their capital stock actually paid in 
and existing in gold and silver in their vaults. No 
bills could be issued of a less value than five dollars, 
and none between five and ten dollars ; and the Com- 
monwealth reserved the right to become an owner 
in the stock to an amount not exceeding $50,000 of 
additional stock to be created. 

As there were no savings banks then in existence, 
it was also provided that one-eighth part of the whole 
funds of the bank should always be appropriated to 
loans to the "agricultural interest," of not less than 
oue hundred dollars or more than five hundred dollars 
each, and for a term not less than one year; and the 
bank was bound to loan to the State, whenever re- 
quired by the Legislature, any sum not exceeding 
$15,000, reimbursable in five annual instalments and 
at a rate of interest not exceeding five per cent. The 
charter was accepted at a meeting of subscribers to 
the stock, held April 10, 1804. At the same meeting 

Daniel Waldo, Benjamin Heywood, Samuel Flagg, 
Isaiah Thomas, Daniel Waldo, Jr., Theophilus Whee- 
ler and Samuel Chandler were elected directors. 
William Paine, Samuel Brazer, Ephraim Mower, 
Oliver Fisk and John Farrarwere charged with the 
duty of looking up a site for a banking-house and of 
preparing a suitable plan. On the 20th of the same 
month, on recommendation of the committee, it was 
voted to purchase the lot of land belonging to ('apt. 
Daniel Heywood, opposite to land owned by Na- 
thaniel Paine, Esq., "situate on the Main Street, in 
Worcester, stated to contain one hundred and twenty- 
six rods," and " to build a house of brick that will 
accommodate a family and answer for banking pur- 
poses." This site, now occupied by the Central Ex- 
change, was purchased, and a brick building, having 
two belts of marble on the front, was erected. It con- 
tained, besides the banking-rooms, a hall for the 
meetings of the stockholders and a tenement which 
was occupied by Hon. Daniel Waldo (second of that 
name) for several years, until he built his mansion 
just south of the bank, on the site of Mechanics' 
Hall. The north part of the first door was afterward 
used as the post-office. The bank continued to occupy 
its rooms until the building was destroyed by fire in 
1842. It kept the rooms (now occupied by the Me- 
chanics' National Bank) in the New Central Ex- 
change until 1851, when, in connection with the Bos- 
ton and Worcester Railroad Company, the Worcester 
Bank block was erected, the bank securing full own- 
ership iu the following year. 

As the time approached for the expiration of the 
original charter, a renewal was asked for from the 
Legislature. "Conflicting interests " — doubtless the 
exertions of the Boston banks — secured a rejection 
of the first petition, and of asecond memorial. But at 
the June session in 1812 a new charter was granted, 
the capital being increased to two hundred thousand 

The directors of the original bank in May, 1804, 
elected Levi Thaxter as cashier and Robert B. Brig- 
ham accountant, with the understanding that they 
should " enter themselves at some bank in the town 
of Boston, to be instructed, at their own expense, in 
the duties of their respective offices." A seal, having 
on it for device a buck, was adopted. Daniel Waldo, 
Jr., was authorized " to contract with Peter Marsh 
and Tarrant King, of Sutton, and David Hearsey, of 
Worcester, bricklayers, to work at $1.58J per day, 
board and liquor included." The banking-rooms 
were first used October 0, 1804, for a directors' meet- 
ing, at which Daniel Waldo, Jr., was elected presi- 
dent in his father's place. By-laws were adopted on 
the day following. It was decided that no discount 
should be made for a longer time than sixty days; 
that every note presented for discount should have 
one or more endorsers, unless stock was pledged as 
collateral security; that every person other than the 
promissor offering a note for discount should endorse 



it; that every note should be attested by one or more ; 
witnesses ; that no person should have his note re- 
newed for more than four-fifths of the original sum ; 
and at every renewal one-fifth of the original sum 
shall be paid. The first semi-annual report to the 
State, January 7, 1805, showed : Capital stock, $150,- 
000; debts due (i.e., loans), $185,645; monies de- 
posited, $166 [!] ; notes in circulation, $146,030 ; note i 
of other banks, $10,090; coined metals on hand, 

The directors of the Worcester Bank had been ; 
justly indignant at the course of some of the Boston 
banks in opposing a renewal, in 1811-12, of the orig- 
inal charter of the bank here. When, therefore, the | 
Suffolk Bank of Boston, in 1825, established the sys- 
tem, which in the end proved most beneficial, of a 
compulsory redemption of the bills of country banks, 
it was resisted by the Worcester Hank. A contest 
ensued, in which the Worcester Bank was sustained 
by the court. It afterwards fell in with the systems 
voluntarily and " not upon compulsion." 

The managers of the bank have ever been judi- 
ciously conservative, and this trait, together with 
the patriotism of the directors, made the bank an 
effective ally of the government at the outbreak of 
the I livil War, in 1861. The bank made heavy loans 
to the government, and its own reputation and vir- 
tual endorsement induced the people of the city ami 
its neighborhood to make heavy investments in the 
public funds, the bank acting as agent for the gov- 
ernment in the matter. On the establishment of the 
national banking system, the propriety of organizing 
under that system commended itself to the judgment 
of the directors, but they did not like to surrender 
their old name and be thereafter known only by a 
number, In compliance with a general demand 
from the old banks of the country, the original Na- 
tional Hanking Act was so modified as to allow them 
to retain their former names, prefixing or affixing the 
word " national." Having secured this privilege, at 
a special meeting of the stockholders, \la\ 9, 1864, 
it was voted unanimously, on recommendation of the 
directors, to organize as the Worcester National 
Bank, with a capital of three hundred thousand dol- 
lars. The patriotic remarks of the Hon. Levi Lin- 
coln, senior director, and the Hon. Stephen Salis- 
bury, president, on the occasion, are spread upon the 
records of the bank. The Worcester Bank was, 
therefore, the first of the State banks here to adopt 
the national system. That its next younger sister, 
the Central Bank, should be the first to follow its 
example, ten weeks later, was eminently appropriate. 
The capital of the Worcester Bank had been in- 
creased to two hundred and fifty thousand dollars 
in 1851 and to three hundred thousand dollars in 
1853. It is now five hundred thousand dollars. 

The presidents of the Worcester Bank have beeu : 
Daniel Waldo, April 12 to October 6, 1804; Daniel 
Waldo, Jr., October, 1804, until his death, July 9, 

1845 ; Stephen Salisbury, July, 1845, until his death, 
August 25, 1884 ; Stephen Salisbury, son of the latter, 
to the present time. Cashiers : Robert B. Brigham, 
1804-12; Samuel Jennison, 1812-46; Levi Lincoln 
Newton, 1846-47 ; William Cros3, 1847-64 (and vice- 
president, 1864-80); Charles B. Whiting, 1864-68; 
James P. Hamilton, 1869. Edward O. Parker, who 
had been connected with the bank for twenty-three 
years, and assistant cashier for nine years, resigned 
his position March 1, 1889. 

The success of the Worcester Bank and the benefit 
which it conferred upon the whole central portion of 
the State prompted the leaders of thought and of 
business affairs, in due time, to establish a savings 
bank, to receive and carefully invest the surplus 
earnings of the people, and while thus encouraging 
good habits and promoting the prosperity of their 
depositors, to still further benefit the community by 
loaning out the money thus collected, in loans upon 
mortgages or other good security. At that time, as 
now, every town in this county had one or more 
citizens who were the natural trustees of the people. 
It was they who were consulted on business matters, 
who were most frequently appointed as executors of 
wills or as adminstrators of estates. These men, as 
well as the lawyers, used to visit Worcester often, and 
especially at court times, and they co-operated in the 
movement to establish a savings bank. Tin- National 
dZgis of December 5, 1827, aided the movement by 
an able editorial article of a column's length. 

The first report of the proceedings which we find, 
state- that at an adjourned meeting, held at Thomas's 
Coffee-House, 1 December 6, 1827, a committee pre 
viously appointed (whose names are not given) re- 
ported a petition lor an act of incorporation, which 

1 by the gentlemen present, and another 

committee was app tinted to present it to the Legisla- 
ture. The petition was granted, and the charter of 

the Worcester Couirn [nsxiti hob fobSaviwg8 

was issued February 8, 1828. It provided that the 
annual meeting should be held " some time during 
the regular term of the sitting of the Supreme Judicial 
Court for the county of Worcester, in the spring of 
each year," — a time especially convenient for the 
trustees and corporators, who represented nearly every 
town in the county. On April '.i,1828, Isaac Good- 
win, as secretary of the petitioners, published the 
charter, and called the corporators to meet at Tin imas's 
Coffee-House on the 17th. The charter members 
were: — Daniel Waldo, Solomon Strong, Frederic 
W. Paine, Samuel B. Thomas, Pliny .Merrick, Ben- 
jamin Butman, Andrew II. Ward, Stephen Salisbury, 
, Jr., Seth Hastings, Samuel Jennison, Silas Brooks, 
David Brigham, William Steadmau, Stephen God- 
dard, Calvin Willard, Simeon Sanderson, Oliver 
Fiske, Jesse Bliss, Benjamin Adams, Charles Allen, 

1 Tlie successor of Barker's Tavern ; also called, In 1^'M EU« 
r "Sign of the Golden Ball. Now tbe Exchange Hotel. 


1 540 

William S. Hastings, George Wall, James Draper, 
John W. Lincoln, Isaac Goodwin, John M. Earle 
and Emory Washburn. At the first meeting one 
hundred and seventy-two new members of the cor- 
poration were elected, and fifty-six were added at an 
adjourned meeting held two weeks later. These rep- 
resented nearly every town in the county. Daniel 
Waldo was elected president, with twelve vice-pres- 
idents, and a board of twenty-four trustees. Isaac 
Goodwin was chosen secretary, and Samuel Jennison, 
cashier of the Worcester Bank, was the first treasurer. 
Of all the gentlemen named the last to survive was the 
Hon. Stephen Salisbury, who died August 24, 1884. 
The oldest living corporator is Henry W. Miller, 
Esq., of Worcester, who was elected May 1, 1828. 

Mr. Waldo continued president until his death, in 
1845, and was succeeded by Stephen Salisbury, who 
served until 1871, Alexander H. Bullock serving for 
the next thirteen years, until his death, in January, 
1S84. Stephen Salisbury, sou of the second presi 
dent, was elected president in April, 1884. The sec- 
retaries have been : Isaac Goodwin, elected 1828; 
William Lincoln, 1883 ; Thomas Kinnicutt, 1843; 
John C. B. Davis, 1848; Joseph Mason, 1850 ; Jo- 
seph Trumbull, 1853 ; J. Henry Hill, 1854. Mr. Jen- 
nison served as treasurer for twenty-five years, re- 
signing in October, 1S53, when the deposits amounted 
to $1,473,312.' He was followed by Charles A. Ham- 
ilton, who held the office until his death, October 30, 
1879. Charles A. Chase was elected treasurer No- 
vember 10, 1ST'.'. 

The original by-laws provided that the bank should 
be open every Wednesday from 2 until 5 o'clock p.m. 
The pass-books explained that this was "to save ex- 
pense to those who put in their money, who would 
otherwise be obliged to pay more for the time of the 
clerks, if they were to attend every day." All money 
received was to be either specie or bills current at the 
Worcester Bank, and all payments were to be made 
in the same manner. The first deposit, fifteen dol- 
lars, was made by Hon. Abijah Bigelow, in the name 
of his daughter, Miss Hannah Bigelow, June 4, 1828. 
The account was closed in August, 1874, after her 
death. The whole amount of deposits credited to 
the account was $460, and the payments amounted to 
$1758.36. At the close of the second year the total 
deposits in the institution amounted to $13,645. In 
contrast with this accumulation of two years it is in- 
teresting to observe that on the 31st day of Decem- 
ber, 1888, the teller received from 400 depositors the 
sum of $41,178.65 during the seven working hours of 
that single day. The whole amount of deposits on 
January 1, 18S9, was $10,480,487.47, and the assets, 
at their par value, amounted to $11,084,307.12. 

Isaac Goodwin, secretary of the corporation, made 

1 A full and admirable biographical sketch of Mr. Jennison, from the 
pen of Rev. George Allen, appeared in the daily .Sp</ and daily 7Va»i- 
teript of March 17, 1860. Justice to the merits of his successor was also 
given by the newspapers and by the bank trustees. 

the second deposit, fifty dollars, for Mrs. Surah 
Thayer, of Sterling. Among the well-known names 
which follow early in the list are: (4) Aaron Ban 
croft, fir Nancy J. Young, ''domestic;'' (7) Samuel 
Swan, for bis son, Reuben Swan ; (8) Benjamin 
Chapin, for John K. I.. Pickford ; (11) George Allen, 
for Lydia K. Adams; (13) John Brazer, by Samuel 
Brazer; (14) William Lincoln ; (23-26) Samuel Jen- 
nison, for his children ; (27 20) Levi Lincoln, for his 
two daughters ami tin' Hannah Cook, a domestic. 
The oldest account now open is No. 77. This de- 
posit, and No. 78. also now open, were made by Re- 
becca Foster, wife of the lion. Dwight Foster, of 
Brookfield, for a granddaughter and grandson respec- 
tively. No. 77 still stands in the name of the origi- 
nal beneficiary, and No. 78 has been ass : gned to the 
great-grandson of Mrs. Foster. The next open ac- 
count, No. 113, was made by Henry K. Newcomb, for 
Elizabeth Chandler Blake. The next, No. 140, was 
made by John B. Shaw. Over 00,000 accounts have 
been opened with depositors, and the number now 
outstanding is upwards of 23,300. 

The promise by the founders of the institution <>l 
handsome returns to depositors has been more than 
kept. Here is a striking instance of the accumula- 
tion of a small sum of money to which its earnings 
have been added semi-annually. On March 6, 1841, 
Mr. Samuel R. Jackson, of Providence, who had pre- 
viously been a merchant in Worcester, deposited the 
sum of $15 for one of his daughters. Other sums, 
making in all a total of $80, were deposited to her credit 
during the eight years following, and for this $80 
received by the institution, the depositor now has a 
credit of $1,106.83. This fact speaks whole volumes 
in behalf of the policy set forth in the first article 
of the original by-laws, " of enabling the industrious 
and economical to invest such part of their property 
and earnings as they can conveniently spare, in a 
manner which will afford them both profit and secur- 

As the pioneer banking institutions of the county 
it has seemed proper to give the histories of the Wor- 
cester Bank and the Worcester County Institution for 
Savings somewhat in detail. With the growth of the 
city, stimulated by the growth of the Blackstone 
Canal to Providence in 1828, and the granting of a 
charter for a railroad to Boston in 1831, other institu- 
tions of the same kind were established, at first in 
Worcester and afterwards in many other towns of the 

Thk Central Bank, with a capital of $100,000, 
was chartered March 12, 1820, the corporators being 
William Eaton, Leonard W. Stowell, Isaac Davis, 
Thornton A. Merrick, David Stowell, Pliny Merrick, 
William Jennison, Daniel Heywood, Gardiner Paine, 
Samuel Allen, Jr., Levi A. Dowley, Benjamin But- 
man, Asahel Bellows, Daniel Goddard, Isaac Good- 
win, Artemas Ward and Anthony Chase. Benjamin 
Butman was president until his resignation, in 

1 550 


August, 1836, and has been succeeded by Thomas 
Kinnicutt until his death, February 17, 1883, and the 
present incumbent, Joseph Mason. Otis Corbett was 
first cashier from May 10 to November 30, 1829, 
being succeeded by George A. Trumbull, who retired 
with the president in 1836. William Dickinson I 
served from 1836-50; George F. Hartshorn, 1850-56 
and 1859-62; George C. Bigelow, 1856-59 ; and the 
present incument, Henry A. Marsh, was elected in 
L 862, after serving the bank for nine years in other 
positions. The bank was reorganized under the 
national system May 18, 1864, and in 1865 increased 

its capital from $250,000 to $300,000. The banking 
office until 1853 was in the rooms now occupied by 
the Five Cents Savings Bank ; then for sixteen years 
in the second story at " Harrington Corner" (corner 
of Main and Front Streets), and since 1869 on the 
first floor of the People's Savings Hank building. 

The Quinsigamond Bank, with a capital id' one 
hundred thousand dollars, was incorporated March 
25, L838, the corporators being Nathaniel I'aine, 
Samuel M. Burnside, John Coe, Otis Corbett, Icha 
bod Washburn, Stephen Salisbury, Frederic William 
Paine, Thomas Kinnicutt, George T. Rice and Levi 
A. Dowley. Samuel D. Spun-, Frederic William 
Paine, Isaac Davis, Alfred D.Foster, Levi A.Dow- 
ley, Emory Washburn and Samuel Damon consti- 
tuted the first Board of Directors. The bank was 

opened in Dr. Green's block, now owned by the 
Merchants' and Fanners' Insurance Company, but 
soon removed to the south end of Flagg's building, 

at the north corner ol Sudbury Street, and after- 
wards, September, 1854, to its present site, nearly 
opposite the original location. This bank and the 

Worcester National own the buildings which they 
occupj in part. The Quinsigai id Bank went into 

the national system in 1865. Its capital was in- 
creased to one hundred and fifty thousand dollars 
May '22, 1851, and to two hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars March 28, 1854. Us first president was Lifted 
D. Foster, who was succeeded by Isaac Davis, 1836 
42; William Jennison, 1842-53 ; William Dickinson, 
to 1854; Isaac Davis, 1854-78; Edward L. Davis, 
1878-84 ; and by Elijah 15. Stoddard in 1884. Charles 
A. Hamilton was the first cashier, serving for twenty 
years, until 1853, when he resigned to become treas- 
urer of the Worcester County Institution tor Savings. 
His successors were: Joseph S. Farnum, from 1853 
to 1873; Alden A. Howe, 1873-81 ; and John L. 
Chamberlin, 1881. 

On April 9, 1836, Calvin Willard, Stephen Salisbury 
and Harvey Blashfield, received a charter as the CITI- 
ZENS' Bank, with a capital of five hundred thousand 
dollars, an amount considerably larger than the com- 
bined capital of the other two banks. The first Board 
of Directors consisted of Harvey Blashfield, Benjamin 
Butman, Pliny Merrick, William Lincoln, Ebenezer 
Aldrich, Edward Lamb, Nymphas Pratt, Frederic 
W. Paine and Calvin Willard. That Mr. Butman, 

the first president, and George A. Trumbull, the first 
cashier, came directly from the same offices in the 
Central Bank is a fact which excites our attention, 
but at this time it is impossible to discover the rea- 
sons. No Darwinian process had developed the 
"interviewer " in 1836. Mr. Butman was building 
a block of two stores, with offices overhead, on the 
northeast corner of Main and Maple Streets, wdiieh 
he called " Maccarty Block," because it was upon the 
site of the Nathaniel Maccarty homestead ; but al- 
though Mr. Butman retained the ownership for many 
years, it was known to the people, with the block join- 
ing it on the north, as "Brinley Row." The north 
store was occupied by Mr. Butman as the leading 
grocery of the town ; the comer store was fitted up 
for the Citizens' Bank, which remained there until 
March, 1881, when it was removed to its present quar- 
ters, at the corner of Main and Front Streets. 

In fixing their capital at half a million dollars the 
projectors had not foreseen — for they were but human 
— the great depression in business and the financial 
revulsion which were impending. Prudence and 
even necessity compelled them to reduce the capital 
from time to time until the present limit of one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars was reached. From 
the time when it had settled down to " bed-rock," its 
management has been wise and conservative, and it 
has returned a generous income to its stockholders. 

The presidents since Mr. Butman have been: \vtn 
pbas Pratt, chosen October, 1838; Pliny Merrick, 
October, 1889; Francis T. Merrick, October, 1842; 

Francis II. Kinnicutt, November, I860; Benjamin 

W. Chi Ids, September. 1885; and Samuel Winslow, 
January, 1889. Mr. Trumbull served as cashier until 
his death, in I Id ibi r, 1 358. John i '. Ripley, who had 

been clerk and assistant cashier lor nineteen years, was 

cashier ibr eleven years until his death, October 10, 
1869, and was succeeded by Lewis W. Hammond, the 
present incumbent. 

The Mechanics' (National) Bank is contem- 
porary with the city itself, having been incorporated 
June 1">. 1848, four months after the city received its 
charter. The corporators were Fred. Wm. I'aine, Hen- 
ry Goulding and Win. T. Merrifield.and the capital was 
SL'H'M increased to SlinO.iRIO in IS51, and to 

$350,000, the present amount, in 1853. 

The first Board of Directors included Win. II. 
Goulding, Win. T. Merrifield, Francis II. Dewey, 
Win. M. Bickford, Charles Washburn, Harrison 
Bliss. Ebenezer H. Bowen and Alexander De Witt. 
Mr. De Witt was president from 1848 to 1865, from 
October, 1857, to October, 1858, and from October, 
1859, to October, I860 ; Francis II. Dewey, October, 
[855, to October, 1857; Henry Colliding, LS58-59; 
Harrison Bliss, 1860 to July, 1882; Charles W. 
Smith, to March, 1S83 ; David S. Messinger, to 
April, 1888, when he resigned, and was succeeded by 
Francis H. Dewey, eldest son of the second presi- 
dent. The cashier- have been Parley Hammond, 



to July, 1854, succeeded by Scot to Berry to Febru- 
ary, 1866, when George E. Merrill, the present in- 
cumbent, was elected. 

The bank began business in a new brick block, 
built by Gen. George Hobbs, on the south corner of 
Main and George Streets, but in October, 1851, re- 
moved to its present quarters, previously occupied 
by the Worcester Bank, in the Central Exchange. 
The bank entered the national system March 14, 

On March 28, 1854, a charter was given to the 
City Bank, with a capital of $200,000, the cor- 
porators being William B. Fox, Henry Chapin and 
Frederic William I'aine. The petitioners had asked 
for a capital of $300,000 ; but the number of applica- 
tions for bank charters in that year was unusually 
large, and the committee of the Legislature, disposed 
to be conservative, at first took the ground that no 
new bank was needed in Worcester. But Mr. Calvin 
Foster, who was interested in the new enterprise, 
employed Mr. Putman W. Taft to canvass the city 
and obtain statistics of the volume of business 
yearly carried on at that time. The result of Mr. 
Taft's work showed an amount so large as to carry 
conviction to the minds of the committee. The 
charter was granted, and the bank began business in 
the second story of " Harrington Corner " (corner ol 
Main and Front Streets), a favorite site for banking. 
About the beginning of the year 185a, however, it 
removed to the rooms which had been especially 
fitted for its use in the new building erected by Mr. 
Foster, on the southwest corner of Main and Pearl 
Streets, where it has since remained. George W. 
Richardson was the first president, and was suc- 
ceeded by Calvin Foster in 1878. Parley Hammond 
was the first cashier, and his successor, Nathaniel 
Paine, has held the office since 1857. It organized 
as a national bank in 1864. Its capital is now $400,- 

The First National Bank, organized June 5, 
1863, with a capital of one hundred thousand dollars 
was, as its name implies, the first one of the kind in 
Worcester. It was also the second in the State (the 
First, of Springfield, being its elder), and the seventy- 
ninth in the whole country. The first board of 
directors consisted of Parley Hammond, Ichabod 
Washburn, Nathan Washburn, Timothy W. Welling- 
ton, George Draper (of Milford), Edward A. Goodnow, 
Hartley Williams, Charles B. Pratt and Alexander 
Thayer. Mr. Hammond was the first president, and 
Mr. Goodnow has been president since January 8, 
1867. Lewis W. Hammond was the first cashier, and 
was succeeded by Arthur A. Goodell July 18, 1864 ; 
George F. Wood, September 1, 1869 ; Arthur M. Stone, 
April 6, 1874, and Albert H. Waite, March 7, 1879. 
The bank was on the second floor at Harrington 
Corner until it moved into its present quarters in 1869. 
The original charter expired in June, 1882, but as 
Congress had not perfected the necessary legislation 

which, a month later, gave existing batiks the privi- 
lege of so amending their original articles of associa- 
tion as to extend their " period of succession" by an 
additional term of twenty years, another " First 
National Bank of Worcester " was, therefore, organ- 
ized June 4, 1882, which succeeded the former without 
any interruption or friction. Its capital is now three 
hundred thousand dollars, and surplus two hundred 
thousand dollars. 

The Security National Bank was authorized 
June 7, 1875, with a capital of one bundled thousand 
dollars, and did business at the north corner of Main 
and Pleasant Streets. The directors were : Win. H. 
Morse (president), John W. Wetherell, Edward H. 
Stark, Harlan P. Duncan, Gilbert J. Rugg, Frederick 
W. Ward and Benjamin W. Childs. Albert H. Waite 
was cashier. The bank gave up business in 1878. 

The Worcester Mechanics' Savings Bank was 
the second savings bank in Worcester in order of in- 
corporation. It was chartered May 15, 1851. The 
presidents have been : Isaac Davis until 1855 ; Alex- 
ander De Witt to 1859; John S. C. Knowlton to 1862 ; 
Harrison Bliss until bis death, in 1882; Francis H. 
Dewey until his death, in 1888; and J. Edwin Smith. 
Parley Hammond was treasurer for three years, and 
that office has been since filled, for nearly thirty-five 
years, by Henry Woodward. Except for the first 
three years, its rooms have been in the Central Ex- 
change. Its deposits amount to $4,255,975, and its 
assets to $4,452,872. 

Tut; Worcester Five Cents Savincs Bank 
was incorporated April 1, 1854, at the time when the 
new idea of receiving deposits of less than one dol- 
lar was coining in vogue, and has now a large num- 
ber of such accounts upon its books. Its first presi- 
dent was Charles L. Putnam, who was succeeded by 
George W. Richardson in 1S77, Clarendon Harris in 
1878, and Elijah B. Stoddard in 1884. Clarendon 
Harris, who was at the same time secretary of the 
State Mutual Life Insurance Company, was treasurer 
of this bank for the first eighteen years, being suc- 
ceeded by George W. Wheeler (who had been city 
treasurer for many years previous) and by J. Stewart 
Brown in 1884. Its banking-rooms have always been 
in some part of the building it now occupies. Pres- 
ent amount of deposits, $3,54S,961 ; assets, $4,309,825. 
On May 13, 1864, was incorporated the People's 
Savings Bank. The great impulse to business caused 
by the war, and the high wages paid on account of 
the cheapness of an over-inflated currency, made the 
time seem opportune for establishing a fourth sav- 
ings bank in the city. This bank also promised a 
departure from the system which had been in vogue 
with the older banks throughout the Commonwealth. 
The practice had been to pay a fixed rate, gener- 
ally two per cent., as a semi-annual dividend, and to 
make a division of the surplus earnings once in five 
years. But about this time a number of new banks 
were started, which promised to divide all their prof- 



its once in six months. The older banks in the State 
were compelled, nolentes volen/es, to fall into line, un- 
til, in 1876, the Legislature stepped in and made the 
old system compulsory upon all. 

The People's Saving Bank began business in 
the second story at the south corner of Main and 
Pleasant Streets. Its business rapidly increased, and 
in 1809 it moved into its own marble-front building 
on Main street, opposite the Common. Its first presi- 
dent was John C. Mason, who resigned January 27. 
1877, and was succeeded by William Cross, who re- 
signed in 1879. Lucius J. Knowles filled the office 
until his death, February 25, 1884, and was succeeded 
by Samuel R. Heywood. 

Charles M. Bent has been treasurer from the organ- 
ization of the bank. The deposits are now $5,108,- 
796, and the assets $5,363,605. 

The vast issue of bonds by the national govern 
ment during the great Rebellion, accompanied and 
followed by the issues by States, municipalities and 
railroads, created a demand for depositories where 
the people could safely store their securities and 
other personal property of value. The WORCESTER 
Safe Deposit and Trust Company received \\> 
first charter from the State as the Worcester Safe 
Deposit Company in March, L868, and its second in 
May, 1809. It receives deposits Bubject to check at 
sight, paying interest of two per cent, per annum OB 
daily balances of one hundred dollars or over, bui 
does not issue hills. It is also authorized to act :i> 
trustee in probate matters and the like. It assumei 
the direct custody of valuables, and lets small safes 
in its strong vaults, to which the renter alone has 
access. Its capital is $200,000. George M. Rice has 
been president from the start. Samuel T. Bigelow 
was the first secretary, and was succeeded by Edward 
F. BlSCO, -Inly 1, 1872. It occupies the first Hour o 
its own building, opposite the City Hall, and the 
basement of the People's Savings Bank building, 
which joins it on the south. 

The Statu Safe Deposit' Company was organ 
ized in 1887 solely for the purpose indicated by it- 
name. Its vaults are in an extension, to the west, ol 
the granite building owned by the State Mutual Lift 
Assurance Company, and its vaults, doors, lock^ and 
safes are marvels of construction. It rents its safe- 
at rates from five dollars upwards per annum, and 
has a special vault for the storage of silver, jeweln 
and other articles of value. A. George Bullock i> 
president, Henry M. Witter secretary and Hailed 
Bartlett manager. 

Co-operative banks, patterned after the building 
associations which bad been so successful in Phila- 
delphia and elsewhere, were introduced here in 1877. 
The Worcester Co-operative Savings Fund and Loan 
Association was incorporated October 19th in that 
year. Its name was changed later to Worcester 
Co-operative Bank. At the end of eleven years it 
had issued its seventeenth "series" of shares, had 

$279,300 loaned on real estate, and $11,395 on the 
shares, a surplus of $2663, and a guaranty fund of 
$500. The number of shares " in force" was 7710. 

The Home Co-operative Savings Fund and Loan 
Association was incorporated June 10, 1882; name 
changed to Home Co-operative Bank in 1883. In 
November, 1888, it had issued its thirteenth series of 
shares, had $173,300 loaned on real estate, and $5055 
on shares, with a surplus of $5706 and a guaranty 
fund of $229; 5712 shares in force. 

The Equity Cooperative Bank began business 
in March, 1887. November 1, 1888, there were 3041 
shares in force, in four series, with $35,850 loaned on 
real estate and $725 on shares, a surplus of $580 and 
a guaranty fund of $19. 

Stephen C. Earle is president of the Worcester 
Co-operative Bank, Enoch H. Towne of the Home, 
and Iver Johnson of the Equity. Thomas J. Has- 
tings is secretary and treasurer of them all, and Ed- 
ward B. Glasgow is their solicitor. The continued 
prosperity of the city has been favorable to their 
success. They have not yet been put to the strain of 
the great financial depressions which at intervals 
sweep over the country. The loans are bid off at 
auction by shareholders at a rate of interest varying 
from six to eight per cent. 

The advantage and convenience of a CLEARING- 
Hoi BE, to banks and business people alike, is so great 
that it is difficult for the lay mind to conceive of the 
comparatively infinite labor and trouble which would 
be caused if, as in anti-secession times, a check could 
be deposited or cashed only at the bank on which it 
was drawn. The Worcester banks, free, in great 
measure, from a petty jealousy which would be in- 
compatible with harmony of action, joined in estab- 
lishing a Clearing-House in 1861, being only eight 
years behind New York City, where the first Clearing- 
House in the country was established in I S')3, fol- 
lowed by one in Huston in 1866. The main feature 
of this system may be thus described: At a given 
hour of each day (say twelve o'clock l the messenger 
of each bank appears at the Clearing-I louse, bring- 
ing all the checks upon other banks in the city which 
his bank has received on deposit from its regular cus- 
tomers. These checks he has assorted and listed on 
slips, which show bow much the other banks are 
severally indebted to his bank. We will suppose that 
the total amount of checks thus brought in, say from 
the "Sagabastock" Bank, is $50,000. Now, if the clerk 
at the Clearing-House finds that the aggregate 
amount of the checks upon the Sagabastock is but 
$48,000, the latter is creditor to the amount of $2,000, 
and receives from the manager of the Clearing-House 
a draft on Boston for $2,000, which he takes back to 
his bank with the $48,000 worth of checks, which are 
charged up to the various depositors by whom 
they were drawn ; and as far as this part of the day's 
business is concerned, the Sagabastock teller and 
book-keeper will find no trouble in balancing their 



books at the close of the day. If, on the other hand, 
the other banks have brought in #52,000 worth of 
checks on our messenger's bank, against the $50,000 
which he brought, he is informed that he is debtor to 
the Clearing-House by $2000. He reports this fact 
to his own bank, and before the close of business car- 
ries to the manager of the Clearing-House the check 
of his own bank ou Boston for $2000. The manager 
mails to his correspondent bank in Boston the checks 
which he has received from the debtor banks, which 
offset the checks which he has given to the creditor 
banks, and the balance of the Clearing-House at its 
Boston bank is undisturbed. 

The daily balances at the Clearing-House average 
about thirty per cent, of the whole volume of checks 
presented, or " clearings." The association includes 
the seven national banks of the city and the Worcester 
Safe Deposit and Trust Company. The annual clear- 
ings rose from $6,051,7(53 in 1861 to $10,314,804 in 1864. 
Dropping to $9,046,438 in 1865, they rose, year by 
year, to $28,931,349 in 1875. They fell to $25,169,157 
in 1876. In 1881 they mounted to $49,224,751, but 
had dropped to $38,551,145 in 1885. The total for 
1886 was $44,362,020 ; 1887, $44,298,632 ; 1888, $52, 
070,112, which was "high-water mark." The clear- 
ings for the week ending December 22, 1888, the 
heaviest in the history of the association, amounted 
to $1,409,122, and the balances to $337,344. The 
clearings were made for several years in the rooms oi 
the Central Bank, but have latterly been made at the 
Citizens' Bank. Henry A. Marsh is president of the 
association, and Lewis W. Hammond is secretary and 



The prudent householders of the county early 
appreciated the benefits of fire insurance, and secured 
the passage of an act, February 11, 1823, incorporat- 
ing the Worcester Mutual Fire Insurance Com- 
pany. Of the eighteen corporators, Levi Lincoln 
and Abraham Lincoln were of Worcester, and the 
rest from other towns in the county. The charter 
provided that no policy should be issued until sub- 
scriptions for at least two hundred thousand dollars 
been received ; that the operations of the company had 
should be confined to this county, and that property 
should not be insured for more than three-fourths o) 
its value. The first meeting of the corporators was 
held June 19, 1823, at the Court- House. The first 
policy, signed by Rejoice Newton, president, and 
William D. Wheeler, secretary, was issued May 14, 
1824. Itinsured Luther and Daniel Qoddard — fifteen 
hundred dollars on their dwelling-house, occupied by 
themselves and their families, and the wood-house 
and barn attached thereto, and eleven hundred dol- 
lars on their brick store. The rate was one and 
three-quarters per cent, for the house and barn, and 
one and three-eighths per cent, on the store, the 
policy running for seven years. The house was situ 
ated on the east side of Main street, midway between 

Thomas and School streets, and the store was a little 
to the south. Policy No. 2 insured Rejoice Newton 
three thousand dollars on his house and barn and 
four hundred dollars on his furniture. The buildings 
were on Front Street, on the site of the Chase Build- 
ing. The rate was one and one-quarter percent, for 
seven years. Nos. 3 and I were issued to Abijah 
Bigelow, and No. 7 to Daniel Waldo. Isaac Good- 
win was secretary of (be company from December, 
1828, to 1832; Anthony Chase, to 1853; Charles M. 
Miles, to 1879. Frederic W. Paine was president 
from 1831 to 1853 ; Anthony Chase from Is:,:; until 
his death, in 1879, ami Ebenezer Torrey until his 
death, in 1888. Charles M. Miles was vice-president 
and manager from 1879 until his death, in 1887. John 
A. Fayerweather, of Westborough, is president ; 
Roger F. Upham, secretary and treasurer, and Frank 
P. Kendall, assistant secretary. Prudent manage- 
ment has brought continued prosperity and has 
secured the undiminished confidence of the people. 

To meet the wants of merchants whose stocks in 
trade could not be insured in the older company, the 
Merchants' and Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance 
Company was organized in 1846. Isaac Davis was 
president until 1884, and was succeeded by John D. 
Washburn; Charles L. Putnam was secretary for sev- 
eral years, succeeded by John I). Washburn and by 
Elijah B. Stoddard, the present incumbent. The 
officers are men of large experience in insurance mat- 
ters, and the company, having safely weathered the 
great Boston fire of 1873, occupies a prominent posi- 
tion in the Commonwealth. 

The First National Fire Insurance Company was 
organized in 1869, with Edward A.t! inow presi- 
dent and Edward P. Howland secretary. Its capital 
is two hundred thousand dollars. Charles B. Pratt is 
president and R. James Tatman secretary. 

The People's Mutual Fire Insurance Company 
was organized in 1847, and in 1865 was convert. .1 
into a stock company. The " Boston lire" compelled 
it to wind up its business, paying its policy-holders a 
dividend of 73.6 per cent. E. H. Hemenuay was the 
first president and Oliver Harrington secretary, who 
were succeeded by Henry Chapin and Augustus N. 

The Bay State Fire Insurance Company, organized 
January 1, 1861, and having a capital of two hundred 
thousand dollars, and the Central Mutual Fire Insur- 
ance Company, organized a few years later, were also 
compelled to suspend business on account of the Bos- 
ton fire. At that time William S. Davis was presi- 
dent of the former, and W. C. Crosby secretary. Of 
the latter William T. Merrifield was president; L. C. 
Parks, vice-president; Henry K. Merrifield, secretary, 
and Albert Tolman, treasurer. 

The Manufacturers' Mutual Fire Insurance < !om- 
pany was chartered in 1834, for the special purpose of 
insuring manufacturing property. Its rooms were 
over the Citizens' Bank; after a temporary suspension 



it was re-organized, and in 1861 was merged with the 
Mechanics' Mutual Fire Insurance Company, under 
the name of the Worcester Manufacturers' Mutual 
Fire Insurance Company. Hon. George M. Rice is 
president and Samuel R. Barton secretary. 

The State Mutual Life Assurance Company 
was organized in 1845 with a perpetual charter. The 
project was bitterly opposed in the Legislature by ex- 
isting organizations, but it was carried through by the 
determined stand taken by John Milton Earle, 1 who 
was a Representative in that year. Mr. Earle was a 
director and vice-president of the company until his 
death. For twenty years the company carried a 
guaranty capital of one hundred thousand dollars, 
but since that time, the capital having been retired, 
it has been purely mutual. The management has 
been prudent from the start, and at present, while 
conservatively safe, is " in touch " with the great 
wealth and business enterprise of the American peo 
pie. The interest received on the invested funds lias 
more than paid all the death claims to the present 
time. The presidents have been: .John Davis, 9 until 
his death, in 1853 ; Isaac Davis, who resigned Janu- 
ary 4, 1882; Alexander H. Bullock,' who died sud- 
denly January 17, 1882; Philip L. Moen, 1882-83; 
and Augustus (ieorge Bullock. Secretaries: Claren- 
don Harris, 1845-83 (resigned); and Henry M. Witter. 
Treasurers: William Dickinson, 1845-83 (resigned); 
and A. George Bullock. 

The assets of the company December 31, 1888, were 
$5,066,985, with 9,826 policies in force and a reserve, 
by the Massachusetts standard, of $793,046. 


WORCESTER— {Continued. ) 

IniuiduaU — Socielieg— Hospitalt. 

In preparing this account of the medical men who 
have " fought the good tight and kept the faith," re- 
course has been had to genealogies, manuscripts, 
public records and to the memories of the oldest of 
those now living among us. To the kindness of the 
librarians of the Antiquarian Library and Public 
Library, who have allowed free access to books and 
manuscripts ; to members of the families of deceased 

1 See the biography of Mr. Earle in another place. 

- Governor and United States Senator. 

3 Governor. 

* Dr. Woodward has not been able to read the proof of this chapter, 

since the portion of the work containing it was printed bo late that 

the proof could not be sent to him in Europe, where he was at the 

time of printing.— Eds. 

physicians ; to physicians themselves and particu- 
larly to Doctors Sargent, Chandler and Bemis, with- 
out whose aid the work would have been impossible, 
is due whatever of accuracy may have been attained. 
The necessary limits of the article render it neces- 
sary to omit all mention of those physicians now 
practising in Worcester who have not been at least 
twenty years in the harness, except as their names 
may appear in connection with societies and public 

1675.— At the first laying out of Quinsigamog, 
twenty-five acres of land were granted to Dr. Leon- 
ard Hoar, " to him and to his heyres." An ex-presi- 
dent of Harvard College, he, in 1671, had taken his 
degree at the University of Cambridge (England), 
and was then in practice in the vicinity of Boston. 
Hi, death, in the same year, prevented actual settle- 
ment. The name of no physician can be found in 
the records of either the first or second attempts to 
found a town. 

L718. Robert Crawford, who came with the 
Scotch- Irish colony of 1718, was in all probability the 
tirst physician of the place. He lived on thc"<; r ceii 
Hill farm : " was employed as surgeon in the military 
expeditions of the time (in 1722 he was with Major 
John Chandler's company of scouts), and was alive 
at Least as late as 1760. His wife died in 1780, aged 

twenty-six years, and was one of those buried in the 

Tl tas Street burying-ground. 

1786. Dr. Zachariah Harvey, who, " in I74n, 
slew 67 rattlesnakes," 5 was here at least as early as 
L736, when the birth of a son is recorded, and was 
still in town in 1 747. The name appears also as 
Harney and lleitiy. 

17 1.".. In this year (January 17th) died Dr. Eben- 
e/.er Whitney, leaving a "library valued at £4 6*., 
and drugs to the amount of £6 18«." 

1744.— DR. Naih m WlLLARD, son of Colonel 
Samuel Willard, of Lancaster, who commanded a 
regiment at the capture of Louisburg, and brother 
of Colonel Ahijali Willard, mandamus councillor in 
1771 and later Tory refugee, was born in Lancaster 
(Harvard), May 28, 1722: began practice in Worces- 
ter, at or about the time of his marriage to Elizabeth 

Townsetid, of Bolton (January 17, 1744), and lor 
more than thirty years lived on the south side of the 
( '.minion, in a house standing on the present site of 
the French Catholic Church. With him boarded for 
some time, while teaching school here, John Adams, 
afterwards President of the Inited States, in whose 
diary is the following entry: "Three months after 
i this (October, 1755) the selectmen procured lodgings 
for me at l>r. Nahum Willard's. This physician had 
a large practice, a good reputation for skill and a 
pretty library. Here were the works of Dr. Cheyne, 
Sydenham and others, and Van Swieten's commenta- 
ries of Boerhaave." Adams " read a good deal in 

& Lincoln's "History of Worcester," p. 21G. 


1 555 

these books," ami was so enamored of them, that 
he " entertained many thoughts of becoming physi- 
cian and surgeon." Dr. Willard was surgeon in 
Colonel Chandler's regiment, which left Worcester 
August 10, 1757, " to give aid and assistance to his 
majes tie's troops." He remained with the army for 
over three years, and his bill ' against the province 
of Massachusetts Bay, for attendance on various 
members of different companies during this time, 
amounted to £44 6s. 3rf. He seems to have been a 
popular man, of good social position, on terms of 
intimacy with the Chandlers, Putnams and l'aines, 
and always remembered by his former boarder, who, 
in his frequent journeyings through Worcester, never 
forgot to take dinner or tea with the " Dr." In 1771 
Adams sees " little alteration in Dr. Willard or his 
wife in 16 years." But evil days came soon after 
to the popular physician. His best friends sided 
with the King. In 1774 he was one of the 
famous fifty-two "protestors" against "the trea- 
sonable doings '" of the patriots in Worcester. With 
forty-two others he was obliged to sign a recanta- 
tion, and May 8, 177"), was ordered "to prove his 
patriotism by either joining the American troops or 
providing a substitute, on pain of being considered 
willing to join an unlawful banditti to murder and 
ravage." A week later he was among those disarmed, 
and prevented from leaving town on any pretext 
whatever. Naturally embittered by these measures, 
his opinions were made known with a courage and 
boldness that brought upon him the wrath of the 
" Sons of Liberty," and he was compelled to sign a re- 
cantation of his " notorious scandals and falsehoods," 
and to acknowledge " the perverseness of his wicked 
heart," which led him to abuse and " most scandalously 
asperse" the proceedings of " Continental and Pro- 
vincial Congresses, the selectmen of the town, and the 
Committee of Correspondence in general." His busi- 
ness was ruined, and he retired to Uxbridge, where 
his son, Dr. Samuel Willard, A.B. (Harvard) 1767, 
had been in practice since 1770. Still a stout loyal- 
ist, his name appears, in 1777, at the head of a short 
list of persons " esteemed as enemies, and dangerous 
to this and the other U. S. of America." He died in 
Uxbridge, April 26, 1792. 

His son Levi, born in Worcester in 1740, studied 
medicine; practised in Mendon, and died there De- 
cember 11, 1809. 

1745.— Dr. Samuel Brkck, A.B. (Harvard, 1742), 
son of Rev. Robert Breck, of Marlboro', where he 
was born May 17, 1723; married Elizabeth Cooley, of 
Springfield, in 1744; was for a short time surgeon in 
the Provincial army, and from 1745 to 1747 a in prac- 
tice in Worcester. He afterwards went to Windsor, 
Ct., and later to Sheffield, where he was " much 

1 Original in Antiquarian Society's Library. 
• Lincoln (p. 213-214) says he was here in 1730. He 

esteemed." He died in Springfield April 23, 1764. 
His house here, "on the common southeast from the 
mei ting-house," was purchased by the town Septem 
ber 25, 17 17, and was afterwards the residence of Rev. 
Thaddeus Maccarty. 
1756. — Dr. William Crawford, son of Robert, 

was in turn pedagogue, clergyman and physician. In 
1757 he served as chaplain to a company sent to the 
relief of Fort William Henry. In 1758 he taughl 
the village school, and boarded at Dr. Willard's, 
"17' weeks at 6 shillings a week." 3 In 1759 he was 
chaplain of Colonel Abijah Ward's regiment, and in 
1760 surgeon in the regiment of General Rugglee. 
No record of either birth or death remains. He was 
alive in 1770. 

1757. — Dr. John Green was the son of Rev. 
Thomas Creen, Baptist elder and physician, one of 
the earliest settlers of Leicester (Greenville), where 
he was born August 14, 1736. 

Instructed in medicine by his father, he came to 
Worcester and built his house on the eminence now 
known as Green Hill, which, although relatively 
nearer town at that time, when many persons lived 
north of Lincoln Square, and " there were but seven 
houses on Main Street between that point and the old 
South church on the common," ' seems yet to have 
been at a distance that might well make prospective 
patients hesitate before storming the steeps in the 
dead of night or in bad weather. Patients came, 
however; medical students, also, from Worcester and 
surrounding towns ; Green Lane became a county 
road, and although, during the latter part of his life, 
his office was in a little wooden affair on the present 
site of the Five Cents Savings Bank, the doctor 
always lived in the Green Hill house, and there he 
died forty-two years later (October 29, 1799), aged 
sixty-three years. 

An earnest patriot, he was, in 1773, a member (and 
the only medical member) of the American Political 
Society, which was formed " on account of the grievous 
burdens of the times," and did so much to bring 
about that change of public sentiment which expelled 
the adherents of the crown. He took a prominent 
part in all the Revolutionary proceedings, and, in 
1777 was sent as Representative to the General Court. 
In 1778 and 1779 he was town treasurer, and, in 1780, 
one of the selectmen, the only physician who ever 
held that office. His first wife, Mary Osgood, died in 
1761. His second wife, daughter of General Timothy 
Ruggles, of Hardwick, survived him, dying in 1814, at 
the age of eighty-four. A son, Dr. Elijah Dix Green, 
born July 4, 1769, A.B. (Brown) 1793, was a physician 
in Charleston, S. C. 

1770. — Dr. Elijah 1»i\, student with Dr. John 
Green, was both physician and druggist, fitting him- 
self for the latter business by study with Dr. Wil- 

8 Town records of that year. 

I "Caleb Wall Reminiscences," I'- 216, 



Ham Greenleaf, of Boston. Born in Watertown, 
Massachusetts, August 24, 1747, early dependent on 
his own exertions, and desirous of taking a re- 
spectable position in society, he hired himself out 
to that eccentric but thorough scholar, the Rev. Aa- 
ron Hutchinson, of Grafton, he to receive board and 
education in return for his services. He practised 
medicine in Worcester from 1770 to 1795, residing for 
the last part of the time on the estate next south of 
the Judge Jennison house on Court Hill, with his of- 
fice and druggist's establishment iu a two-story build- 
ing near by. The house was pulled down when F. 
H. Dewey's was erected on its site, but the two mag- 
nificent elm trees planted at his gate are still stand- 
ing. His reputation as a physician was good, his 
practice sufficient, and as his business tact was equal 
to his professional skill, he accumulated property 
which was invested in lands in Maine (Dixmont), 
and later in chemical works, and in the wholesale 
drug business in Boston. To the latter place he re- 
moved in 1795, and on one of his expeditions to bis 
.Maine property in 1809, was, as was more than bus 
pected, foully dealt with. In 1784 he went to Eng 
land on business, bringing back a large assortment of 
medicines, valuable books and philosophical and 
chemical apparatus. He was the originator of the 
stock company which purchased land on the west 
side of Main Street, built the " Centre School-house," 
and maintained there for some years a higher Bchool, 
or academy. He was a member of the first board of 
councillors of the County Medical Society. He was 
the first to plant elms on Main Street, and, by induc- 
ing others to follow his example, gave the town that 
mile-long double line of these trees that once shaded 
the road. From his garden came the Dix pear. To 
him Dix Street owes its name. With him lived the 
children of General Warren at the time of the bat- 
tle of Bunker Hill. The late Dorothea L. Dix, the 
"American Florence Nightingale," was his grand- 
daughter. Fire warden in 1790, he was one of the 
original members of the Worcester Fire Society, and 
his garden fence was decorated with one of the six 
ladders belonging to the town. He married (October 
1, 1771) Dorothy, sister of Dr. Joseph Lynde, after- 
wards of Worcester. Two of his sons were physi- 
cians,— William Dix, A.B. (Harvard | 1792, M. D. 
(Harvard) 1795, died at Dominica, West Indies, April 
4,1799; and H. Elijah Dix, A.B. (Harvard) 1813, 
student with Dr. John Warren and later surgeon in 
the United States Navy, died at Norfolk, Virginia, in 

1771— William Paine, M.D., A.B. (Harvard, 
1768), eldest son of Hon. Timothy Paine, was born in 
Worcester June 5, 1750. Graduated at Harvard in 
1768, his name standing second in a class of forty, at a 
time when the names were arranged according to the 
dignity of families. He studied medicine for four 
years with the celebrated Dr. Edward A. Holyoke, 
of Salem, and began practice here in 1772. He opened 

the same year in a little wooden building on Lincoln 
Square, the first drug-store in the county. Early 
identified with the royal cause, Dr. Paine is supposed 
to have assisted his uncle, Attorney-General Putnam, 
in drawing up the bold protest of 1774. He soon 
after went to England to complete his studies, and in 
l77-"> received the degree of M.D. from the University 
of Aberdeen. Returning in May of that year, he 
found, on landing at Salem, that the war had begun, 
that he had been proclaimed as a refugee, and included 
in an act of banishment, "to be" (if he returned) 
"transported back to some place within the posses- 
sion of forces of the King of Great Britain,'' and if 
he should return a second time " to suffer the pains 
of death without benefit of clergy." It was, of course, 
impossible to go home, and he returned to England. 
In November of the same year (1775) he received 
the appointmenl of surgeon in the British Army, 
and joined the forces in America. He served in 
Rhode Island and New York until L782, when he was 

appointed " Surgeon -Genera] of the King's Forces in 
America,'' and ordered to Halifax. Here he re- 
mained until the reduction of the troops in 1783, 
when he was dismissed on hall-pay with the grant 
of La 'fete Island in Passamaquoddy Bay as a place 
of residence, He soon removed to St. John, where 

he entered into practice. lie was in I 785 elected to 
the New Brunswick Assembly, and appointed clerk 
of that body. The act of banishment having been 
rescinded in 1787, be returned to his native country, 
living in Salem until the death of his father, in 1798, 

when he returned to Worcester, and took possession of 

the house On Lincoln Street, still standing, and latter- 
ly known as "The Oaks." Here- for forty years he 
lived, practising medicine to some extent, but, in the 
latter part of Ins life, distinguished rather as a man of 
Liters than as a physician, lie received the half- 
pay of a British officer until the War of 1M2, when, 
being called <m tor service, he resigned his commis- 
sion, petitioned the Legislature of -Massachusetts for 
naturalization as a citizen of the United States, and, 
on the granting of the petition, took formal posses- 
sion of his property , hitherto held by his brother, Judge 
I'aine. He died April 19, 1883, a! the age of eighty- 
three. Dr. Paine became a member of the College 
of Physicians of London in 1781, and in 1790 was 
made an honorary member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, lie was g membei of the Society 
of Northern Antiquities of Copenhagen, of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, of the Lin- 
naan, and of the Essex Historical Society. He was 
one of the founders of the Antiquarian Society, and 
from 1813-16 its vice-president. He was also one of 
the incorporators of Worcester Bank, the first bank 
in the county. He married, September 23, 1773, 
Lois Orne, daughter of Timothy Orne, of Salem. 
As a young man of twenty-one; " Dr. Billy Paine " 
was, by the evidence of John Adams, his whilom 
schoolmaster, very civil, agreeable and sensible. In 



his later life he was considered " to possess extensive 
and profound learning and a refined literary taste, 
and was equally respected as physician and as cit- 
izen." 1 

1776. — Dr. JOSEPH Lynde, in practice here from 
1775-83, was born in Charlestown, Mass., February 
8, 1749, and came to Worcester with his father, 
Joseph Lynde, A.B. (Harvard, 1723), after the burn- 
ing of the former town by the English. He lived on 
Main Street, on the present site of Hangs Block, was 
for some time in partnership with his brother-in-law, 
Dr. Dix, and finally went to Hartford, Conn., where 
he died January 15, 1821), aged eighty. These 
Lyndes were related to John Lynde, of Leicester, 
from whom Lynde Brook derives its name. 

1781. — Dr. John Green, the second of the name, 
was a tall, strong man of fine proportions, who 
seemed eminently qualified to endure the hardships 
of a practice that extended far into the surrounding 
country. For the last nine years of his life he was 
practically the only physician in the place, and his 
death, after an illness of but a few hours, at the early 
age of forty-five, made a gap that it seemed for a 
time impossible to fill. Born in Worcester March 
18, 1763, and instructed by his father, the first Dr. 
Green, he began practice at the age of eighteen, and 
for twenty-seven years devoted himself exclusively to 
his profession. Particularly skilled in surgery, his 
steady hand and keen eye were in demand for many 
an important operation, " while daily could be seen," 
says Charles Tappan, " Dr. Green and his half-dozen 
students mounted on horseback and galloping through 
the streets as if some one or more were in peril." Of 
the appearance of the doctor and his "students" 
something more may be learned from the " Reminis- 
cences" of the Hon. Levi Lincoln, who, in describ- 
ing him as one of the original members of the Wor- 
cester Fire Society, claims that Dr. Green would 
"often be followed in his queer-looking two-wheeled 
vehicle by a pack of dogs, or, superb horseman that 
he was, be seen on the backs of all manner of un- 
gainly half-broken colts, at full gallop, accompanied 
by the pack giving mouth as if half a score of hunts- 
men were at their heels, to the infinite delight of all 
the urchins in the village." He lived at first in the 
little wooden office of his father, afterwards in the 
house next south, built by him and later occupied 
by his son. His wife was Nancy Barber, grand- 
daughter of Robert Barber, of Northville. " To his 
funeral," says the Massachusetts Spy of August 17, 
1808 (he died on the 1 1th of this month), " came the 
largest concourse of people from this and neighbor- 
ing towns ever known to be collected here on a simi- 
lar occasion." "Few have been so loved while liv- 
ing or so mourned when dead." 

1781.— DR. THADDEU8 MACCARTY, A.B. (Yale, 
1766), son of Rev. Thaddeus Maccarty, was born in 

, i 

Worcester, December 19, 1747. His early instructors 
were John Adams and the Rev. Aaron Hutchinson, 
of Grafton. His account of the former leads to the 
conclusion that Adams was a better President than 
pedagogue. " He used to sit at his nearly all 
the time engaged in writing (sermons, thinks Mac- 
carty) and seemed, when not actually writing, ab- 
sorbed in profound thought and abstracted from 
everything about him. He kept his school by setting 
one scholar to teach another."' Dr. Maccarty 
studied medicine with the eminent Dr. Frink, 
of Rutland, for four years, and in 1770 began prac- 
tice in Dudley, in partnership with Dr. Eben 
Lillie. In 1773 he went to Fitchburg, being the first 
and for some years the only practitioner there. None 
of the five surrounding towns boasted a physician, 
and he was consequently called upon to do an aston- 
ishing amount of work. His nearest medical neigh- 
bor was Dr. Shattuck, of Templeton. In 1775 he 
was inoculated for the small-pox at a hospital in 
Great Barrington, by a certain Dr. Latham, who had 
at that time great reputation in the treatment of the 
disease by what was known as the method of Dr. 
Sutton. The method being a secret, a contract was 
made, by which Dr. Maccarty was empowered to use 
it in Fitchburg for twenty-one years, Dr. Latham to 
furnish medicines and to receive one-half the profits, 
while Dr. Maccarty was neither to sell the medicines 
nor to try, by analysis or otherwise, to discover their 
composition. He was also allowed to attend patients 
anywhere in Worcester County until Dr. Paine (then 
in England) should return. Escaping, by tact, a 
warm reception prepared for him on his return to 
Fitchburg (he was suspected of Toryism) and obtain- 
ing the necessary license from the Court of Sessions, 
he opened a small-pox hospital, where over eight 
hundred patients were inoculated and treated by Dr. 
Atherton, of Lancaster, and himself. His books show 
that the moderate fee £1 10s. was all that was de- 
manded from each person for medical services. 

In 1781 his father's failing health called him to 
Worcester, where he remained eight years, living, 
after his father's death, in the house on Park Street, 
east of Portland, formerly belonging to Dr. Samuel 
Breck. In 1784 he was town physician ; in 1785 he 
was greatly honored by election to membership in 
the Massachusetts Medical Society, then in the fourth 
year of its existence; but his success in Worcester 
was not great, and, on the death of his wife, in 1789, 
he went to Keene, N. H., where he was for some time 
engaged in trade. In the epidemic of 1793-94 he man- 
aged successfully smallpox hospitals in Charlestown, 
N. 11 . and in Keene. In 1796 he became interested in the 
once famous Perkins " tractors,"— metal points, which, 
drawn over the skin, were supposed to cure neuralgia, 
rheumatism, and all manner of diseases, later shown 

! Manuscript of John W. Stiles prepared for Mi\ Lincoln's history. 
I opj In possession .if Mrs. Henry Clarke, a descendant of Dr. Maccarty. 



to be as valueless as was the " blue glass" of a few 
years since, but then eagerly bought at fifty dollars 
the pair. He died November 21, 1802, aged fifty-five. 
His wife, to whom he was married in 1775, was 
Experience, daughter of Thomas Cowdin, of Fitch- 

1783. — Dr. Samuel Prentiss, son of Col. Samuel 
Prentiss, of the Revolutionary Army, was born in 
Stonington, Conn., in 1759. For a time "military 
waiter " to his father, he then studied medicine with 
Dr. Philip Turner, of Norwich, and when quali- 
fied, re-entered the army as assistant surgeon and 
remained until peace was declared. From 1783-8(5 
he was in Worcester, but there were already too many 
physicians here, and he removed to Northlield, where 
lor more than twenty years he was almost the only 
operating surgeon in that section. He died in 1819, 
aged fifty-nine. Lincoln states that he was secretary 
of a short-lived medical society in 1785. Of this So- 
ciety, which, if it existed, was the first association of 
physicians in the county, no trace remains. 

1790. —Oliver Fiske, M.D. A.B. (Harvard, L787), 
was the son of the " well-beloved '' Rev. Nathan Fiske, 
of Brookfield, where he was born, September 2, L762. 
His prompt enlistment in the patriot army in 1780, 
at the age of eighteen, by stimulating others to follow 
his example, prevented a drafl from the Brookfield 
company of militia already paraded for that purpose. 
After the expiration of his term of service he returned 
home and continued his preparation for 1 [arvard < lol- 
lege, which he entered in 1783. He taught Bchool in 
Lincoln during tin- winter vacation of 1780-87, but 
procured a substitute and hastened to Worcestei 
when Shays and his men appeared here, arriving in 
time to make the march to Petersham with General 
Lincoln. Returning to college, he graduated with his 
class, and alter studying medicine three years with 
Dr. Athertou, of Lancaster, began practice in Wor- 
cester in 1790. He at once took a leading position, 
and was active in forming the County Medical Society, 
of which he was secretary from L794-1802, and libra- 
rian from 1799-1804. He was the first president of 
the district society, councillor of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, and in 1811 delivered the annual 
address in Boston, taking for his subject "Certain 
epidemics which prevail in the county of Worcester," 
describing the small-pox of 1790 and " spotted fever " 
of 1810. In 1824 Harvard honored him with the 
degree of " doctor of medicine." Popular, and as 
Bradford, in the "N. E. Biog." says of him, "a scien- 
tific physician, well acquainted with natural Philoso- 
phy, Chemistry and Physiology," Dr. Fiske, had he 
devoted himself to his profession, would undoubtedly 
have made his mark, both as practitioner and medical 
writer. But his profession soon became secondary to 
other objects. An ardent Federalist, he exerted no 
small influence in the party, and terse and epigram- 
matic articles from his pen, on the questions of the 
day. arc scattered through the current literature of 

the time. An orator of no mean ability, he was often 
called on. Some of these orations and political arti- 
cles have been printed; more remain in manuscript. 
They have been described as useful and practical in 
matter, and singularly elegant in manner. In 1798 
he was town treasurer; from 1800-1803 town clerk, 
and, in 18113, was appointed special justice of the 
Court of Common Pleas. From 1813-15 he was a 
member of the Executive Council, and from 1810-1821 
register of deeds. He was a member of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, corresponding secre- 
taryofthe Linna-an Society of New England, and from 
1824-37 of the Worcester Agricultural Society also. 
He was a member of the Fire Society, and a council- 
lor of the Antiquarian Society. Increasing deafness 
caused him to retire from active life about 1822, and 
the next fifteen years were largely devoted to horti- 
culture and agriculture. He lived in the old Judge 
Jennison house on Court Hill, removed when State 
Street was opened, with an estate reaching from the 
Dr. Dix place to the Second Chur<h, and extending up 
the hill as far as Harvard Street. He died in Boston, 
January 25, 1837, age seventy-four. A son, R. Treat 
Paine Fiske, A.B. (Harvard, 1818), was a physician in 
Hingham, where he died in 1866. 

Among other physicians here, previous to 1800, 
were: Dr. Charles Wheeler, who died June 3, 1701, 
age thirty-one. 

Dr. John Fiske, wlio died, probably in 1750, and 
who lived opposite tin John Barnard place, on the 
road to Boston. 

Dr. Thomas Nichols, born in Danvers in 1711, who 
.Mine here from Button in 170"., and died December 9, 

Dr. Joseph Walker, student with Dr. John Green, 
who died July 17, L781. 

loo. ||. Hall, All. (Harvard, 17S1), M.B. (Harvard, 
1788), who was in practice here for three years, married 
Sarah, daughter of Gardner Chandler, and in 1791 
remot ed to Brattleboro', Vt., where he died in 1807. 

Dr. Samuel Willanl, on.- of the Lancaster Willards, 
here from 1790-92, and the two Walkers, George and 
William. *oiis of Captain John Walker, who com- 
manded a company ot' foot in the provincial army. 
Wm. Walker, bom in 1718, was in the army in Nova 
Scotia in 1755, ami in Worcester in 177S, while from 
Massachusetts Spy of .lune ."., 1777, we learn that 
" Last Monday night sennight, George Walker, com- 
monly called doctor, and one Galloway, two tories, 
were taken at Bristol and last Saturday were brought 
back and committed to goal here." 

1794. — Wok. ESTER MEDICAL Society. — The char- 
ter of the Massachusetts Medical Society, granted in 
1781, by its limitation of membership to seventy, 
practically excluded from its benefits the majority of 
physicians not in the immediate vicinity of Boston. 1 

1 Julin Frink, of Rutland, was the only incorporator from Worcester 
County, and in the twenty-two inr, from 17~1 to 1803 but f....r 
Worcester Couuty men were elected to memberani] »ia [era*! Atlier- 



The physicians of the county of Worcester, there- 
fore, at a meeting held December IS, 1794, voted to 
form themselves into a fraternity by the title of the 
Worcester Medical Society, for their " own improve- 
ment" and to make such knowledge as they might 
possess as generally useful as possible. By-laws were 
adopted, and the signers bound themselves to impress 
upon all their pupils the advantages of a regular 
medical education, and to recommend attendance 
upon the medical lectures annually given at the 
University of Cambridge. The society met semi-an- 
nually, alternately at Reed's tavern, in Rutland, and 
at Daniel Heywood's, in Worcester, until 1804, when 
it was merged in the district organization of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society. 

The list of members includes the majority of those 
then prominent in the profession, and is as fol- 
lows: Elijah Dix (Worcester), John Frink (Rutland), 
Eben H. Phillips (Charlton), John Green (Worcester), 
Oliver Fiske (Worcester), Abraham Lowe, John 
Green, Jr. (Worcester), Spencer Field, Seth Field 
(Brookfield). Jonathan Shearer, Estes Howe, Robert 
Cutlet (last three county of Hampshire), Silas Allen 
(Leominster), William Cutler, Abraham Haskell 
(Ash by), Francis Foxcroft, Eras Babbit, Daniel 
Fiske, Jona. Learned, Israel Whitin (Winchendon), 
Daniel Beard, Amasa Scott, Austin Flint (Leicester), 
William Lamb, Peter Snow (Fitchburg), Tilly Rice, 
Jr. (Brookfield), John Frink, Jr. (Rutland), Asa 
Miles, Thomas Babbitt (Brookfield), Amasa Beaman, 
Richard S. Bridge, Hezekiah Eldridge, Eddy Whitta- 
ker(Monson), Josiah Howe, William Stone, Matthias 
Rice, Rev. Jonathan Osgood (Gardner), John Field 
(Rutland), Nason Spoonei (Templeton), Moses Phelps 
(Hubbardston), Israel Atherton (Lancaster), Nehm. 
Hin. Is (Pelham), Israel Trask (Greenwich), Ebenezer 
Morse (Boylston), Samuel Willard (Uxbridge), Robert 
Cutler (Amherst), Jonas Prescott (Templeton), Wil- 
liam Stone (Greenwich), Samuel Guthrie (Brimfield). 
1803. — Dr. Joseph Trumbull, born in Suffield 
Conn., October 12, 1750, and for a long time in prac- 
tice in Petersham, came to Worcester and, in partner- 
ship with Isaiah Thomas, managed the drug-store 
originally established by Dr. Paine, and afterwards in 
the hands of Drs. Levi Sheppard and Eben Hunt, and 
of " Drs." Abraham Lincoln and Benjamin Green. 
He was married, February 14, 1780, to Elizabeth, 
daughter of Hon. Timothy aud Sarah (Chandler) 
Paine, this marriage being the first solemnized in the 
Second (Unitarian) Church, and died at his residence 
in Trumbull Square, March 2, 1824. A martyr to 
gout, which, for seventeen years, confined him to his 
chair, he was unable to follow the active life of a 
physician, and in Worcester, when able to do any- 
thing, devoted himself to his drug business. 
1804. — Worcester District Medical Society.— 

ton, of Lancaster ; Samne] Willard, ol Uxbridge; Tl ;i- Babbitt, 

Brookfield; and Thaddeiu Maccarty, -i Worcestei 

The Worcester Medical Society had for several year- 
been before the Legislature by petition and commit- 
tee for an act of incorporation, but had been constantly 
thwarted by the Massachusetts Medical Society, 
which considered such action detrimental to its inter- 
ests, A conference was finally held with a committee 
of the Worcester society, and after an act of Legisla- 
ture (approved March 8, 1803) had been obtained, by 
which the powers of the older society were extended, 
it was agreed that four districts should be established — 
Middle, Southern, Eastern and Western ; Worcester 
district to be the western, and to include those fel- 
lows living in the counties of Worcester, Hampshire, 
Hampden, Franklin and Berkshire. At a meeting of 
the County Society held September 26, 1804, an or- 
ganization after this plan was effected; fourteen mem- 
bers of the local society became fellows of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society, elected officers and acquired 
the right to establish their own regulations "so that 
they be not repugnant to the bye-laws of the general 
society," to hold property and to dispose of the same. 
Although by the act the "Western District" included 
the physicians of five counties, all but one of the three 
hundred aud forty-eight names on the rolls are those of 
Worcester County men, and no loss of members by 
the establishment of new districts occurred until the 
Worcester North District was set off, in 1858. Meet- 
ings, always in Worcester, were at first held semi-an- 
nually in June and September; later there were quar- 
terly meetings, and still later a meeting was held 
every two months. Officers elected annually in May 
consist of a president, vice-president, secretary, treas- 
urer, librarian, five censors (who examine candidates for 
admission) and a variable number of councillors, who 
represent the society at the general meeting of council- 
lorsin Boston. Thepresent membership is one hundred 
and twenty-three. In 1845 six thousand dollars was 
given to the society by the Hon. Daniel Waldo, and 
in 1851 Dr. Charles W. Wilder, of Leominster, left 
five hundred dollars in his will. The income of these 
sums, together with that of a bequest of one thousand 
dollars from the late Harrison Bliss and the interest 
of another small sum of money called the Available 
Reserved Fund, i3 now devoted to the increase of the 
library, the third largest medical library in the State. 
The presidents of the society since 1804 have been : 
Oliver Fiske, of Worcester, 1804-07; Thomas Babbitt, 
of Brookfield, 1807-13; Abraham Haskell, of Ashby, 
1813-14; Jonathan Osgood, of Gardner. L814-20 ; 
Abraham Haskell, of Ashby, 1820-25 ; Stephen Bach- 
eller, Jr., of Royalston, 1825-29; John Green, of Wor- 
cester, 1829-37; Edward Flint, of Leicester, IS::; 40; 
Benjamin F. Heywood, of Worcester, 1840-42; Charles 
\V. Wilder, of Leominster, 1842-44; Joseph Stone, of 
Hardwick, 1844-40; William Workman, of Worcester, 
1846-49 ; John G. Metcalf, of Mendon, 1849-51 ; Ben- 
jamin Pond, of Westboro', 1851-53 ; Thomas R. Bou- 
telle, of Fitchburg, 1853-55; Charles M. Fay, of 
Charlton, 1855- 57 ; Joshua J. Johnson. ofNorthboro', 



1857-58; Alfred Hitchcock, of Fitchburg, 1858-59; 
Oramel Martin, of Worcester, 1859-62; Calvin P. 
Fiske, of Fiskdale, 1862-64; Joseph Sargent, of Wor- 
cester, 1864-66 ; Moses D. Southwick, of Blackstone, 
1866-69; Rufus Woodward, of Worcester, 1869-70; 
Chauncy A. Wilcox, of Uxbridge, 1870-72; Thomas 
H. Gage, of Worcester, 1872-74 ; Joseph T. 0. West, 
of Princeton, 1874-76; Henry Clarke, of Worcester, 
1876-78; Frederick D. Brown, of Webster, 1878-80; 
Emerson Warner, of Worcester, 1880-82; Edwin Ii. 
Harvey, of Westboro', 1882-84; Albert Wood, ol 
Worcester, 1884-86; George C. Webber, ofMillbury, 
1886-88 ; J. Marcus Rice, of Worcester, 1888. 
The following physicians have been members of the 

society : 

.v.i md residence. Admitted. Died, 

Jonathan Osgood, Gardner 1804 

Israel Whlton, Winchendon I s " 1 

John Green, Worcester 1804 

Jonathan Learned, 1804 

Ebon II. Phillips, Charlton 

John Prink, Jr., Rutland 1804 

Austin Flint, Leicester 1804 

Joslah Howe, Templeton 1804 

Mason S| ner, Templeton ' "' 

,l„lni Ifield, Rutland ' " l 

i Hivei Piske, Worcestei I 

Tilly Rice, Brookfleld I ' ! 

■ii, ie Babbitt, Brookfleld I i I 

Abraham Haskell, Aehby I "■ 

Sun I Will;, nl, I sbridge 1808 

Israel Allen, Sterling |s "" 

John Flint P< lei h im '■'" 

Peter Snow, Fitchburg 1811 

John Green, H " • ' ' ' 

shI, Field, Brookfleld 1812 

Ik-niv Bagg, I'ii'"' ton - 

.1. ii Flint, Petersham 

Seth Knowlton, Shr * I 

Seth Pohes, Oakham ■••■ '81 

Abo Haskell, Jr., Lunenburg i" 1 " 

Samuel Manning, Lancastei 

Stephen Ball, Northl it;h ' sl ~ 

Silas Men I. inster 1818 

Hun Lamb, Charlton 1819 

Edward Flint, Leicester '" -'" 

Daniel Green, Ward 1820 

Daniel Brigham, Berlin 1821 

.lulu, Romans, Brookfleld 1821 

Charles W. Wilder, Templeton 1822 

Silas Pearson, Westminster 18*2 

James McFarland, Jr., Rutland 

Loamml Harrington, Paxton IS 

Stephen Batchelh r, Ji Royalstoit 18 

Benj. !''• Heyw ', Worcester 1822 

Nath Peabody, Lancaster ~ J -' 

,.,..,, , Estabrook, Holden 1822 

\ -.■ 1 s, Spencer ■ 1V ' J 

Alexander Thayer, Jr., Mendon 1822 

>l i Phelps, Jr., Hubbardston 1823 

Ji a Sim.', Jr., Phillipston 

John M.Smith, WestBoylston 

Amos Parker, Bolton 1824 

Gustavue D.Peck, Milford 

Silas Marshall, Templeton 1826 

Abel Wilder, Mendon 1827 

Henry Parker, Grafton lvJ ~ 

p, T. Kendall, Sterling '' 

William Workman, Shrewsbury 1831 

Adolphus Brigham, Shrewsbury 

[I „s R. Bontelle, Leominster 1832 

John G. Metcalf, Mendon 1832 











is \: 


l 989 



Name and residence. Admitted. 

Albert J. Bellows, Paxton 1832 

Addison Knight, Oxford 1834 

Joseph Stone, Hardwiek 1834 

Benj. Pond, Jr., Westboro' 1836 

Henry II. Rising, Westboro' 1836 

James W. Robliins, Uxbridge. 1836 

John AudreWB, Boylston 183G 

William Thornton, Grafton 1836 

JohnS. Butler, Worcester 1836 

John Starkweather, Upton 1836 

\\ in. Ii. Peck, Sterling 1837 

Chandler Smith, Worcester 1837 

Thomas Taylor, Holden 1837 

Lei i Rawson, Grafton 1837 

Alphoneo Brooks, Princeton 1838 

Delano Pierce, Grafton 1838 

Warren Partridge, Princeton ; 1830 

.),,h ii Plant, rlorthbridge 1838 

David Parker, Gardner 1838 

Augustus Bobbins, Holden 1838 

Erasmus 1» Mill, i, \\ orcester 1838 

Samuel B. Woodward, Worcester 1838 

Joshua Porter, North Brookfleld ISSf 

Jool Burnett, Southboro' 1838 

David s. II. Smith. Sutton 1839 

George v. i I 

, harlee M, Fay, Charlton 1839 

Ba I Hartwell, South! >' 18 19 

Win S. Saunders, Sturbridge 

Samuel C. Hartwell, Southlx ro' 1839 

Oliver II Bl I, W ster 1839 

Mil,. i, Grafton 

Amory I ting, Milll.un, 

John W. Tenney, Webster I 

Lawaon '• I I 839 

il-.vt, Athol 1830 

■ Field Leomtnetl l y3 '-> 


Wm.M. Benedict, Millbury 1839 

Henry Bigetow, Worcester 1839 

rthboro' i-' 1 ' 

ll. K. Johi i 

Joseph Sai ] ~ '" 

.1. J. Johnson, Northboro' 1840 

Henry U. Davis, Worcester 

las 1841 

N. QuinCJ I,,, ,11, Sutl.m 1842 

h.miiv lii in, Lancaster 1842 

Ephraim Lovell, Wesi Boylston 1843 

Austin I-:. 'lull, 1 xbridge 1843 

Henry Carpenter, Upton 1844 

Charles >.. Saflbrd, Rutland > v n 

Benj. Heywood, Worceater 1844 

Samnel F I >,, W m ester I s !-"' 

J. E. Ewlng, 1845 

It. L. Hawes, Worcestei 1*45 

P. Leiand, Milford '. 

Calvin Newton, Worcester 1816 

Jas. A. Tenney, Worcester 1845 

Calvin P I lake, Sturbridge 1847 

AlonzoW. Bennett, 1 ibrldge 1*47 

Leonard Spauldlng, MfUbory 

William Terry, Sutton 1847 

Henry G. Bates, Worcester 1846 

Rowse R. Clarke, Whitinsviile 1847 

Frederick Heywood, Worcestei 1848 

Pierre B. Mlgnault, Worcester 1849 

Hoses D. Southwick, Blackstone l»4u 

Henry A. Jewett, Northboro' 1849 

Osmun I.. Huntley, Fitchburg 

Jonas A. Marshall, Fitchburg I860 

Alfred Hitchcock, Fitchburg 1850 

Charles W. Wilder, Fitchburg 1850 

A 1 Mth (lu,l, lint:, Winchendon I s 'O 

J w D.Osg I.Templeton 1851 










- U 






1 B66 





Name and residence. Admitted. 

John Heard, Leominster 1851 

James P. C. Cummings, Fitchburg 1861 

Stephen Tracy, Worcester 1851 

Khun C. Knight, Sterling 1851 

Thomas T. Griggs, Grafton 1861 

Samuel Griggs, Westboro' 1851 

Oramel Martin, Worcester 1851 

Ambrose Goulet, Worcester 1852 

Alfred Miller, Ashburnham 1852 

Henry Sargent, Worcester 1852 

Rufns Woodward, Worcester 1S62 

Henry Clark, Worcester 1852 

Oharles W. White. ml,, Worcester 1852 

H. M. Lincoln, Westminster 1852 

T. W. Wadsworth, Fitchburg 1802 

Geo. A. Bates, Worcester L853 

E. M. Wheeler, Paxton 1853 

George M. Pierce, Leominster 1853 

Edward Layng, Worcester 1853 

JohnE. Hathaway, Worcester 185:i 

Jonathan Nichols, Oxford 1854 

Chauncey A. Wilcox, U.xbridge 1854 

George W. Burdett, Clinton 1854 

Henry Gillmore, Brookfleld 1864 

Nelson Carpenter, Warren 1854 

Warren Tyler, West Brookfleld 1854 

Dan S. Fiske, Brookfleld 1855 

John Barns, Milford 1855 

J. M. Rice, Worcester 1855 

George M. Burgess, Blackstone 1856 

Seth Rogers, Worcester 1855 

Thomas 11. Gage, Sterling 1856 

George K. Nichols, Saundersville 1856 

James R. Wellman, Fitchburg 1«5G 

Fred. A. Sawyer, Sterling 1856 

Albert D. Smith. Holden 1863 

Enoch H. Pillsbury, Hubbardstou 1856 

Albert Potter, Charlton 1857 

Albert B. Robinson, Holden 1858 

8. F. Haven, Jr., Worcester 1S5S 

Alinon M. Orcutt, Hardwick 1858 

Eben N. Chamberlain, Millbury 1858 

Fred. H. Jewctt, Shrewsbury 1859 

II. Mills Tucker, Grafton 1859 

Josephs. Ames, Holden - .1860 

J. N. BateB, Worcester 18iit) 

E. G. Burnett, Webster 1860 

J. Henry Robinson, Soutbboro' 18110 

Peter E. Hubon, Worcester 1800 

Joseph 0. West, Princeton 186m 

Merrick Bemis, Worcester 1862 

Henry C. Prentiss, Worcester 1802 

E. D. Lord, Sterling 1862 

1,. II. Hammond, Oakham 1862 

George W. Ward, Upton 1803 

S. P. Martin, New Braintree 18(3 

1!. II. Tripp, Rutland 1863 

F. D. Brown, Webster 1863 

Emerson Warner, Worcester 1864 

Charles W. Barnes, Grafton 1804 

James T. Rood, Brookfleld 1864 

F. H. Rice, Worcester 1864 

W. H. Lincoln, llubl.ardston 1804 

L. F. Billings, Bane 1864 

Silas P. Holbrook, Fast Douglas 1805 

Marquis Hale, Spencer 1805 

George E. Francis, Worcester 180"» 

F. W. Brigham, Shrewsbury 1865 

Albert Wood, Worcester 1805 

Joseph Draper, Worcester 1860 

C. II. Perry, Webster 1860 

A. L. Stickney, Sutton 1866 

George Brown, Bane 1806 

Win. H. Parker, Milford 1866 

J. G. Park, Worcester I860 







\ arm and i uridi nee. Admitted, 
v.. B Harvey, Weatboro'.-. 1860 

D. M. Full. hi, Grafton 1866 

i ■ Wilmarth, Upton 1866 

Thomas K. Whittemore, Grafton 1867 

Harris li. Palmer, Worcester 1807 

Henry V Simpson, Worcester lst.7 

I.. W. Luring, Petersham 1867 

n. W. Hodgkins, East Brookfleld 1868 

E. H. Flagg, Worcester 1808 

Benj, f. Clough, Worcester 1869 

Joseph W. Hastings, Warren 1869 

E.C. Park, West Boylston 1869 

Wesley Davis, Worcester 1870 

JohnO. Marble, Worcester 1S7u 

Warren Pierce, Sterling 1870 

Q 'ge W. Davis, Worcester 1870 

Friil. II, Thompson, Lancaster Is70 

George I >. Warner, Leicester Is7u 

James G. Shannon, Oakham 187u 

1'. E. Corey, Westboro' 187" 

i: ge '■ Webber, Millbury 1871 

Charles II. Davis, Worcester 1*7! 

Lewis S. Dixon, Worcester 1871 

Charles II. Hamilton, East Douglas 1872 

Levi White, Last DouglaB 1*72 

Albert G. Blodgett, West Brookfleld 1872 

G. II. Jordan, Worcester 1872 

Leonard Wheeler, Worcester 187'J 

Barnard D. Eastman, Worcester 1872 

Myron L. Chamberlain, Southbridge 187*2 

Charles A. Bemis, Spencer Is72 

Hosea M. Quinby, Worcester 1873 

Herbert Shnrtleff 187:i 

Watson E. Rice, N. E. Village 187:; 

George L. Brown, Barre 1873 

Charles A. Peabody, Worcester 187'! 

George J. Bull, Worcester 1*74 

Frank II. Kelley, Worcester 1874 

John A. Greenleaf, Worcester 1876 

William II. Workman, Worcester 1875 

Thorn Williuot, Worcester [875 

Edward It. Spaulding, Worcester 1875 

J. Bartlett Rich, Worcester 1877 

Enoch Q. Marsten, Worcester 1870 

Thomas J. O'Sullivan, Worcester 1878 

Josiah N. Bixby, West Warren 1878 

II. S. Knight, Worcester 1878 

W. T. Souther, Worcester 1877 

W. B. Maxwell, Farnumsville 1878 

W. E. Blown, Gilbertville 1878 

.Samuel B. Woodward, Worcester 1878 

Win. II. Raymenton, Worcester 1879 

Perley E. Corney, Clinton 1879 

Albert R. Moulton, Worcester 1870 

Walter P. Bowel's, Lancaster 1870 

Charles L. Clarke, Oxford 1870 

Oliver 11. Everett, Worcester 1880 

chailes 11. Grout, Webster 1880 

Patrick II. Keefe, Worcester 1880 

Thomas .1. Garrigan, N. Brookfleld. 1NSO 

George Loring Tobey, Shrewsbury 1880 

Thomas P. O'Callaghan, Worcester 1880 

George E. Adams, Worcester 1880 

Daniel W. NileB, Worcester 1880 

M. G. Halloran, Worcester 1881 

J. G. Thomas, Worcester 1881 

C. W. Stickney, Holden 1881 

!•:. T. Aldrlch, West Boylston lssl 

Everett Flood, Worcester 1882 

Ernest V. Scrihner, Worcester [882 

John A. Houston, Worcester 1882 

William B. Cushman, Oxford 1882 

Jonathan H. Woods, Bane 1882 

George M. Morse. Clinton 1882 

Frederii I. Scott, Worcestei 1882 





Name and residence. 

Orlando Mixter, Worcester 1882 

Francis L. Banfleld, Worcester 1882 

CharleB A. Huse, Worcester 188:: 1884 

Boscoe W. Swan, Worcester 1882 

Lemuel F. Woodward, Worcester 1882 

Ctaas Mackin, Milford 1883 

Edgar C. Atkins, Milford 1883 

William C. Fogerty, Worcester 1883 

Chas. W. llarwood, Worcester 1883 

Eben M. Perkins, Worcester 1883 

II lae E Roche, Clinton 1883 

William G. Keed, Sturbridge 1883 

Fred, P. IJigelow, Worcester 1883 

Dean S. Ellis, Worcester 188:: 

Prod. Q. Sanborn, Uolden 1883 

Geo. r Woodbury, Worcester 1883 

Edward R. Wheeler, Spencer 1*83 

Geo. M. Foskett, Dana 1883 

William C. Stevens, Worcester 1883 

Fred, II. Daniels, Worcester 1883 

Cassius II. Darling, Worcester l*s:: 

Charles S, Bradley,' 1883 

Joseph H. Kelley, Worcester 1884 

William .1. Delahanty, Worcester 1884 

David Narrower, Jr., Worcester l ss 4 

I: l„ Sawyer, Oakham 1hh4 

Geo. V Brown, Barre Iss4 

Wm. Dan Lamb, Sonthbridgi 1848 

Rebecca Barnard, Worcester 1885 

Mary V. O'Gallaghan, Worcester 1880 

Edward II. Trowbridge, Worcester 1**-"- 

AlbertO. Getchell, Worcester 188'. 

II. v. M. Smith, Worcester l>sr. 

C. a. Deland, Warren I8s>: . ... 

In. 0. Guptill, Northboro' 1886 

JobnT. Duggan, Worcester 188.; 

Lawrence] Newhall, Brookfield 1880 

William H. Danforth, Worcestei .1886 

I Imi lee H. Brockwaj 1874 

P.C Jillson, Sterling 1881 

E W, Norwood, Spencer.. 1887 

Chas. L. French, Clinton 1887 

Hi in j .i Kenyon, W orcestei 1883 

U B. Warriner, North Brookfleld.. 1887 

Bi li I I arli , Won BSter 1887 

Geo « II. l.iiii.y, Worcxater. 1887 

I II Kaynard Belleroee, Worci itei 1887 

J.J, Brennan, Worcester 1887 

Allied I. Noble, Worcester 1887 

Raj W.Green, Worcester 1887 

Charles G. Stearns, Iieicestei 1887 

I Ward, Worcester ls*s 

Daniel P. Cilley, Westboro' Isss 

Homer Gage, Worcester 1888 

Even of those physicians claiming Worcester as a 
home it will be manifestly impossible to mention 
all. An attempt will lie made to give attainable 
particulars of the leading men only. 

1807.— John Green, M.D., A.'li. (Brown, L804), 
born in Worcester, April 19, 1784, who began practice 
in L807, less than a year before the death of Dr. John 
Green, his father, and but eight years after that of 
the Revolutionary Dr. John (ireen. his grandfather, 
is destined to be longer remembered than either; for, 
with that enduring monument, a public library, 
his name will always be associated. Having early 
decided to devote a liberal portion of his fortune to 
the founding of such an institution, he was, for many 
years, personally engaged in collecting books, which, 
in 1859, he presented to the city, adding continually 

to the number afterwards, and leaving, by will, thirty 
thousand dollars as a fund for further increase. He 
studied medicine with his father, succeeded on the 
latter's sudden death to his large practice, and con- 
tinued for more than half a century the recognized 
leader of the profession in the county. Prudent and 
cautious almost to a fault, he is said to have realized 
Thomas Fuller's idea of the " good physician " : " He 
hansels not his new experiments on the bodies of his 
patients, letting loose mad receipts into the sick man's 
body to try how well nature in him will fight against 
them, while himself stands by and sees the battle." 

Holding no public office, and devoting himself 
entirely to bis profession, few men were better known 
than Dr. John Green. " His name," says Judge 
Thomas, " was a household word. Not to have seen 
him, as, under that brown, broad-brimmed soft hat, 
he rolled from side to side in that old time-honored 
gig, through the streets of the village, town and city, 
was to have missed one of the most striking institu- 
tions of Worcester." 

His personal appearance, at least in old age, is 
well-known to all frequenters of the " ( Ireen library," 
where statue and picture well represent his slight and 
stooping figure and intelligent features. His modesty 
was such that be wished this statue removed, as it 
seemed to him to suggest a " kind of arrogance " that 
he did not feel. His manner was quiet; his tastes 
simple; be eared nothing for display. 

In 1815 he was granted the degree of M.D. by 
Harvard College, and in L826 lirown followed the 
example of her sister university. Of the district 
medical society lie was three years treasurer, seven 
librarian, five vice-president, and seven president, 
when he declined further service. He was vice- 
president of the American .Medical Society in 18-~>4. 
Hewas the first president of the Horticultural Society, 
councillor of the Massachusetts Medical and of the 
American Antiquarian Societies, and an early and 
constant patron of the Natural History Society. 
Feeble health and increasing age compelled him 
to retire from active practice about ten years be- 
fore his death, which took place after several weeks' 
illness, October 17, lSU.j, he being then in his eighty- 
second year. Early in life he married Dolly, daughter 
of David Curtis, but survived her many years. He 
left no children, and was the last of the line of doctors 
of his name 1 that, lor more than one hundred years, 
had been largely responsible for the health of the in- 
habitants of Worcester. 

1808. — Dr. Benjamin Chapin, son of Captain 
Thaddeua Chapin, was born in Worcester, May 29, 
1781. He studied medicine with the second Dr. 
Green, practised in Marlborough until 1808, when he 
returned to Worcester, and remained here until his 
death, January !•">, 1835, at the age of fifty-four. His 

i His nephew, John Gr 
Louis, MIse 

i distinguished ophthalmologist in st 



office and drug-store stood at the corner of Front and 
Carlton Streets. He was town clerk from 1818-1833 
and in 1830 a member of the Legislature. 

1815.— Benjamin F. Heyw< M.D., A.B. (Dart- 
mouth, 1812), son of Hon. Benjamin Heywood, a 
graduate of Harvard College, officer in the Revolu- 
tionary army, and judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, was born in Worcester, April 24, 1792. He 
attended lectures at the medical schools of Dartmouth 
and Yale, graduated from the latter in 1815, and be- 
gan practice in Worcester immediately afterwards. 
For more than fifty years he was in active business, 
twenty of them in partnership with his brother-in- 
law, Dr. Green, and, at the time of his sudden death, 
December 7, 1869, at the age of seventy-seven, was 
the oldest physician in Worcester, and had been 
longest in practice. A permanent member of the 
American Medical Association, he held in turn, and 
for long periods of time, all the offices in the gift of 
the District Society, and was for many years coun- 
cillor in the State Society. He was for forty years a 
trustee of the Worcester County Institution for Sav- 
ings, and was a director of the Worcester Bank, of 
which his father was one of the founders. In 1848 
he served one term in the Common Council, and from 
1848-1856 was a member of the Board of Aldermen. 
In 1859 he became, by right of his father, a member 
of the Society of the Cincinnati. His first wife, 
sister of Dr. John Green, died Aug. 4, 1836 ; his second 
wife, also a sister of Dr. Green, still lives in this city. 

1826.— O. H. Blood, M.D., A.B. (Harvard, 1821), 
was the son of Gen. T. H. Blood, of Sterling. He 
studied medicine with Dr. Lemuel Capen, of that 
place, and attended lectures at the Harvard Medical 
School, where he graduated in 1826. He practised 
in Worcester until 1828, when he went to Brookfield. 
In 1831 he returned, but soon turned his attention to 
dentistry, in which business he continued until his 
death, April 8, 1858, at the age of fifty-seven. His 
wife, now living, is a sister of Mr. H. G. ( >. Blake. 

1829.— John S. Butler, M.D., A.B. (Yale, 1825), 
is a son of Daniel Butler, of Northampton, where he 
was born October 12, 1803. From 1S25-2S he 
attended lectures in Boston and Philadelphia, and 
after receiving his degree spent one more year in 
study, finally opening his office in Worcester in 1829. 
Early in his career he became interested in the sub- 
ject of insanity, and, bb he himself says, was "a fre- 
quent visitor to the newly-established Insane Asylum, 
and a careful observer in its wards." In 1839 he was 
appointed resident medical officer of penal, charita- 
ble and reformatory institutions, and superintendent 
of the Insane Asylum of Boston, where he remained 
until 1842. In 1843 he became superintendent of the 
Hartford Retreat, which position he resigned in 1873, 
after nearly thirty years' service. He resides in Hart- 
ford ; is a member of the State Board of Health, of 
the American Academy and of the Medico-Psycholog- 
ical Society of Great Britain. From 1870-73 he was 

president of the Associati f Superintendents of 

American Insane Asylums. 
1831. — George Chandler, M.D., A.B. (Union, 

1829), son of Major John W. Chandler, was born in 
Pom fret, Conn., April 8, 1806. He attended the acade- 
mies of Dudley and Leicester, spent two years at 
Brown University and graduated at Union College, 
Schenectady, N. Y., in L829. He read medicine with 
Dr. Holt, of Pomfret, attended lectures in Boston 
and New Haven, and received his medical degree 
from Yale College in 1831. The same year he 
opened an office in Worcester. For part of one year 
he was in practice in Auburn, and in March, 1833, 
became Dr. S. B. Woodward's assistant at the Lunatic 
Hospital. In 1842 he was appointed superintendent 
of the New Hampshire State Lunatic Asylum, at 
Concord, erected after the plans submitted by him- 
self. Three years later he resigned this position 
against the expressed wish of the trustees, and the 
next year (1846) succeeded Dr. Woodward as superin- 
tendent of the Worcester Hospital. This institution 
was successfully managed by him for ten years, when 
he gave up his charge and at the same time retired 
from practice, having devoted twenty -five years to 
care of the insane. Dr. Chandler has been a mem- 
ber of the Msssachusetts, New Hampshire and Con- 
necticut State Medical Societies. In 1859 he 
represented Ward 8 in the Legislature, and in 1862 
was a member of the Board of Aldermen. He is a 
member of the Antiquarian and Worcester Fire Soci- 
eties and has devoted much time to the voluminous 
"Chandler family records." In 1862 he responded 
to the call for volunteer surgeons, went to Fortress 
Monroe and returned in medical charge of a trans- 
port. His first wife, Josephine Rose, who died in 
L868, was a granddaughter of Dr. Win, Paine. He 
married, April 8, 1S74, Mary E. Douglass, widow of 
Charles A. Wheeler. 

1831.— Dr. John Park, A.B. (Dartmouth, 1791), 
although never in active practice, resided here for 
many years. He was born in Windham, N. H., in 
1775. From 1793 to 1801 he served in the West Indies, 
at first as surgeon in the English service and later in 
the United States Navy. He settled in Newburyport 
and later moved to Boston, retired from practice, and, 
in 1811, opened the Boston Lyceum for young ladies, 
which he successfully managed for twenty years. 
From 1831 to his death, in 1852, he was in Worces 
ter. He was a member of the Antiquarian Society, 
to which he presented the greater part of his library. 
A daughter was the wife of the late Benjamin F. 
Thomas. Another became the second wife of Rev. 
Dr. E. B. Hall, of Providence, R. I., father of Rev. 
Edward H. Hall, who from 1869-82 was the pastor 
of the Second (Unitarian) Church. 

1833. — Sami-ei, B. Woodward, M.D., son of Dr. 
Samuel Woodward,' himself a physician of ability, 

i In- Samnel Woodward was in practice in Torringford for nearly 
B ixt\ yean lie was distinguished not only iu Lie iirufetieu'ii, but in 



was bom in Torringford, Conn., June 10, 1787. He 
studied medicine with his father, and, having been 
licensed to practice by the Connecticut State Medical 
Society in 1809, assisted him for a year or more, and 
then remored to Wethers6eld, near Hartford. Here 
he remained twenty-two years, for a large part of the 
time the only physician in the place. During this 
period he was elected secretary of the Connecticut 
Medical Society; vice-president of the Hopkins 
Medical Society, and one of the medical examiners 
of Yale College, from which, in 1822, he received the 
degree of M.D. From 1827-83 he was physician to 
the Connecticut State Prison. He became early in- 
terested in the subject of insanity, and, in 1824, was 
strongly urged for the position of superintendent of 
the Bloomingdale Asylum, then opened in the State 
of New York. He was largely instrumental in the 
establishment of the Hartford Retreat for the Insane, 
traveling over the greater part of the State of ( lonnecti- 
CUl ill his doctor's gig, explaining its necessity and 
soliciting funds. Some negotiations took place for 
his taking charge of this institution, but he used his 
influence in favor of his friend, Dr. Eli Todd, who 
was appointed. <>n the hitter's death, in 1834, the 
position was again offered him, and in 1840 the offer 
was repeated, with the promise of a home outside the 
hospital walls. These oilers, as well as a similar one. 
in 1842, from the trustees of the then new asylum in 
Utica, N. Y., were declined : but while in Wethers- 
lield he served on the Board of Visitors of the Hart- 
ford institution, and "devoted to its prosperity the 
weight of his personal exertions and influence." In 
1832 came the call to take charge ol the asj lum then 
in process of erection in Worcester, which call he 
accepted, came here in L833, and remained almost 
without rest for fourteen years. In 1846, with Bhat 
tered health, he retired to Northampton, when' he 
died January 3, 1850, at the age of fifty-three. Dr. 
Woodward was an honorary member of the Massa 
chusetts Medical Society from 1838, and of the Con- 
necticut State Society from L835. In 1832 he 
represented the Hartford district in the State Senate, 
his object in accepting the position being the further- 
ance, by legislation, of the interests of the insane, 
whose acknowledged champion he already was. In 

1838 he became a fellow of the Albany .Medical Col- 
lege. He was the first president of the Association 
of Insane Asylum Superintendents and the founder of 
the society ; a member of the Ohio State Medical So- 
ciety and Ohio Historical Society. He wrote much 
for medical and other scientific journals, and, from 
1828-43, delivered occasional lectures on temperance 
and education throughout Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts. Of the Massachusetts School for Idiotic Youth 
be was a firm friend, and, as early as 1*40. had pre- 

political life ; «;isim' twentj yearo a member uf the Legislature, aud 
from 1800-Ui Democratic candidate for Congress. He Jieti January 26, 
1S35, aged eighty-four. Of his si\ sous four studied medicine,aud nil 
weie iu practice in Connecticut ;tt and th-- s Li , n e time 

pared a plan for an asylum for inebriates, of which he 
would willingly have been superintendent. The 
times were, however, not ripe; the plan was consid- 
ered chimerical and the project abandoned. An 
authority on the subject of insanity, and occupying 
the position of a reformer in its treatment, his private 
correspondence shows that his opinion was sought by 
physicians of reputation, not only in this State, but 
throughout America. Dr. Edward Jarvis, in 1842, 
calls him "the leader in the great reform in the 
management of the insane,'' and says that the ex- 
ample of the hospital and its reports "have done 
more than any other thing to extend this reformation 
throughout the Union." Personally popular, on 
his removal to Worcester six hundred and seventy of 
the inhabitants of Wetbersfield signed a memorial of 
their regard for his person, respect for his talents and 
regret at his removal; and, after his departure for 
Northampton, his bust was placed in the corridor of 
the Lunatic Hospital by the people of Worcester, 
while the trustees individually subscribed for the 
portrait now at the asylum. Six feet two and one- 
half inches in height, and weighing two hundred and 

sixty pounds, 1 >r. W Iward commanded attention 

wherever he appeared. Of his personal appearance, 
Mr. Stanton, iu his reminiscences, says: " I boarded 
in Boston at the United States Hotel. Whenever he 
visited the city, Dr. Samuel B. Woodward, principal 
of the Insane Asylum :it Worcester, dined there. As 
he walked, erect and majestic, through the long room 
to the head of the table, every knife and fork rested 
and all eyes centred on him. He received similar 

notice when appearing as an expert in the courts. 

The reason was this: young men who saw (ieorge 

Washington alter he passed middle life trace. I the 
very close resemblance between him and Or. Wood 
1834.— Aaron G.Babcock,M.D., son of Amos Hah 

cock, of Princeton, where he Studied medicine with 

Dr. Chandler Smith, graduated at the Bowdoin Medical 
School in 1830. For four years he practised medicine 

in Holdcn. then came to Worcester, where he was at 
first physician, and later physician and druggist. 
From his drug-store was developed the present ex- 
tensive establishment of Jerome Marble & Co. 
1835. — William Workman, M.O., was bom in 

Colraihe, Mass., in 1798, and was fitted for college at 
Hopkins Academy, in old lladley. His health failed, 
he was unable to graduate and was twenty-four years 
of age before he began to study medicine. Altera 
three years' course with I lis. Washburn, of Greenfield, 

Flint & Mather, of Northampton, and at the Harvard 
Medical School, he received his degree in 1825, and 
immediately opened an office in Shrewsbury. In 
1835 he came to Worcester and continued in active 
practice until 1869, when, at the age of seventy-one, 
he retired. He died sixteen years later (October 17, 
1885), at the age of eighty-seven. Dr. Workman was 
a member of the American Medical Association, and 



for twenty- four years councillor of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society. In 1854 he delivered the annual 
address before that body, it being the second time 
that the honor had been conferred upon a Wor- 
cester physician. In 1862, requested to send out sur- 
geons to care for the wounded of the "Seven Days- 
Fight," he attended to that duty, and although in his 
sixty-fourth year, went himself to the front. He was 
connected with the School Board of town and city 
from 1.840 to ,1859, was president of the Worcester 
Lyceum, and from 1862 to '72 trustee of the Worcester 
Lunatic Hospital. He married, in 1828, Sarah P. 
Hemenway. His son. William H. Workman, M.D., 
was in practice here from 1873 to '87. 

1836. — John A. Andrews, M.D., who is theoldest 
physician in the city, was born in Hopkinton, Sep- 
tember 30, 1802, and has been fifty-two years in practice 
here. In 1850 and '51 he was connected with the 
Worcester Medical Institution. 

1836. — Chandleb Smith, M.D., born in Peru, 
Berkshire County, in 1803, graduated at the Berkshire 
Medical School in 1825, and for ten years practised 
in Princeton. From 1836 until his death — June 28, 
1843 — he lived in Worcester, and for four years of the 
time was town physician. He was a trustee of the 
Worcester Manual Labor High School. 

1840. — Joseph Sargent, M.D., A.B. (Harvard, 
1834), son of Colonel Henry Sargent, was born in 
Leicester, December 31, 1815. He studied medicine 
one year with Dr. Edward Flint, of Leicester, and 
three at a private school in Boston, of which Dr. James 
Jackson was the head, attending lectures at the medi- 
cal schools of Harvard University and in Philadel- 
phia. After receiving his degreeof M.D. from Har- 
vard, in 1837, he spent one year as house-officer in the 
Massachusetts General Hospital, and two years in 
study in Paris, and in 1840 opened an office in Wor- 
cester. In 1850 he spent another year in study in 
Europe, and visited it again in 1868. 

For forty-eight years Dr. Sargent has been a leader 
in the medical profession. Holding, in turn, all the 
offices in the District Society, he was councillor in the 
State Society for a long time, and in 1874-76 vice- 
president. He was one of the original members of 
the Boston Society for Medical Observation, and the 
first out-of-town member of the Boston Society for 
Medical Improvement. He founded the Worcester 
Medical Improvement Society. To his exertions is 
largely due the present prosperity of the City Hospital 
of which he was trustee from 1871 to 1886, serving at 
the same time as a member of the consulting staff. 
From 1843 to 184S he was a trustee of the Worcester 
Lunatic Hospital, and is at present, and has always 
been, a trustee of the Memorial Hospital ami Dispen- 
sary. He has been medical director of the State Mutual 
Life Insurance Company since 1844. At his sugges- 
tion gas was introduced into Worcester, and be is 
president of the Worcester Gas Company. He is a 

trustee of Clark University. He married Emily 

Whitney September 27, 1841. 

[The death of Dr. Sargent, on October 18,1888, 
since the above sketch was prepared, makes it proper 
here to add a few words. It is impossible, however, 

within the limits imposed upon us, to do justice to 
the character and position of the doctor. He brought 
to Worcester a store of knowledge and skill, which 
made him pre-eminently the most conspicuous mem- 
ber of the profession in Central Massachusetts, and 
which would have secured for him fame and success 
in whatever field of practice he should have selected 

anywhere. This position he maintained througl I 

his lifetime. He was, at the same time, a public- 
spirited citizen, and his services to leading local in- 
stitutions, as well as to the body politic, were of the 
highest value. The natural refinement of his char- 
acter served to elevate the tone of any circle or any 
business interest with which he was connected. A 
more full acquaintance with the life of Dr. Sargent 
may be obtained from the biographical sketches and 
the proceedings of the various bodies with which he 
was connected, which appeared in the Worcester Spy 
and Evening Gazette immediately following his death, 
and also from the printed " Proceedings of the Amer- 
ican Antiquarian Society," at their meeting on Octo- 
ber 22, 1888.— C] 

1840. — Calvin Newton, M.D., was born in South- 
boro' in 1801, and was educated for the ministry. For a 
number of years he was settled over a church in 
Great Harrington, and was later Professor of Rhetoric 
and Hebrew in Waterville College, Waterville, Maine. 
Deciding to study medicine, he attended lectures at 
the Berkshire Medical School, where he graduated in 
1840. He immediately opened an office in Worcester. 
In 1S46 he established a medical journal, known as 
the N. E. Medical Eeleetie, and later as the Worcester 
Jim riml of Medicim . This he continued to edit until 
his death. He lectured to classes of students, and 
devoted all his energies to the establishment of a 
school which should raise the standard of practice of 
those persons known as eclectic or botanic physi- 
cians. In this he succeeded, agaiust great opposition, 
but wore himself out in the attempt, and died in 
August, 1853, aged fifty-two. He was president of 
the Worcester Medical Institution and Professor of 
Pathology. He was, also, in 1852, president of the 
National Eclectic Medical Society. 

1845. — Ben.iamin HEYWOOD, M.D., A.B. I Harvard, 
1840), son of Dr. Benjamin F. Heywood, was born in 
Worcester, July 16, 1821. He studied medicine four 
years at the University of Pennsylvania, graduated in 
1 844, and after one year spent in study in Europe, came 
to Worcester, where his ability was soon recognized, 
both by the profession and the community. He prac- 
tised medicine here for fifteen years ; was from 1847-54 
secretary, treasurer and librarian of the District 
Society, and in 1859, surgeon of the Tenth Regiment 
of Militia. He died July 21, 1860, aged thirty-nine. 

1 566 


1845.— Rufus Woodward, M.D., A.B. (Harvard, 
1841), was the son of Dr. Samuel B.Wood ward, and born 
in Wethersfield, Connecticut, October 3, 1S19. He was 
fitted in the Worcester schools for Harvard College, 
which he entered in 1837. After graduation he began 
the study of medicine with Dr. Joseph Sargent, and 
in 1842 entered the Harvard Medical School, where 
he graduated three years later. For three years he 
was assistant physician at the State Lunatic Hospital, 
and then spent two years in study in Europe, devoting 
much time to the subject of insanity, with the inten- 
tion of assisting his father in a private asylum for 
mental diseases in Northampton. His plans were 
changed by the latter's sudden death, in 1850, arid on 
his return to this country, soon alter, he established 
himself in general practice in Worcester. For thirty- 
three years he devoted himself to his profession, 
seeing patients on the very day of his own sudden 
death, December 30, 1S80, at the age of sixty-six. A 

member of local and State Medical Societies, he was, 
during the war of 1861-65, examining Burg i for vol- 
unteers, and in 1862 volunteer surgeon under theSani- 
tary Commission, from 1863 III! he was city physician 

and on the formation of the Board of Health, in 1877 

was induced to again accept this position, which lie 
held at the time of his death, being also chairman ol 

the board, of which be was ex-offieio a member 

From 1871-1880 he was visiting surgeon to the Cit] 
Hospital, consulting surgeon to the Washburn I lis 
pensarv from 1*74 until his death, and was also phy- 
sician to the House of Correction, and to the < Irphans 

Home. For twelve years he was a member of th< 
School Board, and from L861 a member of the Anti- 
quarian Society. In natural history and botany lie 
was always greatly interested ; lie was, in college, a 
member of the Harvard Natural History Society, 
and was one of the founders ami for many years pres- 
ident of the local society. Much of his spare time 
was spent in his garden, and that wild Bower whose 
haunts, in the neighborhood of Wont -in , he did nol 
know, was rare indeed. 
1845. — Samuel F. Green, M.D., a grandson of th< 

first Dr. John Green, was born here October 10, I822i 
studied medicine with l>r. McYicker. in New York, 
graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons 
in 1845, and immediately settled in Worcester. A 
year later he became physician to the American 
Board, and went to Ceylon. Learning the Tamil 
language, he established a college for the education ol 
young men in European medicine and surgery. For 
twenty-one years he lived there, teaching, attending 
to an extensive practice, and at the same time per- 
forming the tremendous task of editing, in Tamil, a 
complete set of works on medicine. His health was 
undermined by the climate; he was obliged to return 
to America, and the last years of his life were spent 
in Worcester. Wishing to continue his work, the 
manuscript was, for a long time, prepared here, sent 
to India, and the proofs in Tamil returned for revision 

and correction. He completed text-hooks on Obstet- 
rics, Surgery, Anatomy, Physiology, Physics and 
Chemistry, and parts of works on the Pharmacopoeia 
of India, and Medical Jurisprudence — in all three 
thousand six hundred pages. Many of these are 
standard in India, and a small annual appropriation 
to assist in defraying the expense of preparing them 
was allowed him by the English Government. He 
died in the Green Hill house, May 28, 1884. 

1845. — GEORGE A. Bates, Ml)., son of Dr. Anson 
Bates, of Barre, where he wits born in 1820, studied 
medicine with his brother, Dr. Joseph N. Bates, in 
that town, and with Dr. N. S. Perry, of Boston, 
attending also lectures at the Berkshire and Harvard 
Medical Schools. He graduated from the latter in 
1844, and began practice in Barre. In 1845 he came 
to Worcester, where, with one interval of five years, 
he remained until his sudden death, August 9, 1885. 

In 1856 be n ved to Washington, D. C, returning 

in 1861, when his brother left Worcester as surgeon 
of the Fifteenth Regiment, from 1X44 he was a 
member of the Massachusetts Medical Society ; from 
1871-83 surgeon at the City Eospital, and, at the time 
of In- death, surgeon of the Worcester Continentals. 
Never married he almost lived in his office, where 
he si,, rounded himself with old furniture anil curi- 
ositi,.s ,,f every description. In fact, so great was 
the accumulation that many were, of necessity, 
packed away and unearthed only after his death. 

L845. SAMITE] I'i UK}, M.D., \ .B. (Dartmouth, 
1841), son of Samuel Flagg, was bom in Worcester 
July 16, 1821. He studied medicine with Dr. Amos 
Twitehell. in Keene. N. H., and at the University of 
Pennsylvania, where In 1 graduated in 1845. In prac- 
tice in Worcester until 1.861 ; he was from 1852 con- 
nected with the militia, at first ;i- assistant surgeon 
of the Eighth Regiment, and later as surgeon of the 
Third Battalion of Rifles. He went to the front in 
1801 as hospital steward in the Twenty-tilth Regi- 
ment, and in 1862 was commissioned assistant sur- 
geon. For two years he was on detail duty in vari- 
ous hospitals and forts in North Carolina. In 1803 he 
resigned on account of ill health, but soon afterwent 
as contract surgeon to the Government Hospital on 
Long Island, Boston Harbor, remaining there and at 
Galloupes Island until 1865. Since 1881 he has 
lived in his cottage on the shores of Lake Quinsiga- 
mond. From 1867-69 he was surgeon of the Tenth 
Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, and from 
L869-77 surgeon and medical director oi the Third 

1845.— Wobcesteb Society fob Medical Im- 
provement, organized for " medical improvement 
and the cultivation of good-fellowship." It was dis- 
continued in 1846, revived in 1857, and continued 
until 1874. Inl87G it was re-organized, and until 1886 
meetings were held every alternate Wednesday even- 
ing, from September to June, at the house of mem- 
bers in turn. Each member was chairman of his own 



meeting and read a paper on some scientific subject. 
There were usually about twenty medical men con- 
nected with the society. Its meetings are for the 
present suspended. 

1846. — R. L. Hawks, M.D., was born in Leomin- 
ster, March 22, 1823. Alter graduating at the Har- 
vard Medical School (1845), where he took high 
rank, he began practice in Worcester; but, having 
invented a machine tor (biding envelopes, soon turned 
his attention to business. He died in travelling in 
Kurope in 1867. 

1846. — AKMET B. DelAND, in practice here for 
forty-three years, was born in Brookfield in 1823. 
He studied medicine with Dr. George Bates and 
attended lectures at Pittsfield, Mass., Castleton, Vt., 
and Charleston, S. ( '. 

I* 17. —Henry Sargent, M.D., A.B. (Yale, 1841), 
son of Colonel Henry Sargent, was born in Leicester, 
November 7, 1821. His medical studies were pursued 
with his brother, Dr. Joseph Sargent, with Drs. F.ow- 
ditch, of Boston, and Gerhardt, of Philadelphia, and 
at the Harvard Medical School, from which he grad- 
uated in 1847, having previously spent two years in 
Europe, largely in the hospitals of Paris. His health 
was never good after 1844, when he was poisoned at 
an autopsy, and he was repeatedly obliged to with- 
draw from business, visiting Europe in 1851 and again 
in 1854. With these exceptions, he was in practice 
in Worcester from the time of his graduation until 
his death, April 26, 1858, at the age of thirty-six. He 
was highly esteemed by the profession in Worcester, 
and to an unusual degree beloved by the community. 
His wife was Catherine Whitney, to whom he was 
married in May, 1849. She died in September of the 
same year. 

1848. — Pierre B. MiGNAULT (of Acadian ances- 
try) was born in the parish of Chambly. Province of 
Quebec, August 28, 1818. He became involved in 
the "Rebellion of '.".7," and was forced to flee the 
country. He reached the frontier after various adven- 
tures, worked his way to Burlington and later to Bos- 
ton, and entered the Harvard Medical School, where 
he graduated in 1846. For two years he practised in 
Boston, and then came to Worcester, where he re- 
mained until 1871, living on Trumbull Square. He 
now resides in Montreal. In Worcester he was widely 
known as "The French doctor," and was largely in- 
terested in the Sisters' Hospital. 

1848. — Merrick Bemis, M.D., was born in Stur- 
bridgc, Mass., in 1820; studied medicine with Drs. 
Gilmore, of Brookfield, and Winslow Lewis, of Bos- 
ton, and received his degree from the Castleton (Vt.) 
Medical School in 1848. For eight years he was 
assistant to Dr. Chandler, at the Lunatic Hospital, 
and in 1856 succeeded him as superintendent, in 
1S72 he resigned the position and established the 
private asylum known as Herbert Hall. A member 
of various medical societies, Dr. Bemis is president of 
the Worcester Medical Association. During the War 

uf 1861 65 be did much lo encourage recruiting. He 
has served on the School Committee and in I860 was 

a member of the Board of Aldermen. For years be 
has been prominently identified with the Natural 
II istory Society . 

1850.— Oramel Martin, M.D., was born in Hoo- 
sick, N. Y., July 21, 1810. lie attended lectures at 
the medical schools of Pittsfield, Mass., atld Castleton, 
Vt., from 1829 to 1832, receiving diplomas from both 
places. In 1833 he began practice in New Braintree. 
The years 1845-46 he spent in study in the hospitals 
of Paris. Returning, be practised two years in North 
Brookfield and two in Hopkiutou, and in 1850 re- 
moved to Worcester, where he has since remained. 
"He participated largely in the Anti-Slavery move- 
ment and in the formation of the Republican party." 
In 1861 he went to the front as surgeon of the Third 
Battalion of Rifles. In August of the same year he 
was commissioned brigade surgeon by President Lin- 
coln. Invalided after four months' service at Fort 
Mcllenry, he no sooner recovered his health than he 
went to Missouri on General Hunter's stall', and was 
placed in charge of the hospital village of Otterville, 
with twelve hundred patients. He was then sent to 
Kansas, and, after the battle of Pittsburgh Landing, 
was placed in charge of the Pacific Hospital in St. 
Louis. Later he was on General Granger's staff in 
Mississippi, but his health again gave out, and he was 
obliged to send in his resignation in June, 1862. Un- 
til the end of the war he was surgeon of the Board of 
Enrollment. From 1862 he was also examiner of 
pensioners; at first alone, and afterwards as one of a 
board of three, until 1886, when, with one of his col- 
leagues, Dr. J. M. Rice, he was, for political reasons, 
removed. He is a member of the American Medical 
Society and of the Massachusetts and Vermonl State 
Societies. He was surgeon of the City Hospital until 
1882, and is now a member of the consulting staff. 
He is also consulting physician to the Washburn 

1850.— Dean Towne, M.D., born in Windsor, Yi. 
February 7, 1810 ; studied medicine in Woodstock, Vt., 
and graduated at Castleton in 1833. He practiced 
twelve years in Windsor, Vt., six years in Shrewsbury, 
and has, since 1850, been in Worcester. He practi- 
cally retired from business many years ago. 

1S5I. — Henry Clarke, M.D., was the son of Benja- 
min Clarke, a prosperous farmer of Marlboro', Mass., 
where he was born October.'!, 1824. Spending some 
years at the academies of Marlboro' and Leicester, he 
began his professional studies in the office of Dr. 
Henry Sargent in 1847. In 1848 he entered the Har- 
vard Medical School, where he distinguished himself 
and received the Boylston prize. He graduated in 
1850, and, after a year spent in the hospitals of Paris 
and Vienna, began practice in Worcester in 1851. 
To his practice, he devoted himself with a zeal and 
industry that often overtaxed his physical strength, 
never very robust, and, in 1861, in 1867, and again in 



1876, he went to Europe for rest and study. In 1862 
he was, for some months, at the front as volunteer 
surgeon. He was city physician for several of his 
first years in Worcester ; a member of the School 
Board, and, for fourteen years, physician to the county 
jail. He was one of the original trustees of the 
Memorial Hospital under .Mr. Washburn's will, and 
surgeon at the City Hospital from the beginning. He 
died after a short illness, April 17, 1880, aged fifty- 
five years. Though at his death he had barely passed 
middle life, and in aspect and manner younger than 
his years, he stood in the very first rank of Massachu- 
setts physicians. As a surgeon he was remarkably 
bold and skillful, and his services were often in de- 
mand for difficult cases. Working long after he 
should have rested, he died "in harness," and prema- 
turely, for his patients — to him his world. 

1851. — Seth Rogers, M.D., bom in Danby, Vt. 
February 13, L828; graduated in medicine at Castletorj 
in 1849. He had been previously assistant i<> Or. 
Joel Shew, and was, for two years more, with liiiu in 
a "hydropathic'' establishment in New York City. 
In 1851 he came to Worcester, and established the 
Worcester Water ('ure, which he maintained for some 
thirteen years, lie gave lectures at the Worcester 
Medical Institution on hydro-therapeutics in 1850 and 
L851, and from 1852 to 1854 studied in Paris, leaving 
Dr. George Hoyl in charge of the hospital here. In 
1858 his health failed, and he .spent a year in 
and France. From 1859 to 1862 he was again in 
Worcester. In IKH2 he joined Colonel T. W. lliggin- 
son in South Carolina, and was for a year surgeon ol 
the First Regiment South Carolina (Colored) Volun- 
teers. In 1864 he left Worcester permanently, ex- 
pecting to live but a short time, but is now in P fret, 

Ct., where, since 1883, he has received at his house 
patients Buffering from chronic disease. In 1867, and 
later, he was in practice in Florida in the winter. 
In Worcester he was in general practice, and while 
using water extensively, was not a " hydropathist." 
1851. - Ai.kin .1. Eaton, M.D., was born inAshburn- 

ham .lune 19, 1809; graduated al the Bel 1 in Pitts 

field in ISoli, and was in practice in various places in 
Massachusetts (among others, in ( (akharu) until 1851 
when he came to Worcester. In 1855 he entirely 
withdrew from the profession. 

1852. — F.H.Kelley, M.D., was born in New II amp 
ton, N. H., September 9, 1827. He began the study ol 
medicine in Dover in 1N47 ; attended lectures in ( in 
cinnati, Ohio, and at the Harvard Medical School; 
came to Worcester in 1861, and graduated from tin 
Worcester Medical Institution in 1852. Soon after In- 
formed a partnership with Dr. Calvin Newton, which 
lasted until the hitter's death the next year. Dr. Kelley 
was in active practice (somewhat interfered with by 
his official duties) until 1883, and in 1S74 became a 
member of the Massachusetts Medical Society. In 
December, 1879, he was elected mayor of Worcester, 
and re-elected in 1880, having previously served the 

city four years in the Common Council and six on 
the Board of Aldermen. He was a member of the 
first Board of Trustees of the City Hospital ; was 
elected presiding officer, and served in this capacity 
until 1883. From 1877 he was one of the commis- 
sioners of the " Jacques " and other funds of the 
hospital, and chairman of the committee. 

1852. — John E. Hathaway, M.D., sou of Samuel 
Hathaway, was born in Worcester in 1828. In 1846 
he left home to take a position in the apothecary store 
of Theodore Metcalf & Co., in Boston, and not long 
after received an appointment as house apothecary to 
the Massachusetts General Hospital. Here he be- 
came interested in medical pursuits, and, connecting 
himself with the Tremont Street Medical School, began 
the study of medicine. As a student he took high rank, 
and received the Boylston prize. He was for a few 
months house physician at the hospital, and gradu- 
ated from Harvard with the medical class of 1852. In 
the same year he came to Worcester, and, after the 
usual struggle of the young doctor, had just acquired a 
good practice when, in 1859, the first symptoms 
of the disease from which he afterwards died, ap- 
peared. Receiving no benefit from either the 
South or Europe, in April, 1861, he removed to 
Shrewsbury, to try the effect of an out-door life, but 
gradually s:nik, and died January 12, 1862, at the age 
of thirty-four. He was a member of the Massachu- 
setts Medical Society, of the Worcester Society for 
Medical Improvement, and from 1855 to 1858 secre- 
tary of the District Medical Society. 

is;>i. .1. Marcus Rice, M.l>., was born in Mil ford, 
N.Y., July 31, 1*27 ; he graduated in medicine at Cas- 
tleton, \'t., in 1853, and, after a year spent in the 
hospitals of London and Paris, opened an office in 
Worcester. He was for several yean city physician, 

and in 1859 was appointed eoroner by Governor 
Banks, which position he held until the coroner sys- 
tem was abandoned, since which time he has been 
"medical examiner" for this district. In 1861 he 
examined recruits for the Twenty-first Regiment, and 
went with it as far as Annapolis, but declined a com- 
mission and returned, to become surgeon of the 
Twenty-fifth, with which he went to the front Sep- 
tember liitli. lie served throughout the war, and 
spent the summer of L865 as health officer to 
the port of Norfolk. At the battle of Roanoke 
Island he was wounded in the chest. While on out- 
post duty near Newbern, N. (' 1st,:;, he was captured 
and spent six weeks in J.ihby 1'rison. He was succes- 
sively regimental, brigade ami division surgeon, 
acting medical inspector of the Eighteenth Army 
Corps, and medical inspector of the Army of the 
.lames. At the expiration of his term of enlistment 
his application to be mustered out was returned, en- 
dorsed as follows : "The services of this officer are so 
valuable that his application is returned in the hop. 
that he will retain his present appointment, with the 
assurance that he shall be mustered out at any future 



time, should he so desire." Dr. Rice is a member of 
the American Medical Society of Paris ; of the Mas- 
sachusetts Medico-Legal Society, and of the Royal 
Geographical Society of London. He served fifteen 
years as surgeon to the City Hospital, and is now a 
member of the consulting board. During 1879-80, 
and again in 1880-81, he represented Ward Eight in 
the Legislature. 

1855. — Frank H. Rice, M.D., born in Rowe, Mass., 
in 1831, graduated at the Medical School at Wood- 
stock, Vt., in 1854. From 1857-64 he was assistant 
physician at the Lunatic Hospital, and from 1864- 
71 in general practice in the city. In the latter 
year he removed to Passaic, N. J., where he still re- 

1856. — Joseph N. Bates, M.D., was born in Barre, 
March 16, 1811, and began the study of medicine 
with his father, Dr. Anson Bates, of that town, in 
1829. He attended lectures at Bowdoin, Me., in Phil- 
adelphia, and at the Dartmouth Medical School, 
where he graduated in 1831. For twenty-five years 
he practised medicine in Barre, and was well and 
favorably known throughout the whole of that sec- 
tion of country. In 1856 he came to Worcester, and 
in 1861 went to the front as surgeon of the Fifteenth 
Regiment, but was forced by ill health to resign in July, 
1862. He remained in Worcester in active practice 
until his death, February 22,1883, at the age of seven- 
ty-two. He was a permanent member of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association, a member of the Massachu- 
setts Medical Society, and, in 1857-58 a trustee of 
the State Lunatic Hospital. A son of Dr. Bates is 
now in practice in Baltimore. 

1856. — Thomas H. Gage, M.D., is the son of 
Dr. Leander Gage, of Waterford, Me., where he 
was born May 22, 1826. He studied medicine at 
the Tremont Street Medical School, in Boston, and 
at the Harvard Medical School, where he gradu- 
ated in 1852. He was for one year house-surgeon at 
the Massachusetts General Hospital. From 1853-56 
he practiced in Sterling. In 1856-57 he was assist- 
ant physician at the State Lunatic Hospital in Wor- 
cester, and has since that time been in general prac- 
tice here. In 1880 he delivered the annual address 
before the Massachusetts Medical Society, of which 
he was in 1881-82 vice-president, and in 1886-88 
president. He was for nine years a member of the 
visiting staff of the City Hospital, for seven years a 
member of the consulting staff, since 1880 has been 
one of its trustees and is now the president of the 
board. Of the Memorial Hospital and Washburn Dis- 
pensary he was one of the original trustees under the 
will, and is vice-president of the board. Since 1876 he 
has been a trustee of the State Lunatic Hospital 
and of the Asylum for the Chronic Insane, is a trus- 
tee of the Old Men's Home, of the Worcester County 
Institution for Savings, a director of the City National 
Bank and of the State Safe Deposit Company, a past 
member of the Worcester Fire Society, member of 

the American Antiquarian Society, and medical di- 
rector and vice-president of the State Mutual Life 
Assurance Company. 

1858.— Anson Hobart, M.D., A.B. (Williams, 
1836), was born in Columbia, X. II., in 1814. He 
fitted for college at the Meriden Academy. After 
graduating, he taught school for some years in Free- 
hold, N. J., and then studied medicine with Dr. 
Lloyd, of that place. He graduated at Castleton, Vt., 
in 1843, spent some months in study in New York, 
and began practice in Southborough, where he 
remained fourteen years. In 1858 he came to Wor- 
cester, where he has since remained. 

1858.— Samuel F. Haven, Jr., M.D., A.B. (Har- 
vard, 1852), son of Samuel F. Haven, so long librarian 
of the American Antiquarian Society, was born atDed- 
ham May 20, 1831. He studied medicine with Dr. 
Henry Sargent, and at the Harvard Medical School, 
from which he graduated in 1855. In the school he 
took a leading position and received the Boylston 
prize. One year was spent as house physician in the 
Massachusetts General Hospital, and two in study in 
Europe, where he particularly devoted himself to 
diseases of the eye, visiting London, Paris, Vienna 
and Berlin. On his return, in 1858, he opened an 
office in Boston, but soon removed to Worcester. In 
1861 he went out as assistant surgeon of the Fif- 
teenth Regiment, and in July, 1862, was appointed 
surgeon, on the resignation of Dr. Bates. At the 
battle of Fredericksburg, December 13th of the same 
year, he was assigned to hospital duty, but, at his own 
earnest request, was allowed to go forward with his 
men, and while caring for the wounded, was so 
severely injured by a shell that he died on the field 
four hours later. His death in such a manner, at the 
age of thirty-one, made a profound impression, and 
his funeral in Worcester, December 24th, resembled 
that of some man long in public life. Flags were 
everywhere at half-mast, the Home Guards performed 
escort duty, and eight of the oldest physicians in the 
city acted as bearers. 

1859. — Peter E. Hubon, M.D., was born in Ireland 
about 1833. In 1848 he came to this country, by his 
own exertions acquired an education, studied medicine 
and graduated from the Albany Medical School in 
1858. He was, for a few months, in practice in 
Springfield, but in 1859 came to Worcester, where he 
was the first, and for many years the only, Irish 
physician. In 1861 he was city physician. He 
served throughout the war in various regiments, being 
promoted for efficiency to the position of "Surgeon 
of Division." He resigned in 1865, and, after spend- 
ing six months in Europe, resumed practice in Wor- 
cester, where he remained until his death, March 3, 
1880. From 1865-71 he was in charge of the Sisters' 
Hospital on Shrewsbury Street. 

1865.— Albert Wood, M.D., B.S. (Darniouth, 
1856), son of Samuel Wood, born in Northborough, 
Mass., February 19, 1833, taught school from 1856 



59, and then entered the Harvard Medical School, 
from which he graduated in 1862. He was assistant 
surgeon of the Twenty-ninth Regiment Massachu- 
setts Volunteers from July, 1862, to August, 1863; 
surgeon of the First Massachusetts Cavalry from 
August, 1863, to November, 1861; and acting staff 
surgeon to the close of the war, when he settled in 
Worcester. He was city physician five years, surgeon 
at the City Hospital ten years and is now one of the 
trustees. He is now, and has been for thirteen years, 
treasurer of the Worcester Lunatic Hospital and, since 
1877, of the Worcester Insane Asylum. He has been 
superintendent of the Washburn Dispensary since 
1874, and is a trustee of the Memorial Hospital. 
He was director of the Public Library six years, and 
for one year a member of the State Board of Health, 
Lunacy and Charity. He is a director of the State 
Mutual Life Assurance Company, surgeon to Post 
10, G. A. R.,nnda member of the Loyal Legion. He 
is one of the Board of Pension Examiners, connected 
with various medical societies, and councillor of the 
State Society. 

1865.— CtEOEGE E. Fran< is. Ml)., A.B (Harvard, 
1858), son of James B. Francis, was born in Lowell 
May 29, 1838. He began the